- 3D acceleration and display
- Computer and TV
- TV picture to PC VGA monitor
- Video from PC to TV or VCR
- Cables and pinouts for video card to TV connection
- Monitor information
- Monitor signal timing
- Frame grabbers and computer vision
- Flat Panel Displays
- Videocard hardware specific pages
- Video card expansion connectors
- Touch screen technology
- Video card programming
- Obsolete PC video card technology
PC video hardware page
- Accelerated Graphics Port Interface Specification Rate this link
- Can I use two video cards in the same system? - There are several ways to connect more than one graphics card to a PC. One of them is the old Hercules monochrome card in parallel with normal VGA card, but other options have been available for several years. Windows 98 (and never) have included dual-monitor support, using any suitable two PCI video cards. A few PCI video cards already have special drivers available that allow more than one (identical) card to be used at once. For Linux (and other unix variants) there are commercial X servers that support multiple PCI video cards. Rate this link
- Display technology's results are compelling, but legacy is un"clear" Rate this link
- Draw workstation graphics into mainstream PCs - as PC-display resolutions increase and color depths bloom, higher refresh-rate monitors are becoming more common, graphics design based on the traditional VGA architecture cannot begin to handle the data-transfer bandwidth required for such high-resolution, "true-color," high-refresh-rate displays Rate this link
- Home Theater PC FAQ Rate this link
- PC Video Hardware FAQ Rate this link
- Square and Non-Square Pixels - Pixels in the graphics world are square. Pixels in an ITU-R BT.601-4 digital video signal (also known as Rec. 601 and formerly CCIR 601) are non-square. The term which describes this difference is pixel aspect ratio. The pixel aspect ratio for square pixels is 1/1. Rate this link
- The Basic Top 10 Video Tips - Essential basic information on selecting and using video displays and video adapters Rate this link
- VESA - organization which sets PC video standards Rate this link
- Video Card Reviews at Rate this link
Typical PC graphics card consist of the following parts: bus interface, graphics controller, video memory and RAMDAC.RAMDAC (random access memory digital-to-analog converter) is a microchip thatconverts digital image data into the analog data needed by a computer display. A RAMDAC microchip is built into the video adapter in a computer. It combines a small static RAM (SRAM) containing a color table with three digital-to-analog converters (DACS) that change digital image data into analog signals that are sent to the display's color generators, one for each primary color - red, green, and blue. In acathode ray tube (CRT) display, an analog signal is sent to each of three electron guns. With displays using other technologies, the signals are sent to a corresponding mechanism.The SRAM part of the RAMDAC contains a color palette table. A logical color numberin the digital data input to SRAM is used to generate three separate values obtained fromthe table - one for each of red, green, and blue - that are output to one of three digital-to-analog converters. For displays with true color, the digital color data is fed directly to the DACs, bypassing the SRAM color lookup table. Typical modern PC graphics cards operate nowadays in true color mode (24 or 32 bits per pixel).The image in PC graphics card is stored to the video memory. The amount of video is a determining factor in the resolution and color depth of the display. Besides the storage of the displayed graphics, video card RAM is also often used to hold graphics-specific information such as 3-D geometry data and texture maps.
- 3dcgi.com - 3D graphics technology spotlight site Rate this link
- 3D glasses and other 3D display devices Rate this link
- 3D Graphics Technology Spotlight - information on links on 3D hardware and software Rate this link
- Balancing in three dimensions - graphics-chip suppliers walking a tightrope to success are encountering numerous obstacles that may cause their downfall, article from Rate this link
- Display enhancements accept no compromises - A new breed of stereo vision glasses and exotic display technologies make your 3-D dreams come true. Rate this link
- Graphics API expands hardware flexibility, standardization scope - Microsoft combines the 2-D DirectDraw and 3-D Direct3D APIs into a unified DirectX Graphics component. The company has also exposed optional low-level control over graphics hardware through DirectX Graphics' programmable shader language, targeting both the vertex and the pixel pipelines. Rate this link
- Graphics Supercomputing on Windows NT 3D graphics chapter - pdf file Rate this link
- The Heatsink Guide - probably the oldest website dedicated to PC cooling Rate this link
- Voodoo Extreme - site devoted to 3D cards and chipsets Rate this link
- New Video Cards From nVidia and ATI - . In this article, we will look at the GeForceFX 5200/5600/5800 line, and the new Radeon 9200/9600/9800 line, and will see what other new technology is next! Rate this link
- Orchid Righteous 3D improvements - stop Righteous from disturbing you VGA card picture quality Rate this link
- 3D-Know How/Technology paes: 3D-Formats, Controllers, Drivers, Homebrew Rate this link
- Current and future display technologies and their 3D-compatibility Rate this link
- Stereoscopic 3D APPLICATIONS Rate this link
- The unofficial ASUS VR100 page - ASUS VR100 is a wired 3D-shutterglasses system for newer ASUS-graphics-boards (V3400, V3800, V6600). Rate this link
- Tomi Engdahl's Virtual Reality Links Rate this link
Of all the bizarre technologies in electronics, 3-D graphics has got to be one of the strangest. Where else do you find dozens of chip companies (plus, in some cases, additional board manufacturers) chasing after only three significant opportunities: PCs (and related workstations), home- and arcade-game consoles, and visual-simulation systems? 3-D-graphics capability pervades all new desktop and workstation computers and is increasingly muscling its way into notebook platforms as well. The three main 3-D graphics applications are game playing, digital-content development, and visual simulation.They may appear similar at first glance, but they have widely varying requirements. Modern graphics hardware and software labor mightily to deliver a lifelike 3-D presentation to your eyeballs and brain. Perspective control, graduated lighting and shadows, high-resolution and color-rich multitexture application, and other techniques are the means by which today's graphics accelerators and CPUs, applications and operating systems, APIs (application-program interfaces) and device drivers, all work together in the hopes of generating a realistic cyber world. In gaming high frame rate has historically been the most important feature. As a result, games-targeted-graphics vendors concentrate on the all-important pixel-fill rate and take short cuts in nearly every other aspect of hardware and software design. At 30 to 60 frames/sec (a hotly debated and individual-specific threshold), the human eye can't detect frame-to-frame differences representing character movement (that is the target). Game players quickly notice update rates that dip, no matter how briefly, below the players' detection threshold. Contrast the needs of game players with those of digital-content developers, such as CAD engineers and special-effects artists. Most 3-D-accelerator geometry and -rendering specifications assume that roughly half of the incoming polygons are back-facing. They also suppose that the polygons are triangular, needing at most three coordinate triplets to represent their spatial location, and that they combine in strip or fan arrangements. To create the most realistic-possible 3-D representation of a scene, a computer must generate unique image versions for each eye. For this type of applications special display technologies are needed.There has been huge competition on the 3D gaming graphics card market. There has been many companies and many improvements. And many companies that have lost their part of market. Nowadays the most 3D gaming graphics card market is covered by two companies: Nvidia and ATI.
