Ethernet for Vehicles

Ethernet for Vehicles Advances article tells that Ethernet technology in the car (a concept that was once unthinkable for the automotive industry) has been gaining momentum lately. The irony of this sudden trend is that a few years ago, Ethernet wasn’t seen as a solution to any applications in the car (one exception for this rule is that BMW cars supporting Ethernet have been on the market since 2008).

There are many existing in-vehicle technologies such as CAN, LIN, LVDS and FlexRay. Just few years ago MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport) was seen as the de-facto standard for multimedia and infotainment networking in the automotive industry, but is has has now fallen out of favor. So now it seem to be right time for Ethernet.


A coalition of automakers and automotive suppliers said recently that they are forming a special interest group (SIG) aimed at driving broad-scale adoption of Ethernet in vehicles, largely to serve the expected boom of camera-based applications in cars. NXP and Broadcom are playing a big role in the launch of the new special interest group, known as the OPEN (One-Pair-Ether-Net) SIG. This SIG is focused on the idea of creating a single physical layer that would enable easy use of Ethernet with vehicle cameras. OPEN Alliance is designed to encourage wide scale adoption of Ethernet-based, single pair unshielded cable networks as the standard in automotive applications.

NXP said it would be the first supplier to license Broadcom’s BroadR-Reach ethernet technology (technology originally designed to extends the range of twisted pair connections from 100 meters to up to 500 meters) for in-vehicle networking. Broadcom has also introduced their Automotive Ethernet Product Portfolio. BroadR-Reach allows full-duplex operation over a single twisted pair at 100 Mbps (same type of cabling 80-110 ohms unshielded or shielded twisted pair cabling as used in FlexRay works).


Interest in one pair Ethernet technology has grown dramatically as the automotive industry accelerates its adoption of Ethernet based networks. BMW and Hyundai have teamed up with Broadcom, NXP Semiconductors, Freescale and Harman to make ethernet the computer networking technology of choice inside the car. Infotainment systems maker Harman said that higher-bandwidth connectivity will address customers’ growing demand for seamlessly integrated information, entertainment and safety features in the car.

I have been for long time wondering why the automotive makers have been very hesitant to spec Ethernet in the past since it’s such a well-proven technology? Ethernet has gained momentum in many sectors, because it’s a fast, mature technology with high production volumes in the computer industry. Now it is the time for the auto industry is to leverage the computer industry’s enormous Ethernet know-how.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What’s the Difference Between BroadR-Reach and 100Base-T1?

    These two near-identical automotive serial-data specs do, in fact, have distinctions.

    How 100Base-T1 Differs from BroadR-Reach

    The -T1 variant is interoperable with OPEN Alliance BroadR-Reach. They’re very nearly identical (the names are often used interchangeably), with two small exceptions. In the physical-layer electrical (physical medium attachment or PMA) test suite, the 100Base-T1 specification defines a test for the maximum Transmit Peak Differential Output. This parameter isn’t explicitly defined in the BroadR-Reach specification.

    The second exception is that the 100Base-T1 specification has some differences in the protocol timing for wakeup commands to make those periods shorter. Those are the only differences worth noting, though.

    Why, then, one wonders, did the IEEE 802.3bw specification come about? The driver was applications for Automotive Ethernet in other application domains, such as industrial automation and avionics. The benefits of BroadR-Reach were enticing enough for the IEEE to create its own version of the specification. As a result, the two Automotive Ethernet specifications share a common environment and ecosystem.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Enabling Ethernet Time-Sensitive Networking With Automotive-Certified IP

    Behind the standard that enables predictable latency and guaranteed bandwidth for automotive networks.

    Automotive systems are becoming more sophisticated as they combine ADAS applications from emergency braking, collision avoidance, lane departure warning to fully autonomous driving, making predictable latency and guaranteed bandwidth in the automotive network critical. These applications require a high volume of data from different parts of the car for processing and decision making. Due to the high volume of data, enabling high-performance network connectivity has become a challenge that automotive SoC designers are overcoming with Ethernet. In addition to the high-performance requirements, Ethernet with Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) gives engineers the tools they need to design automotive networks with predictable latency and guaranteed bandwidth.

    The IEEE TSN working groups have released numerous standards and continue to define new and adapt existing specifications to meet the evolving needs for Ethernet in active ADAS applications that require real time networking. An active ADAS application takes control of the car to react to a situation such as avoiding a collision with a pedestrian, object, or another car. This article describes the Ethernet TSN standards for automotive SoCs and briefly explains how designers can enable TSN with automotive-certified Ethernet IP.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    CAST debuted an IP subsystem implementing the latest IEEE standards for Time Sensitive Networking (TSN) over Ethernet. The TSN_CTRL Subsystem combines three IP cores, a time synchronizer, traffic shaper, and Ethernet MAC. It implements a hardware subsystem that operates without software assistance once programmed. The IP communicates timing information to the system, and allows the system to define and tune in real time the traffic shaping parameters according to an application’s requirements.



  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Quiet-WIRE® – Enhanced EMC
    Quiet-WIRE Patented Technology Meets Rigorous EMC Standards

    Quiet-WIRE® patented technology, available on the KSZ8061 and KSZ8567 families, delivers fully programmable, integrated noise filtering to reduce Ethernet line emissions and enhance immunity, enabling designers to meet rigorous EMC standards while operating over low-cost unshielded cabling. Fully integrated without need for additional external BoM components, Quiet-WIRE is ideal for use in any 100Base-TX industrial or automotive Ethernet networking or other applications such as avionics, medical or building automation, that wish to benefit from superior EMC performance.

