A microphone is an acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor that converts sound into an electrical signal. Electromagnetic transducers facilitate the conversion of acoustic signals into electrical signals.
Most microphones today use electromagnetic induction (dynamic microphones), capacitance change (condenser microphones) or piezoelectricity (piezoelectric microphones) to produce an electrical signal from air pressure variations.
There are many different microphone types and models that suit more or less well to different applications – and give different sound. If you want to hear a comparison of a dynamic, a condenser, and a ribbon microphone, check out the Recording Acoustic Guitar—Comparisons of Dynamic, Condenser, and Ribbon Mics on Acoustic Guitar video below. You can certainly tell the difference between the three types with your ears.
These mics are all placed in the same place on this acoustic guitar so that you can tell what the differences are between the mics.
Also the location of the microphone has effect on the sound you get. And different microphones give different sound on different distance. DIY: How to Mic Your Acoustic Like a Pro video is a studio tutorial, by Nashville producer Bryan Clark and guitarist Adam Fluhrer explain, to demonstrate four essential mic techniques for capturing the sound of your shimmering acoustic. Explore X-Y, spaced pair, single source, and mid-side setups in this short, informative video.
Many singers and musicians appreciate working with ribbon microphones, even today. Blue Ribbon Microphone article has an interesting video that shows the construction of a modern ribbon microphone.