Quantum computers could revolutionize the way we tackle problems that stump even the best classical computers.

Single atom transistor recently introduced has been seen as a tool that could lead the way to building a quantum computer. For general introduction how quantum computer work, read A tale of two qubits: how quantum computers work article.

D-Wave Announces Commercially Available Quantum Computer article tells that computing company D-Wave has announced that they’re selling a quantum computing system commercially, which they’re calling the D-Wave One. D-Wave system comes equipped with a 128-qubit processor that’s designed to perform discrete optimization operations. The processor uses quantum annealing to perform these operations.

D-Wave is advertisting a number of different applications for its quantum computing system, primarily in the field of artificial intelligence. According to the company, its system can handle virtually any AI application that can be translated to a Markov random field.

Learning to program the D-Wave One blog article tells that the processor in the D-Wave One – codenamed Rainier – is designed to perform a single mathematical operation called discrete optimization. It is a special purpose processor. When writing applications the D-Wave One is used only for the steps in your task that involve solving optimization problems. All the other parts of your code still run on your conventional systems of choice. Rainier solves optimization problems using quantum annealing (QA), which is a class of problem solving approaches that use quantum effects to help get better solutions, faster. Learning to program the D-Wave One is the first in a series of blog posts describing the algorithms we have run on D-Wave quantum computers, and how to use these to build interesting applications.

But is this the start of the quantum computers era? Maybe not. D-Wave Announces Commercially Available Quantum Computer article comments tell a story that this computer might not be the quantum computer you might be waiting for. It seem that the name “quantum computer” is a bit misleading for this product. There are serious controversies around the working and “quantumness” of the machine. D-Wave has been heavily criticized by some scientists in the quantum computing field. First sale for quantum computing article tells that uncertainty persists around how the impressive black monolith known as D-Wave One actually works. Computer scientists have long questioned whether D-Wave’s systems truly exploit quantum physics on their products.

Slashdot article D-Wave Announces Commercially Available Quantum Computer comments tell that this has the same central problem as before. D-Wave’s computers haven’t demonstrated that their commercial bits are entangled. There’s no way to really distinguish what they are doing from essentially classical simulated annealing. Recommended reading that is skeptical of D-Wave’s claims is much of what Scott Aaronson has wrote about them. See for example http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=639, http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=198 although interestingly after he visited D-Wave’s labs in person his views changed slightly and became slightly more sympathetic to them http://www.scottaaronson.com/blog/?p=954.

So it is hard to say if the “128 qubits” part is snake oil or for real. If the 128 “qubits” aren’t entangled at all, which means it is useless for any of the quantum algorithms that one generally thinks of. It seem that this device simply has 128 separate “qubits” that are queried individually, and is, essentially an augmented classical computer that gains a few minor advantages in some very specific algorithms (i.e. the quantum annealing algorithm) due to this qubit querying, but is otherwise indistinguishable from a really expensive classical computer for any other purpose. This has the same central problem as before: D-Wave’s computers haven’t demonstrated that their commercial bits are entangled.

Rather than constantly adding more qubits and issuing more hard-to-evaluate announcements, while leaving the scientific characterization of its devices in a state of limbo, why doesn’t D-Wave just focus all its efforts on demonstrating entanglement, or otherwise getting stronger evidence for a quantum role in the apparent speedup? There’s a reason why academic quantum computing groups focus on pushing down decoherence and demonstrating entanglement in 2, 3, or 4 qubits: because that way, at least you know that the qubits are qubits! Suppose D-Wave were marketing a classical, special-purpose, $10-million computer designed to perform simulated annealing, for 90-bit Ising spin glass problems with a certain fixed topology, somewhat better than an off-the-shelf computing cluster. Would there be even 5% of the public interest that there is now?

## 117 Comments

## Tomi Engdahl says:

How much faster is a quantum computer than your laptop?

Supercomputing chaps talk qubits and more with Dan Olds

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2016/04/18/d_wave_demystifies_quantum_computing/

It turns out that there are three broad categories of problem where your best bet is a quantum computer. The first is a Monte Carlo type simulation, the second is machine learning, and the third is optimization problems that would drive a regular computer nuts – or, at least, take a long time for it to process.