    Quiet-WIRE supported Ethernet devices also exhibit significantly enhanced receiver immunity to deliver error free performance in the most stringent noise environments. For extended reach applications, Quiet-WIRE can be employed to increase 100Base-TX cable distances to 170 meters or more. Furthermore, it is fully compatible with any IEEE 802.3 Ethernet specifications, for example IEEE Power-over-Ethernet and IEEE 802.3az Energy-Efficient Ethernet.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Technological fix driving onboard Ethernet communication

    For example, when train wagons are changed a reconfiguration of the network settings is usually required. This increases rail maintenance and operating costs.

    Other issues that need to be considered by train companies when installing an Ethernet include: the requirement for high-speed networks on both the train and trackside to be capable of withstanding wide temperature swings; the fact that power is not as readily available on a train as it is in a building; train cars aren’t designed for large network deployments; and, it can be difficult, or impossible, to implement high-speed wireless coverage of the entire rail infrastructure.

    But a number of high-tech companies are now developing innovative solutions to meet these challenges. Cisco Systems Inc., the California headquartered developer and manufacturer of networking hardware, telecommunications equipment and other high-technology services and products, recently showcased its high-speed Cisco Connected Train (CCT) solution. It integrates capabilities from multiple proprietary networks in train cars onto a new converged IP network infrastructure.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Meeting the Challenge of Ethernet System Validation

    As data becomes as important to modern vehicles as oil and gasoline were in the past, simulators will provide the assurance that every vehicle operates at peak performance.

    At the core of just about every innovation today, from advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) to collision detection sensors and infotainment systems, is data. Traditional automotive data networking technologies such as controller area networks (CANs), local interconnect networks (LINs), and Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) were not designed to support the bandwidth these systems demand. In fact, the need to implement time-sensitive networking (TSN) standards has forced engineers to look outside the automotive arena for alternative transit solutions.

    Ethernet is the obvious choice. This staple of the IT world, while not exactly new to automobiles, is being applied with increasing frequency, and for a number of reasons. Ethernet technology allows for fewer cables of lighter weight—not an insignificant advantage. Also, automotive engineers know that Ethernet is proven technology, supported by many device manufacturers, and has a strong hardware/software support ecosystem.

    Yet Ethernet can’t satisfy all requirements for data networking performance—which is why there’s also a need for TSN technology. TSN guarantees that high-quality data packets are delivered with low latency, something Ethernet doesn’t natively support. In addition, TSN provides a network-wide clock for packet synchronization across systems, and prioritizes time-sensitive data streams over those of lower priority. Finally, it guarantees a minimum level of availability for emergency transmission.

    Drive Testing Limitations

    Validating high-speed Ethernet devices for automotive use is a complex undertaking.

    Automakers, along with in-vehicle device and system OEMs, have stringent requirements for latency, synchronization, conformance, availability, and QoS.

    Until now, the most commonly used form of validation for automotive systems is the drive test. But drive testing has its limitations. Foremost among these is the narrow range of operating conditions—when testing digital systems, real-world scenarios simply aren’t diverse enough.

    Simulation testing, using a purpose-built testing device, is the better choice for Ethernet-based automotive networks. Simulations offer a greater array of connections, domains, and traffic profiles, giving engineers the ability to create—and repeat, on-demand—virtually any kind of condition they wish.

    Test simulators provide ready-to-use test cases for AUTOSAR, Open Alliance, and Avnu industry compliance, along with European (ETSI ITS-G5) and American (USDoT WAVE-DSRC V2X) government standards. Finally, they ensure that tested components or modules will be interoperable with any other verified hardware or system.

    Within the experimental environment, users have their choice of test conditions. Network simulators support emulation of multiple talkers or listeners on each port, using any combination of TSN and/or non-TSN traffic. In a one-armed setup, the simulator acts as either the talker or listener (used when testing an end point such as an Ethernet transceiver). A two-armed setup, by contrast, is one in which the tester acts as both talker and listener (i.e., testing a switch or bridge). Any number of test scenarios can be staged as well.

    Lip-synched multimedia playback: Media systems often require surround-view images collated from different cameras, or DVD playback on multiple displays, speakers, and headphone ports.

    Connected car (car-to-X) testing: GPS and other forms of wireless external vehicle information are evolving at light speed. Soon real-time traffic data will be an integral part of mapping functions, enabling vehicles to self-select preferred travel routes. Not all data is equal in importance, though—and Ethernet networks must be able to discern and prioritize various streams. When both TSN and non-TSN data are present, networks must be able to support high-priority and best-effort instances. Similarly, when there’s bandwidth competition between a real-time function (such as a mapping app) and an audio/video display with a QoS requirement, networks must be able to respond properly. A simulator allows testers to determine how the network will behave under these differing conditions.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    John R. Quain / New York Times:
    Behind the auto industry’s quest to replace the aging CAN standard with a new in-vehicle networking standard for transmitting data from autonomous car sensors — Cars need to get faster — not on the road, but on the inside. — Speed has always been part of the mystique of the automotive business.

    As Cars Collect More Data, Companies Try to Move It All Faster

    Cars have long relied on a relatively simple network standard called the CAN or Controller Area Network bus. The CAN bus coordinates all the microprocessors and electronic control units, or E.C.U.s, that need to trade engine, powertrain, and diagnostic information, transmitting details like transmission status and fluid levels. As more electronics like window and seat controls were added to cars, the CAN bus was tweaked over the years with additional local interconnection networks, or LINs, to handle the swelling communications load.

    But the CAN bus, which was originally developed by Bosch more than 33 years ago, is showing its age.

    New advanced driver assistance systems like automatic emergency braking, electronic stability control and lane-keeping assistance demand instant communications. So automakers have been supplementing their networks, adding 100 megabit per second (Mbps) Ethernet cabling, for example, to the rat’s nest of wiring inside vehicles.

    “So from a connectivity point of view there’s a need to re-architect the vehicle from the inside out,”

    more sensors — and more data. Experimental designs for autonomous cars incorporate as many as 16 video cameras, 12 radar sensors, half a dozen ultrasonic sensors, and four or five lidar sensors. And still more sensors and scanners might be necessary to make self-driving cars impervious to exigencies like blinding blizzards and soaking downpours.