3D card information
- Cable FAQ - Connecting the PC to the TV or VCR is an easy thing actually. Nevertheless there are certain problems very often. This FAQ tries to help to solve most common ones. Rate this link
- Converging Computer and Television Image Portrayal - read also Rate this link
- Fields: Why Video Is Crucially Different from Graphics Rate this link
- Video and TV technology page at www.epanorama.net - very many video technology information links Rate this link
- BTTV2 - A V4L2 driver for Bt8x8 based video capture cards. This is still a somewhat experimental v4l2 driver for the Bt8 based video capture cards. Rate this link
- Cards Tune In TV on Your PC - This article rounds up seven best-sellers and find that they work--within limits. Rate this link
- DScaler - DScaler is a piece of software that grabs analog, interlaced video, and deinterlaces it to make it a progressive scan feed then allows scaling to any resolution for use on your computer monitor or projector. This software is designed to work in Windows with a PCI TV card with a BT848 BT849 BT878 BT879 in it. Rate this link
- dTV - dTV is a piece of software that grabs analog, interlaced video, and deinterlace it to make it a progressive scan feed for use on your computer monitor or projector. Rate this link
- How to show video material in computer screen - Technical document on conversion of TV video signal to computer screen. Rate this link
- Is is possible to view VCR picture at SVGA monitor ? - short description about problems in this Rate this link
- Ruel's PC-TV Web Page - Watch TV On Your PC, lists of computer TV cards, video capturing cards and radio tuners, also PC to TV converters Rate this link
- Tuner Cards - Learning By Looking - Hopefully, this article will help people who'd like to consider writing device drivers for tuner cards, and others who're generally interested in how TV Tuner cards work. Rate this link
- TV-Cards.com - TV-card drivers, reviews and useful information. Rate this link
- TV Tuner Video Card Roundup - The concept of bringing TV to the desktop has gained quite a bit of momentum over the past few years. Initially flawed due to the small screen size of computer monitors, many current desktop monitors are larger than the televisions typically found in small apartments or dorm rooms. Add-in TV tuner cards that allow for cable input into a computer have been around for some time now, however these proprietary cards are quickly being replaced by video cards that combine computer display and TV input on one card. Rate this link
- TV Tuning Basic - A TV tuner for a computer does essentially the same thing that the tuner inside your television does: takes the signal sent to you via a RG59 cable or though the air and converts it into a image that can be displayed onto your computer display. Most TV tuner cards we have seen make use of a a Philips TV tuner module and TDA9800T video signal decoder. Rate this link
- Using Your Brooktree Chipset TV Card in Linux - The Brooktree chipsets TV cards (BT848 and BT787) are fully supported under Linux using the bttv drivers. Many popular TV cards are supported under bttv including: Lifeview Flyvideo cards, Hauppauge cards, Micro Cards and any other Brooktree based cards. In this article we'll take a look at what it takes to turn your Linux box into a fully functional television. Rate this link
- TV-Cards.com - TV card news, reviews, drivers, apps and message board Rate this link
- Vaihda viihteelle - Instructions how to build a PC which can acts as a set-top-box with the functionality of a multimedia center and digital video recorder. The text of this article is in Finnish. Rate this link
- Video overlays turn PCs into TVs - overlaying video and graphics on a VGA monitor requires abundant bandwidth and horsepower, forttunately there are number of video-connection schemes, high-bandwidth buses, and high-integration chips can transform postage-stamp-sized video overlays to full-screen, full-motion displays Rate this link
- What is a TV Tuner Card ? - A Tv card plugs into your PC and allows you to watch television on it. The PCI TV card hasn't really changed in design since they first became available around 5 years ago. Essentially there's not a lot to change or upgrade beyond adding NICAM Stereo sound and FM Radio tuners. Rate this link
- Linux TV - a platform for the development of open source software for digital television (DVB, DTV) receivers, Linux DVD players and tools to stream audio and video to the net Rate this link
- PC DTV - The PC DTV Promoters Group is an ad hoc assembly of companies interested in promoting the reception of rich DTV and/or data delivered by broadband broadcast signals from terrestrial broadcast, satellite or cable TV services. Each of these companies offers technology or services that enable PC users to receive digitally broadcast signals from terrestrial stations, cable services or satellite providers. Rate this link
- Select a suitable video format which is supported by both the signal source (PC graphics card) and your video signal receiving device (TV or VCR). Check the technical specifications of both of the devices you plan to connect carefully.
- Get right kind of cables for the connection. Those might come with the card or you might need to buy some cables/adapters.
- Connect the cables
- Set your graphics card TV output settings right: TV output enabled, right signal format selected and right video standard selected (read your graphics card manual how to do this on your card)
- Turn on the TV and select the sight video input source (and propably input signal format also on some TVs)
- If you plan to record a presentation to videotape or play games in your living room, make sure to use a low desktop resolution and big fonts.
- Where possible, always use S-Video connectors instead of standard RCA video plugs to get better picture quality.
- 7-pin S-video DIN connector pinout - This non-standard connector is used as S-video/composite video output connector on many PC graphics cards with TV putput. Rate this link
- Cable FAQ - Connecting the PC to the TV or VCR is an easy thing actually. Nevertheless there are certain problems very often. This FAQ tries to help to solve most common ones. Rate this link
- Connecting your PC to your TV-set - On this page I'll show you the possibilities on how to connect you PC to your TV-set. This page covers videocards made by ATI and nVidia. Rate this link
- How to get Realmagic H+ output RGB for DUMMIES - The HollyWood + RGB For DUMMIES guide. Rate this link
- How to get VGA picture to TV screen Rate this link
- How to record VGA signals to VCR Rate this link
- How VGA to TV converters work - three basic conversion techniques explained Rate this link
- Links to commercial VGA to TV converter products Rate this link
- Overview of TV encoders used on nVidia graphics cards Rate this link
- Report: DVD on your TV with a PC Tips for TV-Out Rate this link
- RGB Cable for Sigma RealMagic Hollywood+ Rate this link
- Six Common Misconceptions About Converting Computer to Video Rate this link
- Scan Converters Buyer's Guide - educational booklet Rate this link
- TVtool - program for controlling better nVidia TNT-chipset and TVout functionality Rate this link
- TV-out on the G450 - written a short HOWTO on getting TV-out working on the G450 using matroxfb driver on Linux Rate this link
- VGA to TV circuits you can build yourself Rate this link
- The SCART connector - Also known as Peritel, this standard provides a cheap multi-signal connector to domestic TVs and other video equipment. Arrangement 1 was the original and allows for composite video input/output, RGB inputs and stereo audio. Arrangement 2 was added to take S-video (S-VHS and Hi-8) inputs. This made pin 15 chrominance and pin 20 luminance. Rate this link
- Hollywood+ 7-pin S-video connector - This is one commonly used wiring for 7-pin non-standard S-video connector. This type of connector accepts slightly modified (one plastic pin removed) normal 4-pin S-video connector to get S-video signals. The additional pins carry other signals (here composite video signal). Rate this link
- S-video to composite video adapter - This simple adapter can be used to convert Y/C video (S-video) to a composite video. This adapter is useful in cases where your video output device has only S-video output but your signal source accepts only composite video input. This circuit works with both PAL and NTSC video standards. Rate this link
Convergrence of computer and TV is a hot topic nowadays. PC is becoming a center of home multimedia system or the heart of modern home theater system. Modern technology allows you to use your PC (with right hardware + software) to ve used to view TV programs and edit video material. You can also view DVD movies on your PC and even connect your PC to a TV or video projector to get a larger picture than what your monitor gives. You can use a TV tuner to display television programs on your computer desktop.Scan converter is a general term basically used for products that convert the horizontal and vertical scan rate in order to make the Computer and Video devices compatible with each other. Manufacturers specifically describe a Scan Converter as a device that enables Computer (Workstations, PC, MAC) images to be displayed on a standard Video Monitor & TV set or for recording Computer images on videotape.Scan Conversion arose from the incompatibility between standards used in computer and video environments.Computers usually operate in a Non-lnterlaced mode, i.e. an image is made of one frame and the image is swept out line by line. The computer line frequency can be from 31 KHz to 130 KHz and the frame frequency is about 60 Hz to 100 Hz. Video (NTSC, PAL, SECAM) operates in an Interlaced mode, i.e. an image is made of 2 fields and the image is swept out in odd and even fields. In PAL/SECAM for example, the Video has a line frequency of 15.625 KHz and a field frequency of 50 Hz & a Frame Frequency of 25 Hz. In NTSC systems those values are 15.735 KHz / 60 Hz / 30 Hz.So, many Computer images can't directly be displayed or recorded on video mediums due to these differences. To display them, you first have to convert the computer signal into one compatible with your video device, using a suitable scan converter.
