Web development trends 2020

Here are some web trends for 2020:

Responsive web design in 2020 should be a given because every serious project that you create should look good and be completely usable on all devices. But there’s no need to over-complicate things.

Web Development in 2020: What Coding Tools You Should Learn article gives an overview of recommendations what you learn to become a web developer in 2020.

You might have seen Web 3.0 on some slides. What is the definition of web 3 we are talking about here?
There seems to be many different to choose from… Some claim that you need to blockchain the cloud IOT otherwise you’ll just get a stack overflow in the mainframe but I don’t agree on that.

Information on the web address bar will be reduced on some web browsers. With the release of Chrome 79, Google completes its goal of erasing www from the browser by no longer allowing Chrome users to automatically show the www trivial subdomain in the address bar.

You still should target to build quality web site and avoid the signs of a low-quality web site. Get good inspiration for your web site design.

Still a clear and logical structure is the first thing that needs to be turned over in mind before the work on the website gears up. The website structure for search robots is its internal links. The more links go to a page, the higher its priority within the website, and the more times the search engine crawls it.

You should upgrade your web site, but you need to do it sensibly and well. Remember that a site upgrade can ruin your search engine visibility if you do it badly. The biggest risk to your site getting free search engine visibility is site redesign. Bad technology selection can ruin the visibility of a new site months before launch. Many new sites built on JavaScript application frameworks do not benefit in any way from the new technologies. Before you go into this bandwagon, you should think critically about whether your site will benefit from the dynamic capabilities of these technologies more than they can damage your search engine visibility. Well built redirects can help you keep the most outbound links after site changes.

If you go to the JavaScript framework route on your web site, keep in mind that there are many to choose, and you need to choose carefully to find one that fits for your needs and is actively developed also in the future.
JavaScript survey: Devs love a bit of React, but Angular and Cordova declining. And you’re not alone… a chunk of pros also feel JS is ‘overly complex’

Keep in mind the recent changes on the video players and Google analytics. And for animated content keep in mind that GIF animations exists still as a potential tool to use.

Keep in mind the the security. There is a skill gap in security for many. I’m not going to say anything that anyone who runs a public-facing web server doesn’t already know: the majority of these automated blind requests are for WordPress directories and files. PHP exploits are a distant second. And there are many other things that are automatically attacked. Test your site with security scanners.
APIs now account for 40% of the attack surface for all web-enabled apps. OWASP has identified 10 areas where enterprises can lower that risk. There are many vulnerability scanning tools available. Check also How to prepare and use Docker for web pentest . Mozilla has a nice on-line tool for web site security scanning.

The slow death of Flash continues. If you still use Flash, say goodbye to it. Google says goodbye to Flash, will stop indexing Flash content in search.

Use HTTPS on your site because without it your site rating will drop on search engines visibility. It is nowadays easy to get HTTPS certificates.

Write good content and avoid publishing fake news on your site. Finland is winning the war on fake news. What it’s learned may be crucial to Western democracy,

Think to who you are aiming to your business web site to. Analyze who is your “true visitor” or “power user”. A true visitor is a visitor to a website who shows a genuine interest in the content of the site. True visitors are the people who should get more of your site and have the potential to increase the sales and impact of your business. The content that your business offers is intended to attract visitors who are interested in it. When they show their interest, they are also very likely to be the target group of the company.

Should you think of your content management system (CMS) choice? Flexibility, efficiency, better content creation: these are just some of the promised benefits of a new CMS. Here is How to convince your developers to change CMS.


Here are some fun for the end:

Did you know that if a spider creates a web at a place?
The place is called a website

Confession: How JavaScript was made.

Should We Rebrand JavaScript?


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Close US election results plunge social media into nightmare misinformation scenario

    Trump’s claim of victory is false — votes are still being counted in a close race — but they heralded his campaign’s intention to work the misinformation ecosystem he’s cultivated over the last four years.

    On Wednesday, Twitter hid three of Trump’s five recent tweets behind warning labels stating that their content was “disputed and might be misleading.”

    The Trump campaign’s baseless fear mongering about the integrity of vote-by-mail ballots began well before the election.

    In the months preceding the election, Trump repeatedly declined to commit to conceding the election in the event that he loses, a stance that Americans may watch play out in real time in the coming hours and days.