    “We have seen an explosion in data bandwidth,” said Lee Bauer, a vice president at Aptiv, a supplier of autonomous and driver-assistance systems. Mr. Bauer cited what has become a mantra among autonomous vehicle engineers: Self-driving cars will generate 4 terabytes of data per hour. That includes live information about road conditions, weather, objects around them, traffic and street signs — all of which has to be shared among components in the car and used to make split-second driving decisions.

    Automakers are aware of the coming data tsunami.

    “They think we need 300 teraflops of computing power,”

    While engineers and automakers agree that today’s cars need to be completely rewired, the question for many is, with what?

    Eliminating the cables entirely by using a short-distance wireless system would be the easiest way to bridge the gap. However, wireless systems are susceptible to radio frequency interference, which could affect reliability and endanger lives. And wireless systems are more vulnerable to security threats, said Mr. Weast of Intel.

    Optical fiber offers some of the highest speeds and lightweight cabling. But fiber is expensive and fragile; humidity, vibration, and dust in its connectors can all lead to signal loss

    Some luxury brands have tried optical fiber with mixed results. “So automakers have said they are not going to have fiber in the car,”

    By far the most popular candidate for a car’s internal network wiring is still copper.

    The most common local area network protocol is Ethernet

    But most current Ethernet networks typically have a top speed of 1 gigabit per second (Gbps)

    To help speed things up — and encourage the use of Ethernet — several companies recently formed the Networking for Autonomous Vehicles Alliance. The NAV Alliance includes leading parts and systems suppliers like Bosch and Continental, as well as the chip makers Nvidia and Aquantia — and the world’s largest automaker, Volkswagen. The goal is to get the industry to coalesce around a faster Multi-Gig Automotive Ethernet network standard with initial proposed speeds of 2.5 Gbps and eventually 10 Gbps.

    There are other contenders to rewire the automotive industry, however, such as HDBaseT. Initially developed to handle high-resolution video and audio, HDBaseT can also transmit power and Ethernet-based communications — up to 6 Gbps — over unshielded copper cables.

    Flexibility may ultimately be the deciding factor. The old CAN and LIN networks aren’t likely to be abandoned soon

    “The CAN bus will be used for really basic stuff and LIN will control the horn or blinkers because the chips for those are really cheap,”

    Any new high-speed Ethernet or HDBaseT network, he said, will have to be backward compatible with those systems.

    “I go to two carmakers, and I get three different opinions” about what kind of system they want, Mr. Bar-Niv said. “But they all want a high-speed network.”

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Migration to Automotive Ethernet – Challenges to be met during the migration

    In the field of vehicle diagnosis, the use of Ethernet provides significant improvements in comparison to established methods. But the use of Automotive Ethernet requires rethinking in the development process and validation of such networks.

    Automotive Ethernet technology builds the basis for the development of next generation driver assistance functions up to highly automated vehicles.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    100BASE-T1 Ethernet: the evolution of automotive networking

    The goal of this paper is to investigate possible use cases of 100BASE-T1 in automotive systems based on the types of data in automotive networks, and introduce how the physical layer creates an automotive-qualified network compared to past Ethernet standards.

    Automotive electrical systems continue to increase in complexity, with a growing number of electronic control units (ECUs) implemented in vehicles. These ECUs are sharing real-time data on a much broader level, thus increasing the demand for network bandwidth.

    To address the bandwidth issue, automotive companies partnered with leading integrated circuit (IC) manufacturers and system developers to establish an entirely new Ethernet standard tailored for automotive communication networks.

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) 802.3bw standard (also known as 100BASE-T1, previously known as BroadR-Reach) is a 100 Mbps automotive Ethernet standard aimed at increasing data throughput, meeting strong automotive emissions standards, and reducing cabling weight and cost in automotive networking.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    AV in 2025: Network Cost Outstrips AI Computing
    NXP explains why car OEMs are all in with Ethernet

    When they consider the cost of ADAS/AV (autonomous vehicles), many observers assume that the computing power required for AI processing is going to be the costliest element.

    “Not so,” according to Alexander E. Tan, vice president and general manager of Automotive Ethernet Solutions at NXP. He predicts that in 2025 in-vehicle networking will cost more than computing, considering the huge volume of data generated by an AV loaded with sensors and how quickly that data must be distributed.

    System architects at car OEMs have already identified Ethernet as the key in-vehicle backbone network, NXP’s Tan explained. They do not look at the Ethernet as the high-speed, high-quality connectivity exclusive to high-end cars. Rather they look at it as a framework that scales down for high-volume vehicles, he added. “The car industry is absorbing Ethernet like a sponge.”

    NXP Semiconductors announced Monday the acquisition of a high-speed automotive Ethernet IP company called OmniPHY based in San Jose. OmniPHY, with 100 employees, has a sizable development team in India.

    The move will accelerate the rollout of NXP’s own PHY chips and switches based on1000BASE-T1.

    Absorbing Ethernet like a sponge
    EE Times: You say the automotive industry is “absorbing Ethernet like a sponge.” Please explain, including when the turnaround started.

    Alexander Tan: As a precursor to the rollout of BroadR-Reach (2011), the auto industry was already beginning to get interested in Ethernet in 2008 to 2010. As with any new technology, though, carmakers were initially tentative. They picked a few models, built testers, sourced key parts and first built a telecom gateway system based on Ethernet.

    The original idea was to use Ethernet to upload software onto on-board diagnostic systems. Carmakers realized if they did it via CAN bus it would have taken them two days.

    A lot has changed since then. The emergence of new players such as Tesla and Uber in the auto industry prompted carmakers to think differently, learn to identify new technologies.