Adapting TV picture content to the PC monitor has gained the attention of home computer makers. Of particular interrest are PC graphics display technologies which allow the computer monitor to replace the family-room TV without any degration in TV picture. The nature of NTSC and PAL TV display format creates enormous challenges.TV signals and VGA monitors are incompatible with each other. The basic fundamentals are theoretically similar, but in application they are very different. There is a big difference in the scanning rates, CRT phosphor pitch, use of interlacing and overall design specs. Typical computer TV tuner card can do this complicated conversion without much for the user of the computer to worry about.
PC digital TV
Sometimes you might want to display your PC screen on a television. For example, you might want to make a videotape recording of a presentation, so you can display the presentation with a VCR. You can also use TV output to play games on your television, or record a tutorial for a friend.
Using TC as computer display has it's limitation. Normal televisions are fairly primitive compared to computer monitors. Even high-quality televisions that advertise high vertical and horizontal resolutions may have problems displaying a computer image, due to limitations in the way video signals are encoded. Practically, that means that the maximum resolution that your television will display is probably less than 640x480 for NTSC video system (nearly 800x600 for PAL), a very low desktop resolution for a PC. VHS videotapes are even more limited. What I told above applies to normal TVs. The high definition televisions are another story.
Besides different performance characteristics there are also other technical differences. Going from computer to TV is not technically trivial task. Naturally the computer graphics (VGA) and normal broadcast television (NTSC,PAL or SECAM standard) are very incomatible with each other. With suitable conversion it is possible to show VGA picture on TV screen with somewhat degraded quality. The picture resolutions vary from computer (typically from 640x480 well above 1024x768), where the broadcast TV uses a fixed resolution (nominally 525 or 625 lines in Y direction in signal, not all of them less visible; resolution in X direction not absolutely defined, usually effective X resolution beteen 300-600 pixels).
When displaying computer graphics on TV screen you will very easily see the limitations of the TV itself and the TV broadcast standards. Anybody who has tried to display computer graphics on a television knows that they look bad. Colors wash out, detail is lost, and the whole thing flickers. And that's the best scenarios. Sometimes the graphics really get distorted. While everyone knows that televisions do bad things to computer graphics, few people are sure exactly what is happening. This confusion isn't surprising. NTSC and PAL encoding are quite complex, and the reasons that they distort graphics are not always obvious.
Connecting the PC to the TV or VCR is an easy thing actually if you have a suitable graphics card with TV output and know how to use it. Nevertheless there are certain problems very often. One of these problems is that users get a b/w picture on TV only for example. The fact that more and more manufacturers spare certain connectors on their graphics boards can be very annoying also.
Composite video is the most widespreaded standard. The main characteristic is that the video signal is transmitted on a single line only (plus ground). For the connection to the TV all you need is one line of a shielded cable. Composite video signal has disadvantages. There can be interferences between the chrominance (color) and the luminance (brightness) information. So you can see a pattern of colors in the checkered jacket of the news reader or some computer graphics for example. The best thing of composite video is that practically all TVs with some kind of AV-input can accept this video format, and so do the normal VCRs.
There are also other common alternative for connection: S-video.Especially TVs of the higher price segment offer also a S-video input. The 'S' means super and shall clarify that this standard offers a better quality than normal composite video. S-video standard transmits video signals on two lines. On one line you find a b/w picture and on the other line there is the belonging color information. If your TV has S-video support then this is the preferred connection method.
The third possibility to transmit a video signal is the RGB connection. Three images in the primary colors red, green and blue are sent over three single lines. The TV as well as the graphics card work with this technique internally, so this gives the best picture quality if it is available. Who wants to use RGB must usually select the graphics card to use very carefully and usually reach for a soldering iron to build the special cable which goes between the card and TV. The number of TVs whith RGB inputs is also limited, especially in USA. In Europe practically all TVs with SCART connector support RGB. RGB can only be used as PC to TV connection, because normal VCRs don't support RGB format. Which connection is recommended?
In USA many modern TVs have interface called component video. This interface can tasport image quality comparable to RGB interface. There are several cards that can output component video format. Component vidoe connection is typically made with three RCA or BNC connectors.
The recommendation is that use the best one you can make to work. Well, in most cases composite video is the solution which always works, but does not give the best picture quality. If you plan to record picture to VCR, them i recommend using composite video format. If your TV can handle S-video you should use this type of connection of course (many PC graphics card with TV output usually give this video format as the default format). If both your graphics card TV output and TV can handle RGB signals, then you should check if it possible to get or build a suitable cable for this connection (if this works this gives the best picture quality). Other notes on setup:
With those tips you should be able to get this connection to work immediatly or after some testing/tweaking. be prepared to spend some time on this project, because sometimes when thign do not work easily. In those cases you might need to go though few alternative settings or connection methods.