An example of this type of optimization problem is this: Consider the approximately 2,000 professional hockey players in North America. Your task is to select the very best starting line-up from that roster of guys.

There are a lot of variables to consider.

When you start adding variables like this, the problem gets exponentially more difficult to solve.

But it’s right up the alley of a quantum computer. A D Wave system would consider all of the possible solutions at the same time, then collapse down to the optimal set of player. It’s more complicated than I’m making out, of course, but it’s a good layman-like example.

So how much faster can quantum computers perform than their digital counterparts? Before purchasing their own D Wave system a few years back, Google put it through its paces and found that when the problem size got to the 500 qubit size range, the D Wave system outperformed its binary cousins by 10,000 times – a solid win in anyone’s book.

More recently, Google and NASA found that a D Wave 2 system with 1,097 qubits outperformed existing supercomputers by more than 3,600 times (and personal computers by 100 million x) on an optimization problem, solving it in mere seconds.

These performance numbers I’m citing are from corner cases that hit right on the quantum sweet spot.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Shor’s Algorithm In Five Atoms

http://hackaday.com/2016/05/01/shors-algorithm-in-five-atoms/

If you want to factor a number, one way to do it is Shor’s algorithm. That’s a quantum algorithm and finds prime factors of integers. That’s interesting because prime factorization is a big deal of creating or breaking most modern encryption techniques.

Back in 2001, a group at IBM factored 15 (the smallest number that the algorithm can factor) using a 7 qubit system that uses nuclear magnetic resonance. Later, other groups duplicated the feat using photonic qubits. Typical implementations take 12 qubits. However, recent work at MIT and the University of Innsbruck can do the same trick with 5 atoms caught in an ion trap. The researchers believe their implementation will easily scale to larger numbers.

Each qubit is an atom and LASER pulses perform the logic operations.

The beginning of the end for encryption schemes?

New quantum computer, based on five atoms, factors numbers in a scalable way.

https://news.mit.edu/2016/quantum-computer-end-encryption-schemes-0303

What are the prime factors, or multipliers, for the number 15? Most grade school students know the answer — 3 and 5 — by memory. A larger number, such as 91, may take some pen and paper. An even larger number, say with 232 digits, can (and has) taken scientists two years to factor, using hundreds of classical computers operating in parallel.

Because factoring large numbers is so devilishly hard, this “factoring problem” is the basis for many encryption schemes for protecting credit cards, state secrets, and other confidential data. It’s thought that a single quantum computer may easily crack this problem, by using hundreds of atoms, essentially in parallel, to quickly factor huge numbers.

In 1994, Peter Shor, the Morss Professor of Applied Mathematics at MIT, came up with a quantum algorithm that calculates the prime factors of a large number, vastly more efficiently than a classical computer. However, the algorithm’s success depends on a computer with a large number of quantum bits. While others have attempted to implement Shor’s algorithm in various quantum systems, none have been able to do so with more than a few quantum bits, in a scalable way.

Now, in a paper published today in the journal Science, researchers from MIT and the University of Innsbruck in Austria report that they have designed and built a quantum computer from five atoms in an ion trap. The computer uses laser pulses to carry out Shor’s algorithm on each atom, to correctly factor the number 15. The system is designed in such a way that more atoms and lasers can be added to build a bigger and faster quantum computer, able to factor much larger numbers. The results, they say, represent the first scalable implementation of Shor’s algorithm.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Ion Trap Makes Programmable Quantum Computer

http://hackaday.com/2016/08/14/ion-trap-makes-programmable-quantum-computer/

The Joint Quantum Institute published a recent paper detailing a quantum computer constructed with five qubits formed from trapped ions. The novel architecture allows the computer to accept programs for multiple algorithms.

Quantum computers make use of qubits and trapped ions–ions confined with an electromagnetic field–are one way to create them. In particular, a linear radio frequency trap and laser cooling traps five ytterbium ions with a separation of about 5 microns. To entangle the qubits, the device uses 50 to 100 laser pulses on individual or pairs of ions. The pulse shape determines the actual function performed, which is how the device is programmable. The operations depend on the sequence of laser pulses that activate it.