    Until then, car OEMs depended on the purpose-built connectivity solutions to do tasks inside a vehicle. But car OEM architects quickly realized the need for a backbone network for a vehicle.

    EE Times: Which factors really drove carmakers to embrace Ethernet?

    Tan: There are many, but to name a few:

    External telematics
    Over-the-air software updates
    Entertainment systems

    EE Times: Ethernet has been broadly embraced by the computer industry, and high-speed, multi-gigabit Ethernet technologies are getting used by data centers (10/25/100 GbE) and enterprise infrastructure (2.5/5/10 GbE). What would it take to reuse those advanced connectivity technologies in automotive?

    Tan: The IEEE 802.1 Standards Committee has already developed the Audio Video Bridging / Time Sensitive Networking (AVB/TSN) set of standards to help existing networks carry time-sensitive data. The move has helped Ethernet move into the industrial market, and subsequently open the door to automotive.

    But to move Ethernet into the automotive environment, you must consider:

    EMC (electromagnetic compatibility)

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    NXP Semiconductors Buttresses Automotive Ethernet Bet

    No one knows what it will take to build the autonomous car of the future. But almost everyone knows that it will require many cameras, radar and other sensors to enable the vehicle to pinpoint its location and enormous computing power to make critical driving decisions. An unsolved problem is making sure that all the information inside the vehicle gets where it needs to go when it needs to get there.

    NXP Semiconductors, the world’s largest supplier of automotive chips, is doubling down on the market. On Tuesday, the company announced its acquisition of networking IP startup OmniPHY to boost the bandwidth of its Ethernet solutions. The acquisition complements NXP’s other products based on existing standards including CAN, LIN and FlexRay. The financial terms of the deal were not disclosed.

    “Traditionally, a lot of the data inside the vehicle was slow,” said Alexander Tan, NXP’s vice president of automotive Ethernet solutions, a role created when he was hired last year after holding senior positions with Marvell and Texas Instruments. “The realization was that Ethernet is not just another component,” he said. “Now that you have all these connected domains there is the need to take all that data and aggregate and share it on a backbone.”

    The CAN standard, which is used to connect door controllers and transmissions systems, ranges from bandwidths of less than one megabit to 10 megabits per second. LIN, which stands for local interconnect network, targets applications like adjustable side mirrors. Other vehicle networking technologies include MOST and LVDS. Ethernet is currently used inside cars to support 100 megabits to 1000 megabit per second networking.

    The company said that it would focus on the development of 1.25 to 28 Gbps PHY technology and 10-, 100- and 1000BASE-T1 Ethernet in advanced processes. NXP currently has 100-megabit-per-second PHYs and switches in production.

    The bandwidth requirements of cars are projected to skyrocket over the next decade, industry analysts say. “Cameras and displays will ramp the number of high-speed links in the car to 150 million by 2020 and by 2030 autonomous car systems will aggressively drive that number to 1.1 billion high-speed links,” said Ian Riches, an automotive technology analyst for Strategy Analytics, in a statement.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Ethernet Gaining Momentum in the Industry

    Electronics continue to permeate into all facets of automotive design, and with the era of autonomous vehicles looming on the horizon, the electronics quotient will ramp up that much more. In turn, numerous communications standards have emerged to handle the massive amounts of data transfer involving systems such as ADAS and advanced infotainment. To de-clutter the crowd of standards, the industry is trying to narrow down the amount of communications buses. And it appears automotive Ethernet has pulled ahead of the pack.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet TSN for Automotive ADAS Applications

    How to use Ethernet time sensitive networking for automotive SoCs.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Choosing an IMU for Your Autonomous-Vehicle Project
    When developing in application spaces that are unforgiving of inadequacy, particularly autonomous vehicles, pinpointing the right

    device for critical navigation subsystems becomes essential.


    Valens Raises Over $60 Million for In-Vehicle Networking


    “The autonomous and connected vehicles that automakers are designing today depend on advanced chipsets to enable high-speed data

    transmission,” said Dror Jerushalmi, chief executive and founder of Valens, in a statement. “Our focus is mainly on product

    development—new features, new chipsets, and addressing the needs of our customers,” he told Electronic Design. The company has

    higher speed chips in development, he said.

    To handle the deluge of data discharged by cameras, radar and other sensors in autonomous cars, networking chips have to support

    high bandwidth without introducing long delays or electronic interference, he added. Other requirements include redundancy,

    resiliency and support for different network architectures. Valens attempts to address that challenge with chips that expand

    native PCIe interfaces to 50 feet within the vehicle.

    Valens builds chips that support the HDBaseT standard, which is capable of sending uncompressed audio and video, control, USB,

    Ethernet and around 100 watts of power simultaneously over an unshielded twisted pair copper cable, reducing the weight and cost

    of the vehicle’s wiring harness.

    The company is facing increasing competition from major players in data center networking. Broadcom and Marvell Semiconductor are also building Ethernet chips that – like HDBaseT – work with a single unshielded copper cable.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Molex named winner of 17th annual Chicago Innovation Award for Automotive Ethernet Platform

    Molex announced that it has been honored as a recipient of the 17th annual Chicago Innovation Awards. The awarded Molex Automotive Ethernet Platform was developed to support the rigorous autonomous vehicle design challenges faced by vehicle manufacturers.

    Single-pair cabling standards emerging

    Per the awards program, “Top-tier automakers are facing new challenges as they build next-generation, intelligent vehicles. They require agile connectivity solutions with seamless end-to-end network integration across hardware, software and services. The Molex 10 Gbps high-speed Automotive Ethernet Platform fully integrates mission-critical applications such as highly reliable signal integrity, network traffic prioritization, system scalability and security – all essential to optimal autonomous vehicle performance.”