Note for European users: SCART interface on typical TVs and VCRs supports typically composite video format in all cases. Practically all TVs support RGB in at least in one of their SCART interfaces. There is a way to carry S-video in SCART connector (there are connector adapters and cables for this connection), but not all TVs support this. To be able to use S-video on TV through SCART you need to make sure that your TV supports S-video, you use a SCART connector which supports S-video (on some TVs only one of SCARTS supports this) and you have S-video input mode enables in the TV. If you have any of those wrong, you easily end up getting no picture or get just black and white picture. When everything works and is supported, you get a nice S-video with all colors and full details through SCART connector. So the end result with SCART is that composite video connection works always with SCART. S-video gives better picture if supported but is not supported with all devices.
Note on TV connection auto-detection: Some PC graphics cards try to auto-detect if the TV is connected to the TV output. Some cards go to TV out mode automatically when TV is connected. Some other cards do not allow you to go to TV mode unless you have TV connected. The PC graphics card with TV out looks for the 75 ohm termination as a way of detecting that the video out port is connected to a TV. It then switches from doing VGA out to TV video out mode. The TV connection auto detection is not completely foolproof and can fail on some TVs (this depends how video inputs on TV is implemented). Some TVs can have video inputs can be unterminated and the PC video adaptor won't switch over because it can't see that 75 ohm resistor it looks for. In some cases the video input can be AC terminated and the TV card can fail aso here, if it looks the termination with DC test voltage. Not all proper terminations (for video signal itsefl) can be measured with an ohmmeter! In those cases the auto-detection fails, adding an extra 75 ohm resistor between cable signal wire and ground on the TV end of the cable helps the card to detect that TV is connected. When resistor is on the cable, the PC grpahics card will detect that there is TV conneted always where there is this cable with resistor plugged in (no matter if there is a real TV on the other end of cable or not). The terminating 75 ohm resistor should be in the cable end that plugs to the TV, thus acting as terminator for those TVs that have unterminated input. You're supposed to solder the resistor across the plug, or make up a short plug/jack 'extender' with the resistor inside. This keeps youfrom fouling up the insides of the TV (which is not a good idea). In case the input was already terminated input, the the worst thing that could happen with this extra 75 ohm terminting resistor on the cable is that the video signal level will be a bit small (you can loose some picture quality).
Flicker is a common problem in TV signal. The flicker is caused by the nature of the computer graphics and TV interlace interaction (normal TV programs do not flicker much becasue material is already compensated for this).When displaying PC grahics on TV, the data must be converted into interlaced format for display on a TV. If every second line is discarded of the noninterlaced data, flicker may occur if, forexample, video information is contained in just one noninterlaced line. Flicker will also be perceptibleat the top and bottom of multiline objects. A flicker filter overcomes these problems in computing a weighted average of two or three adjacent lines (noninterlaced) for each line of output (interlaced). Depending on the filter settings you can usually balance between picture resolution and amout of flicker (less flicker means more smoother out).
There are differences how well the different TV outputs on different cards are implemented. The TV output quality (s-video output capabilities) seems to be a very overlooked feature present on a video card. Generally in your "average" video card review you see on magazine or web, at some point there will be a short mention that the card in question has s-video output functionality but it generally isn't tested or compared to anything. But the fact is that the quality of the signal you get from those output and now nice they are to use varies from card to card. Sometimes even the card drivers have effect on the quality you get (this depends how well those drivers utilize the that output, how well it configures it).
The connection of a PC graphics card to your TV (or other suitable display device) can be sometimes a a quite of a saks of it's own. The cards do not necessarily come with the the right kind of cable which fits to the connector of your TV. The reason for this isthat the A/V connectors on the TVs vary somewhat. And also the connectors for TV signal on the graphics cards vary, and quite often the PC graphics cards use other connector types that used by other devices (this means that PC cards too oftenuse non-standard connectors for video signals). Here you can find information which can be useful when interfacing computervideo cards to TVs.
- 14 inch monitor is adequate for 800 x 600 resolution.
- 15 inch monitor is adequate for 1024 x 768 resolution.
- 17 inch monitor is adequate for 1024 x 768 resolution.
- 19 inch monitor is adequate for 1280 x 1024 resolution.
- 21 inch monitor is adequate for 1600 x 1280 resolution.
- Attach a monitor to a notebook - Tired of staring at that little screen on your notebook? If so, it's time you attached a bigger, brighter CRT or LCD, which will give you much more screen space for presentations, spreadsheets, games, and so on. In most cases, all you need to do is plug in your monitor and turn it on. If you're hooking up an older monitor, however, or using an older OS, you might need to load a driver. Rate this link
- High pitched whine or squeal from monitor with no other symptoms - Sometimes this is continuous. In other cases, it comes and goes almost as though there is an intelligence at work attempting to drive you crazy. In most cases, this sound, while annoying, does not indicate an impending failure. You have several options to try to solve this problem. Rate this link
- How Computer Monitors Work - This is a very good introductory material to monitor operation. Rate this link
- LCD Display Frequently Asked Questions Rate this link
- Monitor repair procedure database - shareware program Rate this link
- Monitors - shareware DOS program for monitor testing Rate this link
- Monitor testing links Rate this link
- MPR monitor magnetic ald electric field limits - in Finnish Rate this link
- Approaches to Using Fixed Frequency or Non-Standard Monitors on PCs Rate this link
- Performance Testing of Computer and Video Monitors Rate this link
- Reducing Eyestrain from Video and Compute Monitors Rate this link
- Summary of Video Standards - bried descriptions and pinouts for MDA, Hercules, CGA, EGA, ECL, Sun, Apollo, Apple, VGA, XGA, XGA-2, Super VGA, VESA VGA, 13W3, IBM PowerPC, SGI, NeXT, Intergraph, PGA, VGA 9 pin, 8514 and MCGA Rate this link
- Understanding Plug and Play in PC Monitors - Plug and Play has simplified the process of connecting peripherals, such as video monitors, to a computer. It has also changed the way the computer-monitor connection is used. The VGA/SVGA cable has traditionally been used as a one way monitor-to-computer communications link. But nowadays also more complex bi-directional communications will be taking place between the monitor and the computer. Rate this link
- VESA Standards Summaries - list of VESA standards on PC display techology, frief description of those standards is also given Rate this link
- CRT Recycle Process - The glass, metal and plastic that computers are made from make a long journey after they leave our hands. They go through complex processes and often change forms before reappearing as new items, which people use and may be able to recycle again! Rate this link
- Understanding The Operation of a CRT Monitor Rate this link
PC monitor system is complicated system, but luckily for us it's one that's easy to understand. The following description is centered on traditional analogue CRT PC monitors.
The video adapter in PC sends the signals from it's image memory at fixed rate (usually configurable) through the DAC (digital to analog converter) circuit to the monitor connector on the graphics card. The DAC converts numeric pixel color values to voltage levels for red, green, and blue which are sent to monitor through the monitor cable. Most monitors today use the traditional CRT, which works on the same scientific principle as a television set. This vacuum tube produces an image when an electron beam strikes the phosphorescent surface inside the monitor. Normal PC VGA monitors nowadays are so called "non-interlaced" monitors. The computer requires a "video Interface" sometimes referred to as a video card to communicate with your monitor. Your monitor is the single most important component of your computer system if you want to get good picture quality (also the graphics card can contribute to this).
