I saw at Facebook a video 12 v Short Circuit Protection and same for 220 volts (https://www.facebook.com/108281974135756/posts/166052965025323/). It was advertised as a short circuit protection relay circuit that will turn off the power when output is short circuited.
This seems to be a quite popular circuit idea, because I saw several very similar circuit designs on YouTube:
When presented on the videos those are claimed to be a nice protection circuit, and the circuit design might work on same cases (but not all).I would rather rely on proper circuit breaker or fuse because it will protect against short circuit and overload.
This approach shown in video is far from foolproof. If you for example put the circuit next to battery and have long thin wires to motor, this circuit does not react to short circuit at all! The example circuit works on the principle that if the output is short-circuited, the voltage over relay coil drops and the relay releases. The circuit works only of the input voltage drops enough due the short circuit (drops to 2/3 or half of original voltage with typical relays) and does not work if the input voltage does not drop due short circuit on output (for example protection circuit next to var battery and long thin wires to the load being sensed).
This circuit can have it’s uses, but in addition to it you should have fuse/breaker or for sure current limited power supply.
Warning: At 220V you can expect exploding relays with mains circuits that have high short circuit current (hundreds of amperes to kiloamperes)!