    Introducing the First End-to-End 10 Gbps Automotive Ethernet Network

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Autojen viihde saa uuden väylän

    Electronica – Microchip esittelee Electronica-messuilla uutta autojen viihdejärjestelmien väylää, joka tukee kaikkia datatyyppejä videosta audioon ja järjestelmänohjauksesta Ethernetiin yhdessä ja samassa kaapelissa. Tekniikka on nimeltään INICnet eli Intelligent Network Interface Controller networking.

    INICnet on synkroninen, skaalautuva ratkaisu, joka helpottaa merkittävästi ajoneuvojen audio- ja viihdejärjestelmien kehitystä. Microchipin liiketoiminnan kehitysjohtaja Lucio Di Sasion mukaan uusi väylä on MOST-väylän evoluutio, johon on tuotu tuki pakettipohjaisella TCP/IP-datalle. Jotkut kaavailevat Ethernetiä autojen tulevaksi yleisväyläksi, mutta Di Jasion mukaan kaikkea ei voi paketoida TCP/IP-datapaketeiksi.

    INICnetistä on tulossa ISO-standardi vuonna 2021.

    Tekniikka tukee laajaa valikoimaa digitaalisen audion formaatteja. Väylä tukee myös IP-datansiirtoa, joten sen kautta voidaan tehdä ohjelmistojen OTA-päivityksiä ja järjestelmän diagnostiikkaa standardin Ethernetin kautta.

    INICnet tukee parikaapelissa 50 megabitin ja koaksiaalikaapelissa 150 megabitin datanopeutta. Verkossa voi olla 2-50 solmua,

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    100BASE-T1 Ethernet: the evolution of automotive networking

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Marvell Doubles Down on Automotive Ethernet

    In deciding to buy Aquantia Corp. for about $452 million, Marvell Semiconductor is moving to bolster its position in the Ethernet IC market. In particular, it is betting that Aquantia’s automotive Ethernet technology will be widely adopted by autonomous vehicle makers to enable on-board networking.

    Future Level 4 and Level 5 autonomous vehicles will need in-vehicle connectivity at multi-gigabit speed to move a massive volume of data generated by the host of high-resolution sensors including vision, LiDARs, and radars that they will require. Aquantia’s proprietary AQcelerate PHYs and controllers support Ethernet speeds of up to 10 Gbps over twisted-pair automotive cables.

    Aquantia was the first company to market multi-gig PHYs rangings from 2.5 Gbps to 10 Gbps over copper. Aquantia has competition now, however. Last August, the MIPI Alliance (which counts dozens of leading IC vendors among its members) announced that preparations were underway on the development of a MIPI A-PHY specification of a 12- to 24-Gbps data interface specifically for the automotive industry.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    General Motors designs a new “brain and nervous system” for its vehicles

    The new electronic vehicle platform supports up to 10Gb/s and over-the-air updates.

    Adams is referring to the fact that the new electronic platform can manage processing up to 4.5TB per hour. One feature of the new electronic platform is support for much higher bandwidth, which means component connections of 100Mb/s, 1Gb/s, and 10Gb/s. Some of that will be helpful for the inclusion of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), and Adams said that the new electronic architecture will speed the rollout of GM’s impressive “Super Cruise” driver assistance package across the automaker’s lineup.

    The new electronic platform debuts in the new Cadillac CT5 sedan, which goes into production this year, and will be found in all new GM vehicles going forward.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Single-Pair Ethernet horizons – Ask a Cisco Engineer, Pt. 2

    Part Two of CablingInstall’s video interview with Cisco Distinguished Engineer Peter Jones, chairman of the erstwhile NBASE-T Alliance, which in April 2019 became part of the Ethernet Alliance.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet for process and discrete devices

    Think Again: Separate efforts aim to extend Ethernet to process and discrete devices. Standards can promote interoperability for devices and software if standards are specific enough.

    Advanced Physical Layer for industrial Ethernet

    The Advanced Physical Layer for industrial Ethernet consists of IEEE P802.3cg 10Mbits single twisted pair long reach Ethernet (from IEEE Task Force; approved Nov. 7) plus Power on Single Twisted Pair plus an Intrinsically safe frontend (both from APL Industry Partners R&D project). The goal is to update industrial Ethernet specifications in 2020 (FieldComm Group, ODVA and PI). First infrastructure and field devices are expected in 2021. Companies involved so far include Endress+Hauser, Pepperl+Fuchs, Rockwell Automation, and Samson, to bring interoperability, Ethernet communications, and hazardous area protection to field instruments.

    Extending the discrete Ethernet side, Festo’s CPX-AP-I Remote I/O, launched in October, extends performance of mixed valve terminals and I/O systems and is compatible with most communication protocols, including industrial Ethernets, such as ODVA’s EtherNet/IP, PI’s Profinet, and Ethernet Technology Group’s EtherCAT.

    Latency is virtually nonexistent, Festo said: “Scan cycles for a mix of both valve terminals and I/O are below one millisecond and are expected to approach microseconds.”

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet PHYs Add Another Layer of Protection for Cars

    To handle the increasing communications load in cars, manufacturers are supplementing legacy CAN and LIN networks by adding Ethernet ports with data rates of 100 megabits to 1 gigabit per second.

    As more cars connect to the world around them, they are also becoming more vulnerable to hackers. Any computer in the car that chats with other cars on the road, infrastructure such as stop signs, and the cloud serves as a gateway to its internal communications network, potentially opening the door for hackers to disable the car’s components, such as the brakes or steering wheel, or intercept data from consumers.

    Marvell Technology, one of world’s largest networking chip makers, is trying to address the problem by adding another layer of protection to its latest generation of gigabit Ethernet PHYs for cars.