The visual quality, depends on the quality of your monitor. Consumers have now become more concerned about the visual quality. The flat screens, high resolution, high refresh rates, and recently the USB and solid state screens top the list of desirable features. The multimedia monitor includes oudspeakers of some sort, maybe a microphone and in some cases a camera for video conferencing all in the same box as the monitor.All analog monitors can produce thousands of colors, it is inherent in the design. The limitation on color registration is directly related to what is available in the interface card and the mode selected. There are practically infinite number of colors possible with the analog monitors (although they can not properly display all natural colors correctly).
Resolution is the number of pixels the graphics card is describing the desktop with, expressed as a horizontal by vertical figure. Standard VGA resolution is 640 x 480 pixels. The commonest SVGA resolutions are 800 x 600 and 1024 x 768 pixels. A typical PC monitor is designed to accept signals at wide resolution and frequency range. When you change the seolution on refresh rate on monitos, just the scan frequencies that are changing to accomodate the new timing/pixel format. The focus (which is sort of the electron beam width, at least as it is seen at the screen) MAY be altered slightly as well, if the monitor has the capability of storing adjustments for that and other parameters (geometry, convergence, etc.) for specific timings, although it is VERY unusual for focus to be included in this. Please not that the monitor physical dot pitch can't change - that's a fixed physical parameter of the CRT itself - but the physical dots on the screen (or the holes in the shadow mask) really have nothing at all to do with the logical pixels of the image, other than being one of the things which ultimately limits the resolution. The scan frequencies do not necessarily change at all when you change the resolution. What happens is that the signal as seen on the VGA plug has (for example) 1024 discrete values between 2 consecutive line syncs as opposed to 800 discrete values and 768 line syncs between frame syncs as opposed to 600 (assuming non interlaced). Typical PC CRT monitor an display all resolutions from the lowest up to the highest supported resolution well. If you have a modern flat panel display, things can be different. On TFT monitors they specify a "recommended" resolution that the TFT works best at and when not run at this resolution they get seriously blocky and in some cases unreadable text.
Refresh rate, or vertical frequency, is measured in Hertz (Hz) and represents the number of frames displayed on the screen per second. Too few, and the eye will notice the intervals in between and perceive a flickering display. The world-wide accepted refresh rate for a flicker-free display is 70Hz and above (preferably 75 Hz or more). The flicker is strongly dependent upon visual angle, because eye peripheral vision response is faster than the higher resolution centerof field vision. The bigger the monitor, or the closer you are to it, the worse the flicker will be, so you will need higher refresh rate to get "flicker free" picture. CFF (Critical Flicker Fusion) also depends on illumination levels. The CFF frequency is lower at lower illumination levels. As the height of the picture increases, it is necessary to increase the number of horizontal lines to create a smooth line-free display image. To do this, the monitor and the interface card increase the frequency of the repetitive horizontal scan rate.
In order to consistently reproduce the video information at a high resolution, the monitor must have a wide video bandwidth. In order for the term to be meaningful for comparison purposes, the bandwidth expressed in mhz. must be within +- 3dB You might see a term "sync signal" sometimes.All computer monitors require a "sync" signal which determines the resolution of the display. Some monitors require the sync signal to be a separate electrical connection, some monitors require the sync signal to be mixed in with the green video signal (sync on green). Some monitors support both separate sync and sync on green. PC VGA card uses separate sync signals and PC monitors are designed to accept at least this sync format.
The term "dot pitch" is the measurement in milimeters of the distance between two adjacent phosphor color elements. There are two color phosphor systems in use today in CRT monitors: triad dot shadow mask (most monitors) and aprature grille (used in the trinitron tube from SONY). NEC has developed a hybrid mask type, called slotted mask, which uses elliptically-shaped phosphors grouped vertically and separated by a slotted mask.
Here are some guidelines for suitable resolutions for different monitors:
Here is an overview of different video display resolution standards and de-facto standards in use:
|VGA||640 x 480 (4:3)|
|SVGA||800 x 600 (4:3)|
|XGA||1024 x 768 (4:3)|
|WXGA||1280 x 768 (15:9)|
|SXGA||1280 x 1024 (5:4)|
|SXGA+||1400 x 1050 (4:3)|
|WSXGA||1680 x 1050 (16:10)|
|UXGA||1600 x 1200 (4:3)|
|UXGAW||1900 x 1200 (1.58:1)|
|QXGA||2048 x 1536 (4:3)|
|QVGA (quarter VGA)||320 x 240 (4:3)|
|Analogue TV Standard||Resolution|
|PAL||720 x 576|
|PAL VHS||320 x 576 (approx.)|
|NTSC||640 x 482|
|NTSC VHS||320 x 482 (approx.)|
|Digital TV Standard||Resolution|
|NTSC (preferred format)||648 x 486|
|D-1 NTSC||720 x 486|
|D-1 NTSC (square pixels)||720 x 540|
|PAL||720 x 486|
|D-1 PAL||720 x 576|
|D-1 PAL (square pixels)||768 x 576|
|HDTV||1920 x 1080|
|Digital Film Standard||Resolution|
|Academy standard||2048 x 1536|
In the late 1980s concern over possible health issues related to monitor use were raised. In Sweden this resulted a standard MPR1 to be developed. This was amended in 1990 to the internationally adopted MPR2 standard, which called for the reduction of electrostatic emissions with a conductive coating on the monitor screen. In 1992 a further stricter standard, entitled TCO (TCO92), was introduced by the Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees. Other relevant monitor safety standards include: ISO 9241 part 3 (the international standard for monitor ergonomics), EN60950 (the European standard for the electrical safety of IT equipment) and the German TUV/EG mark (monitor has been tested to ISO 9241 part 3, EN60950, MPR2 and German standard for basic ergonomics ZH/618). TCP99 is the latest iteration of the standard TCO99 give rgulations on screen refresh rates. To reduce eye fatigue caused by image flicker, the minimum required refresh rate is increased to 85Hz for displays of less than 20in, with 100MHz recommended, and to a minimum of 75Hz for 20in or greater.
Power consumed by the monitor can also be a significant figure. In 1993, VESA initiated its DPMS standard, or Display Power Management Signalling, which allowed a DPMS compliant graphics card to turn the montor to standby more or suspend modes which consume considerably less power than normal operation. EPA Energy Star is a power saving standard, mandatory in the US and widely adopted in Europe, requiring a mains power saving mode drawing less than 30W. In 1995, TCO was expanded with a range of conditions to cover environmental issues. TCO95 became the first global environmental labelling scheme. Over and above TCO92, the product may not contain cadmium or lead, the plastic housing must be of biodegradable material and free of brominated flame retardants and the production process must avoid use of CFCs (freons) and chlorinated solvents.