Ion-trap quantum computer is programmable and reconfigurable

http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2016/aug/03/ion-trap-quantum-computer-is-programmable-and-reconfigurable

Five-ion trap

Chris Monroe’s group at the Joint Quantum Institute and the Joint Center for Quantum Information and Computer Science, at the University of Maryland in the US, uses trapped ions as qubits. In this technique, information is stored in the atomic-ions’ states. Electromagnetically confining a number of such ions, or “trapping” them, the particles can then be entangled by applying appropriate laser beams. The finely tuned laser light manipulates each ion in a specific way, depending upon its state. “In this way, the collective motion of the chain of ions behaves as a data bus that allows qubits to talk to each other,” say Monroe.

While small ion-trap quantum computers have previously been built, each was a single-purpose device, capable of running a particular algorithm or generating a fixed entangled state. Now though, Monroe, together with Shantanu Debnath and colleagues, has demonstrated that the device can be programmed with multiple algorithms.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

D-Wave’s 2,000-Qubit Quantum Annealing Computer Now 1,000x Faster Than Previous Generation

https://hardware.slashdot.org/story/16/09/28/215235/d-waves-2000-qubit-quantum-annealing-computer-now-1000x-faster-than-previous-generation

D-Wave, a Canadian company developing the first commercial “quantum computer,” announced its next-generation quantum annealing computer with 2,000 qubits, which is twice as many as its previous generation had. One highly exciting aspect of quantum computers of all types is that beyond the seemingly Moore’s Law-like increase in number of qubits every two years, their performance increases much more than just 2x, unlike with regular microprocessors. This is because qubits can hold a value of 0, 1, or a superposition of the two, making quantum systems able to deal with much more complex information. If D-Wave’s 2,000-qubit computer is now 1,000 faster than the previous 1,000-qubit generation (D-Wave 2X), that would mean that, for the things Google tested last year, it should now be 100 billion times faster than a single-core CPU.

Last year, Google said that D-Wave’s 1,000 qubit computer proved to be 100 million times faster than a classical computer with a single core: “We found that for problem instances involving nearly 1,000 binary variables, quantum annealing significantly outperforms its classical counterpart, simulated annealing. It is more than 10^8 times faster than simulated annealing running on a single core,” said Hartmut Neven, Google’s Director of Engineering.

D-Wave’s 2,000-Qubit Quantum Annealing Computer Now 1,000x Faster Than Previous Generation

http://www.tomshardware.com/news/d-wave-2000-qubit-1000x-faster,32768.html

## Tomi Engdahl says:

System Bits: Oct. 25

Quantum 3D wiring; special-purpose computer; inexact computing.

http://semiengineering.com/system-bits-oct-25/

Scalable quantum computers

In what they say is a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer, researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits.

The quantum socket is a wiring method that uses 3D based on spring-loaded pins to address individual qubits, they said, and which connects classical electronics with quantum circuits, extendable far beyond current limits, from one to possibly a few thousand qubits.

The team used microwave pulses to control and measure superconducting qubits, typically sent from dedicated sources and pulse generators through a network of cables connecting the qubits in the cryostat’s cold environment to the room-temperature electronics.

New 3-D wiring technique brings scalable quantum computers closer to reality

https://uwaterloo.ca/news/news/new-3-d-wiring-technique-brings-scalable-quantum-computers

## Tomi Engdahl says:

D-Wave goes public with open-source quantum-classical hybrid software

Search the universe with qbsolv

http://www.theregister.co.uk/2017/01/13/dwave_goes_public_with_opensource_quantumclassical_hybrid_software/

Want to fool around with some quantum-ish computing? D-Wave has open sourced a software tool that prepares optimisation problems to run on its hardware.

You can think of the software, qbsolv, as a D-Wave-specific compiler: in the white paper it’s posted along with the tool at GitHub, the company’s Michael Booth, Steven Reinhardt and Aidan Roy explain its role.

Qbsolv is “a tool that solves large quadratic unconstrained binary optimisation (QUBO) problems” for execution on a D-Wave computer, a task that has to be handled with care because the problem has to be partitioned to match the number of qubits on the target chip.

https://github.com/dwavesystems/qbsolv

## Tomi Engdahl says:

D-Wave’s $15 million quantum computer runs a staggering 2,000 qubits

D-Wave’s 2000Q quantum computer will ship to select customers but could ultimately be available to others via the cloud

http://www.pcworld.com/article/3161034/computers/d-waves-quantum-computer-runs-a-staggering-2000-qubits.html

For D-Wave, the path to quantum computers being widely accepted is similar to the history of today’s computers. The first chips came more than 30 years ago, and Microsoft’s Basic expanded the software infrastructure around PCs.