    The Santa Clara, California-based company said that it rolled out its third generation of Ethernet PHYs for cars and that it is adding MACsec—for media access control security—technology to the chip.Marvell said MACsec secures the network from the inside by encrypting the data at every node in the network to protect it from being stolen or altered by hackers. Eavesdropping can also be prevented. Marvell said that it has added the same MACsec technology to its new networking switch chips for corporate server gear.

    The Ethernet PHY chip supports both the 100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1 standards, Marvell said.

    According to Strategy Analytics, demand for Ethernet ports in the automobile market is on pace to increase 60% per year for the foreseeable future, totaling 350 million ports by 2022. “These will also help implement the energy efficiency and cyber security features that will be needed,” Riches said, adding that Marvell’s Ethernet PHY chip “provides a path to speed the implementation of tomorrow’s in-vehicle networks.”

    Marvell said the MACSec technology in its latest automotive Ethernet PHY can be used to protect against man-in-the-middle attacks—where the hackers secretly relay and possibly alter any of the communications between the car’s central computer and its subsystems—and replay attacks—where the intruder intercepts a data transmission and then fraudulently delays or resends it to misdirect the car or cause it malfunction.

    Marvell has started sampling the 88Q222xM product family of Ethernet PHYs to potential customers along with development boards. It is available in an automotive-grade 6-mm by 6-mm by 0.5-mm QFN package.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:
    Gigabitin lähetinvastaanottimien toimittaja KDPOF on esitellyt uuden ratkaisun, jossa sekä lähetyksen että vastaanoton vaativa tekniikka on yhdistetty yhteen ja samaan komponenttiin. Yhtiön mukaan KD9351-piiri kutistaa gigabitin verkon kustannukset kolmanneksen pienemmäksi kuin perinteisessä kupariparikaapelitoteutuksessa.
    Piiri toimii -40… +105 asteen lämpötila-alueilla, joten se vastaa autoteollisuuden vaatimuksiin. KDPOF on aloittanut lähetinvastaanottimien näytetoimitukset.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New KD9351 FOT Reduces Cost for Gigabit Connectivity

    The new integrated KD9351 Fiber Optic Transceiver (FOT) from KDPOF further reduces costs for optical in-vehicle networks at 1 Gb/s. Incorporating the transmit and receive optoelectronics into one single component, the KD9351 is an optical transceiver for 100 Mb/s up to 1 Gb/s with a small footprint. “Compared to STP (shielded twisted pair of copper wires), the combination of the new KD9351 FOT with the continuing KD1053 IC cuts the cost for 1 Gb/s by 30 percent,” explained Carlos Pardo, CEO and Co-founder of KDPOF. “The new integrated device provides enhanced efficiency and flexibility. It thus paves the way to optical multi-gigabit Ethernet in the vehicle.” Applications for the new KD9351, with competitive pricing for EMC critical or galvanic isolated critical links, include safe Ethernet backbones and sensor links for advanced driver assist systems (ADAS).
    EMC performance is excellent even with the ECU shield case removed, as shielding is integrated into the PCB component. Optics implement Tx and Rx lenses. Samples are already available.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Virta datan mukana

    Hyvin monissa sulautetuissa sovelluksissa olisi isoa etua siitä, että data ja laitteen vaatima virta voitaisiin siirtää samaa kaapelia pitkin. Analog Devices on kehittänyt tekniikan, jolla tämä onnistuu yhdellä parikaapelilla Ethernetin yli.

    ADI:n vanhempi suunnitteluinsinööri Gaurav Patwardhanin mukaan Ethernet on toimiverkoissa hiljalleen vallannut alaa niin teollisuudessa kuin esimerkiksi ajoneuvoissa. Nyt aika on Patwardhanin mukaan kypsä PoDL-tekniikalle (power-over-dataline).

    Virtuaalisen Embedded World -messun aikana ADI esitteli demoa, jossa 1000BASE-T- ja 100BASE-T-linkit muunnettiin SPoE-linkiksi, jossa datan rinnalla siirtyy toimilaitteen vaativa virta.

    Patwardhanin mukaan demo esitteli markkinoiden ensimmäistä 802.3bu-standardin mukaista PSE-ohjainta (power sourcing equipment controller). PSE-kortin moottorina on LTC4296-piiri.

    Demokortille tuotiin shield- eli lisäkortilla 100BASE-T-signaali, joka muunnetaan PSE-kortilla PoDL-signaaliksi. Virta siirtyy datan rinnalla galvaanisesti eristettynä 15-metrisen suojaamattoman parikaapelin yli.

    Vastaanottimessa on LTC4297-ohjain, jossa on samanlainen 100BASE-T-mediamuunnin lisäkortilla. Videosignaali muunnetaan normaaliksi 4-parikaapelin datasignaaliksi. PoDL-signaalin teho uutetaan linjasta ja siirretään DC-DC-muuntimeen, josta se syötetään mediajärjestelmän näyttöön. Demossa virtaa saivat LCD-näytön lisäksi kaksi kaiutinta.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    ADI vie teollisuuden ethernetin yli mailin päähän

    Ethernet on yhä useammin suosituin ratkaisu teollisuuden laitteiden verkottamiseen niin nopeutensa, deterministisyytensä kuin monikäyttöisyytensä ansiosta. Analog Devicesin uusimmat Chronius-sarjan tuotteet siirtävät dataa yli 1,7 kilometrin päähän eli kuuluisan ”viimeisen mailin yli”.

    ADI Chronous -tuotteet tukevat 10BASE-T1L-standardin fyysisisä määrityksiä. Sen avulla prosessi- ja rakennustiloissa saadaan etäisinkin data saumattomasti koko verkon käyttöön. tämä mahdollistaa esimerkiksi laitteiden kunnon valvonnan tai prosessiparametrien muuttamisen.

