One of the most common direct coupled noise sources is when the ground which is being used for reference or return is not referenced to earth as expected. This is especially prevalent in sensitive high-gain circuits.
It tells that undesired signals couple into signals via four coupling factors: magnetic (inductive) coupling, capacitive (high speed voltage changes (dV/dt)) coupling, direct coupling, and radiative (Rf) coupling. Numerous books, articles and white papers are written all the time about this (many books on Electromagnetic compatibility cover those topics well). The material you will find include information on the coupling mechanisms and the sound mathematics of measuring inductance, capacitance, mutual inductance, resistance, and field intensity.
Most of the time the shield can be viewed as a band aid on a wound. Although necessary, one should not ignore the bleeding below. It is important to understand what is causing the noise and whether it can be resolved.
In summary, for protection against low-frequency (<1 MHz), electric-field interference, grounding the shield at one end is acceptable. For high-frequency interference (>1 MHz), the preferred method is grounding the shield at both ends, using 360° circumferential bonds between the shield and the connector, and maintaining metal-to-metal continuity between the connectors and the enclosure. Also safety considerations may require that the remote end of the shield also be grounded.
However in practice, there is often a caveat involved with directly grounding the shield at both ends: it creates a low frequency ground loop. In some cases (usually with balanced signals and differential receivers) the receiving end can be grounded with a low inductance ceramic capacitor (0.01 µF to 0.1 µF), still providing high frequency grounding. When you need to ground a shielded twisted pair cable from one end only, the ideal situation is to ground the shield at the driving end and allow the shield to float at the differential receiver.
For video applications where grounding at both ends leads to problems there are few tricks worth to try: Using a humbugging transformer on one end of the cable can reduce the problems considerably while still having both cable ends grounded. A normal single-ended video input can be made to work as differential input when you add video isolator to it. For single-ended audio applications audio isolation transformers are worth to try.