Evolution of Mobile Communication from 1(G) to 4G, 5G, 6G, 7G …


The cellular wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology and frequency. Each generation have some standards, capacities, techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one.

Now 5G is hot technology at the top of the hype cycle. But that’s not the end of story, because when we will see that 5G does not fullfill all the promises, we start looking for to implement next version after it: 6G.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    An Introduction to LTE-Advanced: The Real 4G

    This article is an review and summary of LTE technology and an introduction to LTE Advanced, the 4G cellular technology.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Future of Wireless

    In a nutshell: More wireless IS the future

    Electronics is all about communications. It all started with the telegraph in 1845, followed by the telephone in 1876, but communications really took off at the turn of the century with wireless and the vacuum tube. Today it dominates the electronics industry, and wireless is the largest part of it. And you can expect the wireless sector to continue its growth thanks to the evolving cellular infrastructure and movements like the Internet of Things (IoT). Here is a snapshot of what to expect in the years to come.

    4G means Long Term Evolution (LTE). And LTE is the OFDM technology that is the dominant framework of the cellular system today. 2G and 3G systems are still around, but 4G was initially implemented in the 2011-2012 timeframe. LTE became a competitive race by the carriers to see who could expand 4G the fastest. Today, LTE is mostly implemented by the major carriers in the U.S., Asia, and Europe. Its rollout is not yet complete—varying considerably by carrier—but nearing that point. LTE has been wildly successful, with most smartphone owners rely upon it for fast downloads and video streaming. Still, all is not perfect.

    While LTE promised download speeds up to 100 Mb/s, that has not been achieved in practice. Rates of up to 40 or 50 Mb/s can be achieved, but only under special circumstances. With a full five-bar connection and minimal traffic, such speeds can be seen occasionally. A more normal rate is probably in the 10 to 15 Mb/s range.

    One reason why LTE is not delivering the promised performance is too many subscribers. LTE has been oversold, and today everyone has a smartphone and expects fast access. But with such heavy use, download speeds decrease in order to serve the many.

    There is hope for LTE, though. Most carriers have not yet implemented LTE-Advanced, an enhancement that promises greater speeds. LTE-A uses carrier aggregation (CA) to boost speed. CA combines LTE’s standard 20 MHz bandwidths into 40, 80, or 100 MHz chunks, either contiguous or not, to enable higher data rates. LTE-A also specifies MIMO configurations to 8 x 8. Most carriers have not implemented the 4 x 4 MIMO configurations specified by plain-old LTE. So as carriers enable these advanced features, there is potential for download speeds up to 1 Gb/s. Market data firm ABI Research forecasts that LTE carrier aggregation will power 61% of smartphones in 2020.

    This LTE-CA effort is generally known as LTE-Advanced Pro or 4.5G LTE. This is a mix of technologies defined by the 3GPP standards development group as Release 13. It includes carrier aggregation as well as Licensed Assisted Access (LAA), a technique that uses LTE within the 5 GHz unlicensed Wi-Fi spectrum. It also deploys LTE-Wi-Fi Link Aggregation (LWA) and dual connectivity, allowing a smartphone to talk simultaneously with a small cell site and an Wi-Fi access point.

    So yes, there is plenty of life left in 4G. Carriers will eventually put into service all or some of these improvements over the next few years.

    5G Revealed
    5G is so not here yet. What you are seeing and hearing at this time is premature hype. The carriers and suppliers are already doing battle to see who can be first with 5G. Remember the 4G war of the past years? And the real 4G (LTE-A) is not even here yet. Nevertheless, work on 5G is well underway. It is still a dream in the eyes of the carriers that are endlessly seeking new applications, more subscribers, and higher profits.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G targets 400 gigabits per second

    The 5G networks are still around the corner, but in Europe it is already seen after that. Under the leadership of the German Fraunhofer Institute, the Terranova program has been launched, which is already designing the sixth generation mobile network technology. The project involves seven partners from five different countries. Finland is a part of the University of Oulu.

    In Terranova, 6G technology is being developed, using frequencies reaching the terahertz region and reaching up to 400 gigabit per second. A bit commonly, it could be said that Terranova wants to bring wireless connections in place of the fastest, but expensive fiber connections.

    Fraunhofer has already developed a prototype of a wireless multi-channel system operating at 300 gigahertz

    Source: http://etn.fi/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7167&via=n&datum=2017-11-15_15:09:04&mottagare=30929


    TERRANOVA proposes to extend the fibre-optic systems Quality of Experience and performance reliability to wireless, by exploiting frequencies above 275GHz for access and backhaul links.

    Sustaining such a flexible and ubiquitously available Tbit/s access network in systems beyond 5G will require rethinking the design principles and architectures

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Onward to 5G, 6G, and Beyond

    Before we get to already-anticipated 6G, this coming year will see all eyes on 5G, which is only just starting to emerge from R&D labs, and will continue to develop and get implemented over the next half a decade.

    There’s no denying the dramatic ways in which mobile and wireless computing have changed the world; whether in how people work, learn, play or socialize. Many can’t get through a productive day without mobile connectivity, and yet, technologically, we’re still at the very earliest stages of “continuous computing” or “ubiquitous connectivity” or any of the plethora of monikers used to describe our always-on, always-connected future.

    Our mobile potential, from smart cities to connected infrastructure, wearable computers, autonomous driving, seamless virtual and augmented reality, AI, Internet of Machines and Things, and much more, is still very much untapped, and it’s only by looking ahead to 5G and 6G (and even 7G with space roaming), that we get a glimpse of what may be possible in the next 10 to 50 years.