    ADI Chronous -sarjan ADIN1100- ja ADIN1110-piireillä saadaan siirrettyä tietoja yli 1,7 kilometrin eli yli mailin päähän.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    CAN-väylä tuli markkinoille vuonna 1991. Se korvasi laitteiden väliset erilliset IO-linjat 2-johtoisella viestiväylällä. Fyysinen kerros ja protokolla oli erotettu, joten väylä kesti hyvin kohinaa. Väylä on reaaliaikainen ja edullinen hyödyntää, joten sen suosio on helppo ymmärtää.

    CAN-väylällä on kuitenkin rajoituksensa. Alkuperäisen datanopeus oli rajoitettu yhteen megabittiin sekunnissa ja pian kymmenen vuoden ikäinen FD-laajennus (flexible datarate) nosti nopeuden 5 megabittiin. On selvä, ettei esimerkiksi resoluutiotaan jatkuvasti kasvattavien kameroiden ja ECU-yksiköiden välistä dataliikennettä voi perustaa CAN-väylän varaan.

    Tällä hetkellä autoelektroniikassa onkin menossa selvä vallankumous. CAN-väylä on korvautumassa ohjelmistopohjaisilla arkkitehtuureilla ja ethernet-yhteyksillä. Fyysisenä linkkinä ethernet tukee jopa 10 gigabitin datayhteyksiä.

    Sähköajoneuvot ovat osaltaan vaikuttamassa CAN-väylän katoamiseen. Moni uusi autonvalmistaja on täysin uusi toimija, eikä niillä ole vanhaa perintöä vaikuttamassa. Siksi väyläratkaisut mietitään usein CAN-väylä unohtaen.

    Tämä näkyy autoteollisuuden ethernet-ohjainten markkinoilla. Vuonna 2019 markkina oli kooltaan 1,6 miljardia dollaria, mutta vuonna 2024 puhutaan jo lähes viidestä miljardista dollarista.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    SolidRun Targets Vehicle Systems, the Industrial Internet of Things with New i.MX 8XLite SOM Designs

    Offering everything from three CAN buses to automotive Ethernet and DSRC V2X communications, these modules pack a punch,

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    3DS.COM© DassaultSystèmes| Confidential Information | 12/5/2018| ref.: 3DS_Document_2015
    EMC Simulation for
    Automotive Ethernet

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    CES esittelee gigabitin optisen verkon robottiautoon

    Optisen verkon ratkaisuja kehittävä espanjalainen KDPOF on yhdessä ohjelmistotalo ja verkon reunan AI-ratkaisuja kehittävän Funzin kanssa kehittänyt alustan, joka tuo optisen verkon autonomiseen ajoneuvoihin. Yritykset demoavat ratkaisua Las Vegasin CES-messuilla tammikuun 5. päivästä alkaen.

    Alusta perustuu KPDOF:n KD1053-ohjainpiiriin ja kuituoptiseen KD9351 lähetinvastaanottimeen. Sen päällä toimii Funzinin AIoT-alusta ja Photon-verkko, joka yhdistää verkon reunalla olevat tekoälyä hyödyntävät laitteet toisiinsa. Funzinin toimitusjohtaja Deuk Hwa Kimin mukaan autonominen ajoauto vaatii verkkoja, jotka pystyvät hallitsemaan ja käsittelemään suurta määrää anturidataa.

    - Autoteollisuuden verkkoratkaisussamme on optiseen kuituun (POF) perustuva Ethernet-runkoverkko, joka eliminoi elektronisten aaltojen häiriöt. Järjestelmäratkaisu tuo robottiautoon gigabitin verkon, jota tarvitaan suurikapasiteettisen datan lähettämiseen ja vastaanottamiseen.

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Single-Pair Ethernet Comes Just in Time
    Jan. 14, 2022
    Industrial facilities and automakers needed a cost-effective connectivity solution for low-data-rate devices, and 10BASE-T1S and 10BASE-T1L deliver it with low cost and simplicity.

    What’s been needed for some time is a single, simple, low-cost data-communication solution that can serve all of these devices in industrial, automotive, and other markets. The solution appeared in late 2019 in the form of the IEEE’s 802.3cg standard. As we’ll see, it has immense potential because it brings low-cost, single-pair Ethernet cabling to the edge of the network.

    The initiative for the standard came from an IEEE task force studying how to provide a low-speed technology that could cover very long distances and deliver a data rate of 10 Mb/s over a single, balanced pair Ethernet cable. In addition, there was a desire to have multidrop capabilities over shorter distances. Although 10 Mb/s doesn’t sound impressive, it’s more than enough to control a switch, relay, actuator, or robot arm and many other devices, and at the time, “Industrial Ethernet” had no version that could provide these capabilities in a cohesive manner.

    Automakers in the task force requested a shorter-reach solution with the same basic capabilities along with multidrop capability, in which each node connects to a single cable. It thus eliminates the need for a switch and requires fewer lines, switch ports, and transceivers. This version would use Ethernet for everything, from the lowest to the highest speeds.

    In the end, almost everyone got their wish, which resulted in Ethernet 10BASE-T1S for distances up to at least 25 m and 10BASE-T1L that covers up to 1 km. They joined 100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1 in the family collectively known as single-pair Ethernet (SPE).

    The Basics

    Other than their maximum transmission distances, two primary differences exist between 10BASE-T1S and 10BASE-T1L. First, only 10BASE-T1S offers multidrop as well as point-to-point connection ability. The second is that only 10BASE-T1S employs Physical Layer Collision Avoidance (PLCA), which is a key ingredient when used in real-time applications that require deterministic performance such as automotive, industrial, and building automation

    PLCA is designed for half-duplex, multidrop networks such as 10BASE-T1S. It eliminates the problems with Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) in multidrop mixing segments.

    CSMA/CD can exhibit random latencies caused by data collisions. PLCA provides guaranteed maximum latency and other characteristics that overcome these limitations. With PLCA in place, the transmission cycle begins with a beacon sent by a coordinator node (Node 0) that the network nodes use to synchronize.