    Democrats have been hit with misinformation labels too

    Facebook and Twitter’s philosophies differ on how to handle a president prone to sowing political misinformation. Twitter gives rule-breaking election tweets a warning label flagging them as potentially “misleading.” It screens them behind that message and restricts replies, retweets and likes, severely limiting their viral potential.

    Twitter also ditched political advertising outright a year ago. While Facebook still allows them, the company implemented a blackout on those ads after polls closed that remains in effect now.

    Facebook adds its own set of “labels” to election posts that break the rules, though they are designed to mostly point users to contextual, factual information rather than to offer explicit warnings about false claims. As a direct response to Trump’s premature claims of victory, Facebook also rolled out an eye-catching set of messages across Facebook and Instagram reminding users that votes were still being counted.

    Of course, misinformation also thrives beyond Facebook, Twitter and even YouTube in places it’s more difficult to track, moving from obscure chans to mainstream social media and back again, mutating as it goes. Early Wednesday, Trump was happy to make his dangerous claim of unearned victory on live television — and so far, many news networks obliged by broadcasting it. That’s cause for concern too.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The president falsely declared premature victory and baselessly said Democrats were stealing the election.

    Half Of Trump’s Twitter And Facebook Posts Since Election Day Flagged

    Of Trump’s 22 posts on Facebook and Twitter, not including retweets or videos, 11 have been labeled by the social media giants. 

    The flagged posts include erroneous claims to victory before races have been officially called and false assertions that the election is fraudulent.

    Twitter has hidden posts from view and warned “some or all of the content shared in this Tweet is disputed and might be misleading about an election or other civic process,” and restricted the ability to like or retweet.

    Facebook warned users underneath Trump posts that “final votes may different from the initial vote counts” or “elections officials follow strict rules when it comes to ballot counting, handling and reporting”—but still allows users to share and comment.

    Twitter also labeled tweets both from Trump aides and Democratic Party operatives prematurely declaring victory in states before any official sources called the race.

    Facebook and Twitter prepared for a drawn-out election and sought to limit the spread of misinformation, fearing a repeat of 2016. In the weeks leading up to the election Facebook and Twitter specifically created policies for premature claims of victory and messaging around vote counts after Election Day. 

    But Republicans have lambasted efforts to combat misinformation as censorship against conservatives.

    Especially after Twitter’s New York Post fiasco, GOP lawmakers are taking aim at Section 230, a legal provision that ensures tech companies can’t be held liable for the posts on their platforms. Trump supporters, unsurprisingly, criticized Twitter especially for “censorship.”

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This looks very good, especially as a teaching tool.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    No More Google
    Privacy-friendly alternatives to Google that don’t track you

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Company forced to change name that could be used to hack websites
    Software firm’s director thought name using HTML would be ‘fun and playful’

    Companies House has forced a company to change its name after it belatedly realised it could pose a security risk.

    The company now legally known as “THAT COMPANY WHOSE NAME USED TO CONTAIN HTML SCRIPT TAGS LTD” was set up by a British software engineer, who says he did it purely because he thought it would be “a fun playful name” for his consulting business.

    He now says he didn’t realise that Companies House was actually vulnerable to the extremely simple technique he used, known as “cross-site scripting”, which allows an attacker to run code from one website on another.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Welcome To The Old Internet Again!

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Facebook’s latest attempt to slow disinformation means probation for groups

    Facebook has started putting some groups on a type of probation, its latest move to slow the spread of disinformation and attempts to undermine the legitimacy of the U.S. election.

    Any group, public or private, the company detects has too many posts that violate its community standards will be forced to have administrators and moderators approve each submission manually. The requirement will stay in place for 60 days for the group, with no way to appeal or override it.

    The company will be closely monitoring how group administrators and moderators handle posts during those two months, and could decide to shut a group down completely if it repeatedly allows too many offending posts. The change makes the volunteers who run groups more responsible for what happens inside them.

    “We are temporarily requiring admins and moderators of some political and social groups in the U.S. to approve all posts, if their group has a number of Community Standards violations from members,” said Facebook company spokesperson Leonard Lam. He said the company was taking the measure “in order to protect people during this unprecedented time.”

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Unprecedented, far-reaching EU regulation on trying to prevent terrorist content online seems to potentially endanger freedom of speech.