- Common monitor connector inputs and connection methods Rate this link
- Keyboard, Monitor & Mouse pinouts for PC, SUN, MAC, USB, Digital Flat Panel and EVC configurations Rate this link
- PC Graphics standard overview - monitor scanning frequencies in different modes Rate this link
- Understanding Computer Interfacing - Interfacing, Switching, Distributing and Transmitting High Resolution Video Signals Rate this link
- 1 Red Video
- 2 Green Video
- 3 Blue Video
- 6 Red Return (ground)
- 7 Green Return (ground)
- 8 Blue Return (ground)
- 10 Sync Return (ground)
- 13 Horizontal Sync
- 14 Vertical Sync
Modern PC graphics cards even nowadays still use the old 15 pin VGA connector (known ad HD15 connector). The connector carries the video signal in RGB format. The sync information is carried through separate horizonal and verticna sync signal wires. This whole video signal format (video and sync) is generally referred as RGBHV signal format.The signal levels in RED, GREEN and BLUE signal are 0.7V peak to peak video signals terminated to 75 ohm load in video card and monitor ends. All other signals are TTL level signal (around 0..0.7V means logic 0 and 3..5V means logic 1). Analogue video signals are carried through 75 ohm coaxial conductors. The video signal carried vy VGA connector can also be carried with separate 5 coaxial cables with BNC connectors (some monitors and video projectors use this kind of interface and adapter cables for this are readily available). The pinout of video signals on VGA connector:
Pin New VESA DDC Old VGAThe video signals carried in VGA connector are designed to be matched to 75 ohm load and use coaxial cable. At least the RGB signals on the cable used to connect VGA signals must have 75 ohm coaxial construction to guarantee good quality high resolution image. A typical high quality VGA monitor cable or VGA extension cable has three three 75 ohm mini coax cables to carry RGB signals and 9 other wires (typically 24 AWG) to carry other signals like syncs and monitor identification. The whole cable has a good metallic shield around all of those wires. Some very high quality cables use five 75 ohm coaxial cables and for RGBHV signals and just few extra wires. In applications where monitor ID signals are not needed, just five 75 ohm coaxes are used to transfer VGA signals. Typical features of flexible mini coax cables (from http://www.drakausa.com/pdfsHHT/AVprcise.pdf for extra flexible miniature coax):
1 Red Red
2 Green Green
3 Blue Blue
4 No Connect Reserved
5 Ground Ground
6 Ground Red Ground
7 Ground Green Ground
8 Ground Blue Ground
9 No Connect No connect
10 Ground Ground for syncs
11 No Connect Monitor ID 0 (ground)
12 DDC DAT Monitor ID 1 (no connect)
13 Horizonal Sync Horizonal Sync
14 Vertical Sync Vertical Sync
15 DDC Clock No Connet
1 MHz: 0.6 dB/100ftSome attenuation figures of high quality VGA extension cable (for reference of typical features):
5 MHz: 1.3 dB/100ft
10 MHz: 1.8 dB/100ft
30 MHz: 10.2 dB/100ft
100 MHz: 17.1 dB/100ft
10 MHz: 1.6 dB/100ftThe connector uses in VGA connections is HD 15 connector. This ubiquitous connector is convenient, low cost, and most importantly, adopted by IBM, but technically not the best possible connector. The connector was originally selected to be good enough for the signals existing in the early days of VGA interface and was more than good enough for this use, but VGA connector has it's limitations at high resolutions. Does anyone know the impedance of a 15-pin VGA connector? Unfortuantely the HD15 connector used does not match to 75 ohm impedance (in reality the impedance of a typical VGA connection is about 100 ohms). Even though the connector impedance is not exactly right, the primary issue centers on the limited length of the connector interface, so it does not significantly hamper performance in systems we most often deal with.This HD15 connector is still used, because this ubiquitous connector is convenient, low cost, and most importantly, adopted by IBM. It is still with the limitations considered "good enough". And in practice one VGA connector on the route from the graphics card to the monitor does not cause too much problems for picture quality. The primary issue for this centers on the limited length of the connector interface. Because of the limited length, it does not significantly hamper performance in systems we most often deal with. Because there is no no significant effects, hence the popularity of the VGA connector as a low-cost, general interface for the PC even nowadays. The problems of connector impedance mismatch becomes visible if you happen to have more than one VGA connector on the route to monitor and you run high frequency video signal (high resolution at high refresh rate). Impedance mismatch degrades the picture quality. You can see the impedance matching problems usually when you use devices like VGA monitor switch boxes, VGA extension cables etc. A typical mechanical switch works around this way: Mechanical changeover switches/relays to select between two input signal sources. For VGA connection geneally pins 1,2,3,6,7,8,13,14, and 10 of the monitor connector are switched (usually also 12 and 15 so that DCC for plyg&play monitor connection works). There are some variations what pins are switched (some implementations do not switch the ground lines, they keep then always connected. some other switch also those lines). A mechanical switch will work for VGA signals quite acceptably when the internal wiring on the switch box is well made (preferably 75 ohm coax). Many modern VGA switching system use electronic switching of VGA signals.
50 MHz: 4.0 dB/100ft
100 MHz: 6.1 dB/100ft
200 MHz: 9.8 dB/100ft
300 MHz: 13.0 dB/100ft
400 MHz: 15.9 dB/100ft
- Connect VGA card to monitor with BNC connectors Rate this link
- Connect 15 pin VGA card connector to 9 pin monitor connector - This tells how you can connect a normal 15 pin VGA connector to some old VGA capable multisync monitors which have 9 pin video connector. Rate this link
- DB15HD VGA Connector Pinout - the VGA port in use today Rate this link
- Delta Monitor Cable Information - information on VGA monitor cables manufactured by Delta, wiring diagrams for many cables Rate this link
- Identifying connections on unknown or cut monitor cables Rate this link
- Standard 15 pin D-Sub VGA connector pinout Rate this link
- VGA 9 Pin Pinout - The very first VGA cards used 9-pin D-connector before the standard settled for this normal HD15 connector. Rate this link
- VGA cable to monitor with 9 pin connector Rate this link
- VGA card information - frequencies, monitor ID, feature connector Rate this link
- VGA Video connector pinout Rate this link
- VGA (VESA DDC) connector pinout Rate this link
- VGA Video connector pinout Rate this link
- VGA port HDDB15F to IDC16 - Used to connect VGA to Motherboards which have built in Video Support Rate this link
- All About DVI Rate this link
- Bringing displays into the digital future - Digital-display interfaces are the future, but most monitors and graphics adapters still use analog technology. Integrating both analog and digital interfaces into your display guarantees its compatibility. Rate this link
- Demystifying Cables and Connectors for Digital Formats Part 2 - DVI, Firewire, and USB 2.0 Rate this link
- DVI Monitor Connector Rate this link
- HDCP: what it is and how to use it - The DVI (digital visual interface) delivers video images with very high resolution and essentially perfect quality. This has sparked great concern in the entertainment industry, because it raises the specter of unauthorized mass duplication and distribution of "perfect" copies of Hollywood's most valuable content. Here?s what you need to know to start applying HDCP high-bandwidth digital-content protection. Rate this link
- Keyboard, Monitor & Mouse pinouts for PC, SUN, MAC, USB, Digital Flat Panel and EVC configurations Rate this link
- VESA-compliant P&D - EVC - Connector with analogue VGA signals and flat panel signals. Rate this link
- VESA Plug and Display Standards - Digital interface for digital display devices (like flat panel) with option for analogue connection Rate this link
Digital Visual Interface (DVI) is the standard interface for high-performance connection between PCs and Flat Panel Displays, Digital CRT Displays, Projectors, and HDTV. DVI Cables deliver the high-performance, high-bandwidth interface needed for video displays of today, and leaving headroom for the products of tomorrow.