    This coming year, all eyes are on 5G, which is only just starting to emerge from R&D labs, and will continue to develop and get implemented over the next half a decade, first, in conjunction with 4G LTE, tightly integrated and co-existing with that technology until 5G finds and solidifies its own footing, gradually superseding it as 6G prepares for its own experimental launch in the later 2020s. Then the cycle will repeat, with experimental 6G launches working at first in conjunction with 5G and then eventually supplanting it.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New “Network 2030” Group Asks: What Comes After 5G?

    If you listen to the hype about 5G, with its promises of self-driving vehicles and immersive virtual reality, it doesn’t take long to realize how much data the coming generation of wireless will require. But have engineers been so preoccupied with delivering low-latency networks to feed data-hungry applications that they’ve forgotten about the rest of our vast, tangled telecommunications network?

    That concern has sparked some researchers to start thinking about where all that data will go after it travels from your phone to the nearest cell tower.

    The group, Network 2030—more accurately, the ITU-T Focus Group Technologies for Network 2030 (FG NET-2030)—will explore ways to close the growing gap between the fixed and mobile components of future communications networks.

    Think of the mobile side as the antennas and radio waves that directly deliver data to our devices. This is the side that has gotten a lot of attention in recent years with the advent of 5G, along with beamforming, massive MIMO, and millimeter waves. The fixed side is everything else—including antennas to beam data wirelessly between two fixed points, and also the cables, fibers, and switches that handle the vast majority of our long-distance communications.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G is Just Rolling Out. So What’s 6G?

    Researchers don’t think in terms of quarters, but in decades. And technology is relentless.

    When the city of Oulu, Finland, invited a group of journalists to come and have a look at some of the work that they are doing to initiate research on 6G, I (like many I have spoken to) immediately thought, But we don’t even have commercial 5G yet, so how can we be talking about 6G?

    But once I got there, I began to realize that it’s just a marker — most of the work going on in Oulu, as in the rest of the world, is in rolling out 5G, carrying out trials, and figuring out business models and use cases.

    However, there needs to be a vision for what’s next in mobile networks beyond what is possible today. It would signify something way out in the future, plus a label that can also help get research funding.

    “Is it 5G long-term evolution (LTE), or is it 6G?”

    He said that they reluctantly decided to go for the 6G moniker, and the result is more than €250 million (about $291 million) worth of funding over the next eight years for its flagship 6Genesis project.

    The project, “6Genesis — the 6G-Enabled Wireless Smart Society & Ecosystem,” is focused on the development of wireless technology, exploring the implementation of 5G communication technology and the development of a possible 6G standard.

    It’s really about the academic world thinking outside of the box and thinking about the vision for 2030. The 6Genesis project is led by the University of Oulu in collaboration with Nokia, the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Aalto University, Business Oulu and the Oulu University of Applied Sciences.

    “Humans are already connected, so the promise of 5G or 6G will be to connect even more objects,” Pouttu said. “The near-instant connectivity is still not fully solved in 5G in terms of latency: millisecond latency is not good enough for some [time-critical] applications, so there is still a lot of potential to improve communications capability.”

    When you go up in data rates, you need to go up in frequency — with ranges from 100 GHz all the way up to terahertz frequencies.

    “For this, distances will be short, with radios everywhere,”

    Pouttu said that there is already a line of thinking that there will be 1,000 radios per person in the next 10 years.

    “A lot of computing will be done at the edge, with a lot of modelling done in the handheld device itself,”

    “If you look at millimeter-wave, the first fundamentals might have been done around the 2000 time frame, but industry has really only developed a level of maturity with this 10 to 15 years later,” Parssinen said. “Even so, 5G mmWave is still 10 times more difficult to implement. The same fundamental principles might apply, but the dimensions are getting smaller. The antennas are getting tiny, with more electronics around it, and this will get even more difficult in terahertz communications.”

    In future 5G development and in 6G, Parssinen says that the area of interest will be from 100 GHz to a terahertz. There will be so much frequency available that it can contain an absurd amount of data. Data intensity will not only be increased in information technology but also in terms of its wireless transport.

    “We must come up with a solution that makes this reasonable and physically possible in those frequencies,”

    But long before 6G is an actual thing, there is also the rollout of 5G. This is also a big part of the work being done within the project. This includes a 5G test network (5GTN) operated by the University of Oulu and VTT, supported by Nokia and its core network products. It has about 25 partners who are also involved in the funding.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G is soon here – the time to get into 6G research is right now

    The world is on the verge of entering the fifth generation in cellular networking, or 5G. 2019 will be the year of 5G, with commercial 5G networks rolled out across the globe. 5G is full of promise: driverless cars, smart homes, and virtual reality (VR) for everyone, everywhere. We are headed into the next generation, but no one can still say exactly how 5G will change our lives. Which is why right now is the perfect time to start looking at 6G.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Discover how 6G will change our lives

    Research in 6G Flagship is organised into four interrelated strategic research areas where scientific breakthroughs are sought in the development of fundamental technology components for 6G systems.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:


    Japanilaisoperaattori NTT Docomo on testannut Rohde & Schwarz kanssa 5G-verkkojakin nopeampaa tiedonsiirtoa 150 gigahertsin taajuusalueella. Tulevaisuudessa 100-300 gigahertsin taajuuksista odotetaan paljon 5G-verkon jälkeisten verkkojen kehittämiseen.


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