    After the beacon is sent, the transmit opportunity passes to Node 1. If it has no data to send, it yields its opportunity to Node 2, and so on, with the process continuing until each node has been offered at least one transmit opportunity. A new cycle is then initiated by the coordinator node, which sends another beacon.
    From Our Partners

    To prevent a node from blocking the bus, a jabber function interrupts a node’s transmission if it exceeds its allotted time, allowing the next node to transmit. The result is that there’s no impact on data throughput and no data collisions on the bus.

    Rewards for Automakers

    Settling on a single protocol for most functions has monumental benefits for automakers faced with supporting not just the CAN bus, but multiple application-specific standards. Every model year brings enhancements to advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) systems, often requiring new cameras, radar, ultrasound sensors (and LiDAR in the future), as well as changes to infotainment and navigation systems.

    The result is that in today’s vehicles, it’s not uncommon to have 40 different wiring harnesses, 80 to 100 electronic control units (ECUs), and 300 wires that collectively span 2.5 miles and weigh up to 250 lb. The multiple types of cables required for various applications also present electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) challenges as each one has its own requirements.

    To meet the demands of cars that will soon employ hundreds of millions of lines of code compared with 100 million lines today, the industry is transitioning to an Ethernet-based zonal electronic/electrical (E/E) architecture that aggregates sensors into a single link from the zonal gateway to a backbone

    An Industrial Solution

    Although the auto industry stands to benefit most from 10BASE-T1S, the industrial sector can benefit substantially from 10BASE-T1S and 10BASE-T1L for several reasons. First, industrial facilities use many different communication technologies to interconnect devices, from I2C to RS-485, UARTs, and CAN, and they connect everything from control cabinet wiring to temperature sensors, HVAC actuators, elevators, fans, voltage monitors, dc-dc converters and other modules, and computer backplanes. Many of these devices require only low data rates that the standards are designed to serve.

    Although it’s not yet a major topic of discussion, it can play a key role in IoT by connecting devices that would otherwise use one of the various short-range wireless solutions such as Zigbee, Bluetooth, or Wi-Fi. As many early adopters have learned, making wireless “work” for IoT is easier said than done. These solutions will obviously play an immense role in industrial IoT, but they needn’t be the only solution considering Ethernet’s benefits.

    Next, 10BASE-T1S multidrop capability enables many devices to be connected, removed, or replaced without affecting overall network performance, and the process is very simple.

    The First Transceiver

    Implementing 10BASE-T1S requires Ethernet transceivers that support it. The first of these, which serves 10BASE-T1S, is Microchip’s LAN867x family of Ethernet transceivers. The LAN8670/1/2 allows for the creation of both multidrop and point-to-point network topologies. Point-to-point link segments of up to at least 15 m are supported and multidrop mode supports up to at least eight transceivers connected to a common mixing segment of up to 25 m.

    Note that these are “minimum maximum” in the IEEE specifications. More nodes and longer distances are possible when system implementers verify proper operation. The transceiver operates from a single 3.3-V dc supply and has an integrated 1.8-V dc regulator. It can be used in harsh environments as its temperature range is −40 to +125°C, and is compliant with industrial EMC and EMI requirements.

    The LAN8670/1/2 supports communication with an Ethernet MAC via standard MII/RMII interfaces, and an integrated serial-management interface provides fast register access and configuration at up to 4 MHz. Access to the physical medium is managed by CSMA/CD or by PLCA

    To give designers an easy way to move into 10BASE-T1S, the company offers RMII and MII evaluation boards that fit on many Microchip MCU boards, or they can be in designs created by the user.


    The release of IEEE’s 802.3cg SPE standard could not have come at a better time, as Industry 4.0 begins to take shape. Industry 4.0 and the auto industry are racing toward simplifying their massive connectivity problem while also adding more sensors and other connectable devices every year.

    Both 10BASE-T1S and 10BASE-T1L pave the way for extending the reach of Ethernet to the edge of the network, providing support for low-data-rate devices that have no need for gigabit speeds using simple two-conductor cables. In short, it has the potential to dramatically change the way these devices are connected in both industrial settings and every type of vehicle.

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    OPEN = one pair ethernet

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    IEEE Std 802.3ch-2020: Multi-Gig Automotive Ethernet PHY
    IEEE Std 802.3ch™-2020

    IEEE Std 802.3ch™ “IEEE Standard for Ethernet Amendment: Physical Layer Specifications and Management Parameters for 2.5 Gb/s, 5 Gb/s, and 10 Gb/s Automotive Electrical Ethernet” was developed by the IEEE P802.3ch Multi‑Gig Automotive Ethernet PHY Task Force and approved by the IEEE-SA Standards Board on June 4, 2020. Innovation in automotive technology has rapidly accelerated to accommodate driver assist, autonomous driving, and other advanced systems that operate at greater than 1 Gb/s date rates over lightweight cabling infrastructures. This amendment defines three Physical Layer (PHY) specifications and management parameters for 2.5 Gb/s, 5 Gb/s, and 10 Gb/s operation over an automotive link segment consisting of a single balanced pair of conductors and up to four in‑line connectors. Optional auto‑negotiation ability between 2.5GBASE‑T1, 5GBASE‑T1, and 10GBASE‑T1 supports backwards compatibility and allows upgrades and component additions to be made as needed in the highly cost-sensitive automotive market.

    The three new PHY specifications are:

    2.5GBASE-T1: 2.5 Gb/s Ethernet (full duplex) over a single balanced pair of conductors, with reach up to at least 15 m

    5GBASE-T1: 5 Gb/s Ethernet (full duplex) over a single balanced pair of conductors, with reach up to at least 15 m

    10GBASE-T1: 10 Gb/s Ethernet (full duplex) over a single balanced pair of conductors, with reach up to at least 15 m


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