Tesla Autopilot Crash Exposes Industry Divide article says:
The U.S. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) classifies automation systems from Level 1, sporting basic lane-keeping or anti-lock brakes, through to Level 4, where humans need never touch the wheel (if there is one).
The first death of a driver in a Tesla Model S with its Autopilot system engaged has exposed a fault line running through the self-driving car industry. In one camp, Tesla and many other carmakers believe the best route to a truly driverless car is a step-by-step approach where the vehicle gradually extends control over more functions and in more settings (for example with over-the-air software updates like Tesla does). A Level 2 system like Tesla’s Autopilot can take over in certain circumstances, such as highways, but requires human oversight to cope with situations that the car cannot handle.
“What Tesla was thinking, I believe, is that maybe a lidar sensor wasn’t necessary because you have the human operator in the loop, acting as a fail-safe input.”—Karl Iagnemma, nuTonomy
Google and most self-driving car startups take an opposite view, aiming to deliver vehicles that are fully autonomous from the start, requiring passengers to do little more than tap in their destinations and relax. The way to fully autonomous has also had challenges. Complexities and bureaucratic wrangling that have dogged the nearly decade-long effort to roll out vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) technologies.