DVI standard is defined by DDWG (Digital Display Working Group). DVI most commonly used digital video interface with PCs in DVI. It comes in theree version: DVI-A, DVI-D and DVI-I. The difference on those is that DVI-D support only digital signals, where DVI-I includes both digital and analogue video signals (analogue signals are same as used by VGA interface). DVI supports hot plugging of DVI display devices.
DVI-A format is used to carry a DVI signal to an analogue display, such as a CRT monitor or an HDTV. Basically this interface has same signal as VGA connector has, but uses different shape connector. DVI-A can transmit a higher quality picture than standard VGA, because the connector user matches better to the needs of transported high frequency video signal than the old 15-pin VGA connector.
DVI-D is a digital only connector version of DVI interface. DVI-D is the leading connector standard for digital only connection. It comes in two flavors: Single Link and Dual Link. The primary difference between Single Link and Dual link is that each supports varying resolution levels. DVI-D uses LVDS signaling for digital signal and supports cable length up to 5 meters (longer distances are possible with repeaters every 5 meters). In case of longer transmission distances are needed, you need to either have DVI repeater every 5 meters or use a special converter that converts DVI signals to fiber optics and back. Some manufacturers seem to make also 10 meters long DVI-D cables, but because those are longer than standard permits their operation is no guaranteed (causes unreliable operation and signal transmission errors on many equipment, but can work on some equipment). The DVI-D Single Link supports resolutions up to 1920x1080. For gher resolution there is a dual link version also available.
Within the DVI system, parallel data from the computer graphic memory is serialized (similar to digital television) and transmitted differentially over a minimum of four twisted pair wires:a red channel, green channel, blue channel, and clock channel at about 165 mega-pixels/second per channel (1.65 Gbps on the basic system). The RGB data are not simply serialized and dumped onto the cables. Encoded sync information is carried along and the data is scrambled using a specific routine that minimizes errors during transmission from source to destination. The system operates on 3.3 volts and can operate at lower voltages. The twisted pair differential swing is about 1.0 volt peak-to-peak.
The DVD-D dual link configuration provides enough bandwidth for resolutions up to 2048 x 1536, and is designed for digital use only. In dual link system the number of wires used to transport red, green and blue component data is doubled (giving total 7 pairs of wire used to transport data). The DVD-D dual link uses DVI-D 24-pin connectors and supports digital signal only. To support those high resolutions, very high data rates are needed in the cable. DVI achieves up to 9.9-Gbps dual-link or 4.95-Gbps single-link data speeds.
DVI-I format is an integrated cable which is capable of transmitting either a digital-to-digital signal or an analog-to-analog signal.DVI-I can supports both digital DVI-D signals AND analog (RGB). The connector has a few more pins than digital only DVI-D. Many graphics cards manufacturers are offering this connector type on their products, so this can be connected to either digital or analogue display device. The signals from DVI-I connector can be adaped to analogue VGA signal by using a simple connector adapter (usually comes with graphics card, can be bought separately). DVI-I format is an integrated cable which is capable of transmitting either a digital-to-digital signal or an analog-to-analog signal. Make sure that you know what format each part of your equipment is before you purchase any DVI cables. Only equipment with a DVI port labeled 'DVI-I' will accept both a DVI-D and DVI-A source signal.
Determining which type of cable to use for your DVI products is critical in getting the right product the first time. Check both of the female DVI plugs to determine what signals they are compatible with. There are two variables in every DVI connector cable, and each represents one characteristic. The flat pin on one side denotes whether the cable is digital or analog: a flat pin with four surrounding pins is either DVI-I or DVI-A, a flat pin alone denotes DVI-D. The pin sets vary depending on whether or not the cableis single- or dual-link: a solid 27-pin set (rows of 8) for a dual- link cable,two separated 9-pin sets (rows of 6) for a single-link cable. Note: To prevent pins being broken off of mistmatched cables, most manufacturers will make their female plugs with all available pins. This means that most every female DVI plug will look like a DVI-I, but this is not necessarily true. Be sure to look for a label, or check the product documentation to make sure you know what type it is.
The physical cable used to do DVI connection has different conductor types depending on the signal they carry. The digital signals are carried through twisted pairs that have 100 ohm +/- 15% impedance (usually separately shielded twisted pairs). Analogue video signals are carried through 75 ohm coaxial conductors.
Transmission of the TMDS (transition minimized differential signaling) format combines four differential, high-speed serial connections (in its base configuration) transmitted in a parallel bundle. When the DVI specification is extended to the dual mode operation, greater data rates for higher display resolutions are possible, but now there are seven parallel differential, high-speed pairs. Cabling and connection become extremely important. The DVI cable and its termination is very important. The physical parameters of the twisted pairs must be highly controlled. Specifications for the cable and the receiver are given in fractions of bit transmission time, so the requirements depend on the clock rate or signal resolution being used. Transferring the maximum rate (1600 x 1200 at 60 Hz) for a single link system means that one bit time (10 bits per pixel) is 0.1 (1/165 MHz), which is only 0.606 nanoseconds. Ten bit times describe one pixel in this system. The DVI receiver specification allows only 0.40 x bit time, or about 0.242 nanoseconds intra-pair skew (within the twisted pair). A cable for DVI-D should be evaluated on its insertion loss for a given length. The DVI transmitter output eye pattern is specified into a nominal cable impedance of 100 ohms. A normal signal swings +780 mV to -780 mV. The minimum positive signal swing is +200 mV and the minimum negative swing is -200 mV (total swing of 400 mV). When the signals are combined in the differential receiver, the resulting signal level is two times the swing value. But, for the cable situation, we must assume minimum performance on the transmitter side and best sensitivity on the receiver end. The receiver must operate on signals as low as +75 mV to -75 mV, or a total swing of 150 mV. This means that under worst-case conditions, the cable attenuation can be no more than 8.5dB at 1.65 GHz (10 bits/pixel times 165 MHz clock). As you can imagine, maintaining this type of performance on twisted pair wires is relatively difficult. The nominal DVI cable length limit is 4.6 meters (about 15 feet). Electrical performance requirements are similar to serial digital. Signal rise time (0.330 nanoseconds), cable impedance (100 ohms), far end crosstalk (FEXT) of no more than 5%, and signal rise time degradation (160 picoseconds maximum) are the key parameters highlighted in the DVI specification regarding the physical connection.