Quantum computers are a new type of computer that can be significantly faster than today’s PCs. They are still decades away from replacing PCs and going mainstream, but more advanced hardware and use models are still emerging.

D-Wave is the only company selling a quantum computer. It sold its first system in 2011 and is now pushing the speed limits with a new quantum computer called the D-Wave 2000Q, which has 2,000 qubits.

The 2000Q is twice the size of its current 1,000-qubit D-Wave 2X

The 2000Q is thousands of times faster than its predecessor

D-Wave’s quantum computers are being already used by the Los Alamos National Laboratory, Google, NASA, and Lockheed Martin. D-Wave’s goal is to upgrade all those systems.

The ultimate goal is to develop a universal quantum computer that could run all computing applications, much like PCs, but researchers agree that type of quantum computer still decades away.

There are many types of quantum computers under development, and D-Wave’s system is based on the paradigm of quantum annealing. The computer delivers possible outcomes to a problem by deploying a magnetic field to perform qubit operations.

The annealer was a quick way to quantum computing

The company’s view is similar to using different types of chips like CPUs, GPUs, and FPGAs for different workloads, with each of them having their own benefits, Brownell said.

IBM is working on a different type of quantum computer based on the gate model, which is considered advanced but more complicated to achieve. Microsoft is trying to make a quantum computer based on a new topology and a particle that is yet to be discovered.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Quantum computer ‘construction plan’ drawn up

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-38811255

Physicists have drawn up construction plans for a large-scale quantum computer.

These super-fast machines promise to revolutionise computing, harnessing the world of quantum mechanics to solve problems that are beyond reach for even the most advanced “classical” ones.

But the challenges of building practical, large-scale models have kept quantum computers confined to the lab.

The new blueprint, based on a modular design appears in Science Advances.

“We have produced a construction plan – a real blueprint to actually build a large-scale quantum computer,” Winfried Hensinger, from the University of Sussex, told BBC News.

Blueprint for a microwave trapped ion quantum computer

http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/3/2/e1601540

The modules control all operations as stand-alone units, are constructed using silicon microfabrication techniques, and are within reach of current technology. To perform the required quantum computations, the modules make use of long-wavelength radiation–based quantum gate technology. To scale this microwave quantum computer architecture to a large size, we present a fully scalable design that makes use of ion transport between different modules, thereby allowing arbitrarily many modules to be connected to construct a large-scale device.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Binary hyper-drive. It’s computing but not as we know it captain

http://www.electropages.com/2017/02/binary-hyper-drive-its-computing-but-not-as-we-know-it/?utm_campaign=&utm_source=newsletter&utm_medium=email&utm_term=article&utm_content=Binary+hyper-drive.+It%E2%80%99s+computing+but+not+as+we+know+it+captain

Thought your laptop was fast. Well try to imagine a computer that is 100 million times faster. This leap into binary hyper-drive is now considered a possibility with the construction of a huge quantum computer that could be just a few years away.

For a quantum computer to work it has to have circuits that can operate at On and Off states simultaneously. This is based on the laws of quantum mechanics which allow very small particles to exist in a number of “superposition” states until they are observed or disturbed.

While a normal computer has bits made up of zeros and ones, a quantum computer has quantum bits (qubits) which can take on the value of zero or one or both at the same time.

The qubit is the unit of quantum information. In a conventional computer a bit has to be in one of two states. Quantum mechanics however allows the qubit to be in a superposition which means it can be in both states at the same time. According to quantum law the particle then enters a superposition of states.

A team at the University of Sussex has created a practical blueprint for constructing a giant quantum computer and a proof-of-concept prototype is planned within two years.