Cable for DVI is application specific because maintaining these specifications is no easy feat since the actual bit rate per channel is 1.65 Gbps. And, we're talking twisted pair cable here. Upgrade your system's video performance by connecting VGA- or DFP-configured monitors to fast DVI cables.Use DVI to eliminate resolution or color changes and pixel-lock adjustments in laptop-to-projector connections, too.
- Connect VGA card to monitor with BNC connectors Rate this link
- RGBHV over shielded Cat 5 success! - This plan uses 25ft if shielded CAT5 cable to carry good quality VGA video signals (RGBHV). Originally 100 ohm shielded twisted pair cable works for 75 ohm vidoe signals, because the shield tied to ground on the shielded version CAT5 would help lower the impedance to closer to video's 75 ohm requirement. Rate this link
Sometimes you can see ferrites on ready made VGA monitor cables. The usual purpose of ferrites has nothing to do with performance, rather they are added so that the equipment does not radiate EMI (Electro-Magnetic Interference) in excess of FCC limits. The usual source of radiation is the outer shield of the cable.
- Approaches to Using Fixed Frequency or Non-Standard Monitors on PCs Rate this link
- Connect VGA card to monitor with BNC connectors Rate this link
- Fixed Frequency Video FAQ Rate this link
- Mono signals from VGA card Rate this link
- Notes on Video Conversion - how to convert video signals from different sources to different display devices Rate this link
- VGA to workstation monitor FAQ - how to connect old workstation monitors and other special monitors to your PC Rate this link
Interfacing to other than normal PC monitors
- Calculator for video timings - on-line screen mode parameters calculator Rate this link
- Fixed Frequency PC Video FAQ Rate this link
- How multisync monitors detect the screen mode used Rate this link
- IBM 6091-019 FAQ - how to use fixed frequency monitor with different graphics cards Rate this link
- VGA monitor signal timing information Rate this link
- XFree86 Video Timings HOWTO - how to set up monitor settings on Linux Xfree86 X-Windows server program Rate this link
- Computer Vision Handbook - important ideas and techniques used in computer vision Rate this link
- Computer Vision Home Page Rate this link
- Connectix QuickCam hacking page - all the information on third-party drivers for the Connectix QuickCam in one place Rate this link
- Frame grabbers get the picture when video cameras fall short - special capture boards remain vital in real-time industrial imaging Rate this link
- How to use the Matrox Meteor frame grabber card under FreeBSD and Linux Rate this link
- Image Capture and Display - different camera types and analogue video signal described Rate this link
- Kamera-lehden osto-opas 1999-2000 - information on digital cameras on the market, in text Finnish Rate this link
- Matrox Camera Interface Guide - how to inteface special cameras to frame grabbers from Rate this link
- The Cookbook CCD Camera Home Page - to help amateur astronomers who build their own CCD cameras Rate this link
- The Vision and Imaging Technology Resource - information resource for machine vision developers Rate this link
- Video Capture Technologies - Microsoft? Windows? operating systems provide a 32-bit architecture to support video conferencing cameras and other video capture devices and DVD/MPEG devices. The Windows Driver Model (WDM) Stream class supports a uniform streaming model for standard and custom data types. Rate this link
- VirtualDub - video capture and processing program, check also Rate this link
Performing analog capture requires a device to take video input from a composite or S-Video signal and convert it to digital data. Composite video, the type used by most TVs around the world, transmits all information as one signal. S-Video transmits separate signals for color and brightness, producing a sharper image. The formats do not matter. But make sure the analog capture device you get has suitable interface (compatilbe with your signal source) and comes with suitable software for your application (drivers and application software).After you have a compatible capture device installed and a video source such as a camcorder, VCR, or TV plugged in, you are ready to start capturing video content. It?s truly amazing what non-professionals can do with video today using home computers and affordable cameras.
A simple Webcam consists of a digital camera attached to your computer. A piece of software connects to the camera and grabs a frame from it periodically. . The software then turns that image into a normal JPG file and uploads it to your Web server. The JPG image can be placed on any Web page (for information on creating Web pages and adding JPG images. Webcams are cheap camera products (cost less that 100 US dollars) that have also many other uses than just uploading images to web.
- CM112/110 Flat Panel Support - some information on flatpanel connections Rate this link
- Digital Display Working Group - open industry group to address the industry's requirements for a digital connectivity specification for high-performance PCs and digital displays Rate this link
- Display technology's results are compelling, but legacy is un"clear" - Microsoft and others are exploiting LCD subpixel characteristics in an attempt to economically improve the display quality of typefaces and other fine-detail images. Here's the theory behind the implementation and the reality behind the hype, along with a dose of controversy. Rate this link
- DVI Monitor Connector Rate this link
- The Changing Face of Interfacing - when technology evolves you can expect some changes in video display interfacing systems Rate this link
- Diammond WWW pages - official pages Rate this link
- Matrox WWW pages - official pages Rate this link
- Matrox Users Resource Centre - Driver and BIOS Updates, documents Rate this link
- S3 - information about very popular chipset Rate this link
- The Ultimate Video Accelerator Page Rate this link
- TVP3026 Video Interface Palette - video DAC used in Matrox Millenium, download Rate this link
A touchscreen is any monitor, based either on LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) or CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) technology, that accepts direct onscreen input. The ability for direct onscreen input is facilitated by an external (light pen) or an internal device (touch overlay and controller) that relays the X,Y coordinates to the computer.
- Asphixia VGA Trainers - tutorials on basic VGA card programming Rate this link
- FreeVGA: Hardware Level VGA and SVGA Video Programming Information Page Rate this link
- Mobile System Displays and Windows - This article describes Windows ACPI support for display switching using a "hotkey" and simulating Plug and Play detection of the installed LCD display and attached TV. Rate this link
- Official VESA VBE 2.0 Specification (Replica Format) Rate this link
- PC-GPE on the Web - PC Game Programmer's Encyclopedia on the World Wide Web Rate this link
- Standard VGA register description Rate this link
- SVGA documents in PC-GPE on the Web Rate this link
- The PC Game Programmer's Encyclopedia 1.0 - DOS games programming information database which includes VGA programming tutorials, to download it as one file for off-line reading go to Rate this link
- VESA Home Page - you can download the official VBE 2.0 standard document here (needs free registration) Rate this link
- VGA card documents - different chipsets etc. Rate this link
- VGADOC 4.0 - SuperVGA card low level programming document collection and test program Rate this link
- VGA documents on the PC-GPE on the Web Rate this link
When the VGA was the standard adapter card in PC's, programming was relatively straightforward. However, when SVGA adapters appeared on the market, there was little standardization between separate vendor's products.For this reason, applications and graphical user interface systems required specialized drivers to utilize the extended capabilities of the SVGA adapters. Either these specialized drivers were written by the video card vendor or they had to be written by the application vendor.
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