The new concept from the team at the University of Sussex introduces electronic field connections that allow charged atoms, or ions, to be transported from one module to another.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

IBM Expanding Cloud Quantum Computer 10-Fold

http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/hardware/ibm-expanding-cloud-quantum-computer-10fold

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Here Is Everything You Need to Know About Quantum Computers

http://interestingengineering.com/everything-need-know-quantum-computers/

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Quantum Molecules Compute

NIST Cracks Command/Control

http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1331725&

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been using lasers to super-cool atoms to create the world’s most accurate atomic clocks using quantum mechanical principles. Now they have extended that research, showing how to use lasers to control the quantum properties of entire molecular ions, clearing the way to future quantum computers.

The NIST solution, published today in Nature magazine, enables the quantum logic operations that drive their latest atomic clock with lasers to control the molecules of future quantum computers

Since the technique uses the lasers to super-cool the molecules, their probing and quantum manipulation is so gentle that it does not disturb their delicate quantum states. So far, they have been able to transfer that state from one molecule to another, via a intermediary atom, and hope to construct more sophisticated architectures that can amplify signals, measure the “shape” of electrons, boost control of chemical reactions and other next-generation quantum information processing steps.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Quantum Computing Uses Standard Hardware

Software Simulations Now

http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1331768&

Quantum annealing hardware like D-Wave’s latest $15 million 2048-Qubit unit will not fit the real world problems at supply chain optimization software vendor ServicePower, according to Alex Syrichas, a research scientist there and a doctoral candidate under research professor Alan Crispin at Manchester Metropolitan University. Their problems routinely use from 10,000 to as many as 1 million variables — each represented by a virtual Qubit — and Syrichas has found a way to simulate their quantum annealing using parallelization on standard server farms to make up for the slower speed compared to D-Wave’s specialized hardware.

Syrichas, whose doctoral thesis is on using software simulations of quantum annealing, found commercial success with ServicePower, where CEO Marne Martin recruited him to adapt it to field service and logistics applications even before finishing his thesis.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Even Ordinary Computer Users Could Access Secret Quantum Computing

http://spectrum.ieee.org/tech-talk/computing/software/even-ordinary-computer-users-could-access-secret-quantum-computing

You may not need a quantum computer of your own to securely use quantum computing in the future. For the first time, researchers have shown how even ordinary classical computer users could remotely access quantum computing resources online while keeping their quantum computations securely hidden from the quantum computer itself.

Tech giants such as Google and IBM are racing to build universal quantum computers that could someday analyze millions of possible solutions much faster than today’s most powerful classical supercomputers. Such companies have also begun offering online access to their early quantum processors

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Mark Bergen / Bloomberg:

Sources: Google’s offering some science labs and AI experts early cloud access to its quantum computers, following IBM’s similar effort to spur app development — Company offers early access to its machines over the internet — IBM began quantum computing cloud service earlier this year

Google’s Quantum Computing Push Opens New Front in Cloud Battle

https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2017-07-17/google-s-quantum-computing-push-opens-new-front-in-cloud-battle

Company offers early access to its machines over the internet

IBM began quantum computing cloud service earlier this year

For years, Google has poured time and money into one of the most ambitious dreams of modern technology: building a working quantum computer. Now the company is thinking of ways to turn the project into a business.

Alphabet Inc.’s Google has offered science labs and artificial intelligence researchers early access to its quantum machines over the internet in recent months. The goal is to spur development of tools and applications for the technology, and ultimately turn it into a faster, more powerful cloud-computing service, according to people pitched on the plan.

“They’re pretty open that they’re building quantum hardware and they would, at some point in the future, make it a cloud service,” said Peter McMahon, a quantum computing researcher at Stanford University.

## Tomi Engdahl says:

Quintuple: a Python 5-qubit quantum computer simulator to facilitate cloud quantum computing

https://arxiv.org/abs/1606.09225

In May 2016 IBM released access to its 5-qubit quantum computer to the scientific community, its “IBM Quantum Experience” since acquiring over 25,000 users from students, educators and researchers around the globe. In the short time since the “IBM Quantum Experience” became available, a flurry of research results on 5-qubit systems have been published derived from the platform hardware. Quintuple is an open-source object-oriented Python module implementing the simulation of the “IBM Quantum Experience” hardware.

corbett/QuantumComputing

https://github.com/corbett/QuantumComputing

This is an implementation of IBM’s Quantum Experience in simulation; a 5-qubit quantum computer with a limited set of gates. Please cite me if you end up using this academically.