    Press release from Patrick Breyer MEP (Pirate Party Germany, Greens/European Free Alliance) on the proposed Regulation on preventing the dissemination of terrorist content online:

    “will heavily impact on everybody operating a website, Internet users, media freedom, freedom of the arts and sciences, and freedom of speech”


  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Wix, Squarespace, WordPress—here’s why the latter is the best option for building your own website. And with EasyWP, it’s FREE for 30 days! https://bit.ly/34P4v98

    Site Builders vs WordPress: Which is Better?

    We wanted to take a look at how WordPress compares to two well-known online ‘easy’ site builders: Squarespace and Wix. Both popular platforms with a very different approach to site-building. WordPress, Wix, and Squarespace are all capable of making beautiful websites, but one has distinctly more advantages than the others.

    This post covers why WordPress remains the top choice for site builders — powering more sites every year than Squarespace and Wix combined.

    The main difference between site builders and WordPress is that WordPress is a standalone software that you need to install (or have it installed by a third-party) on a web server. Squarespace and Wix, on the other hand, are online tools/ services.

    It’s widely accepted that site builders are the quickest way to launch a website. With Squarespace and Wix, anyone can build a site in a heartbeat. To use a site builder you simply sign up, log in, and get started. It takes care of hosting and provides you with a domain name if necessary.

    WordPress is fairly easy to use, it just involves some technical work to install the software before you can get to work on your website.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Kate Conger / New York Times:
    Twitter says it labeled 300K election-related tweets from Oct. 27 to Nov. 11 as disputed, accounting for 0.2% of all messages about the election — Twitter said on Thursday that it labeled as disputed 300,000 tweets related to the presidential election, or .2 percent of the total number …

    Twitter says it labeled 0.2% of all election-related tweets as disputed.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Behind the scenes: How Quartz uses data to better serve readers and keep them coming back

    Eight years ago, Quartz was born online. Its goals were three-fold: Keep a pulse on the global economy in fresh formats, cater to a new generation of business leaders, and ensure those leaders could get their news and analysis where they needed it most—on their mobile phones.

    Launching as a 100 percent digital idea, it didn’t have to disentangle legacy systems or graft new technologies onto old business models. Being digitally native also meant that data—from the very first user ping on qz.com in 2012—could be used in real time to ensure those goals were being met.

    Yet, after six years of robust growth in its global readers, advertisers, and coverage, Quartz needed to evolve its technology, specifically its data foundation, to stay truly competitive.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Conspiracy Theorist Explains What Changed Her Mind

    conspiracy theories are rife on the Internet.

    The problem is, when you’re down the rabbit hole, getting out of it is not so easy, even when evidence that contradicts your theory is right in front of your face. Currently, followers of the QAnon conspiracy are having to confront the fact that the so-called “plan” involving Donald Trump winning the presidential election in a moment of reckoning has not come to fruition, and its leader, the anonymous “Q” who mostly posts on the online message board 8kun has gone silent as of November 3, when the election took place.

    “Watching Info Wars, that’s what really hooked me. I began to be obsessed with it, and I became paranoid,” she says in the first video, referring to the far-right conspiracy website owned by political extremist Alex Jones, who has been described as “the most prolific conspiracy theorist in contemporary America”.

    She’s keen to stress that getting pulled into conspiracy theories isn’t something that makes you stupid, and in fact, can highlight good qualities such as a curious mind.

    “It’s natural to want answers. It’s natural to want immediate answers. That’s why conspiracy theories help those people who are thirsty for answers, who want an explanation to whatever is going on that doesn’t seem right to them,” she says.

    She’s far from alone in her experience.

    “The dangerous ones are where truth is mixed with lies,”

    “Conspiracy theories are just a pacifier. But this pacifier is spiked with poison. It is taking over your mind. And the more conspiracy theories you start to believe, the more irrational your thoughts become, and you go deep into cognitive dissonance,”

    The realization that something you’ve believed for a long time is not real can be devastating, particularly if you have based your identity around your convictions.

    Speaking to The Washington Post, one former QAnon follower described how he was left with dark thoughts after realizing it was all nonsense when many of Qs predictions failed to come true. “If I didn’t have family that loved me I probably would have committed suicide,” he said. “It was really a terrible feeling to know that you are this stupid and this wrong.”

    “I used trusted news sources to get out of the conspiracy hole. Right now a lot of us are like ‘I don’t know who to trust anymore’. I get it. That’s where your work comes in,” she said. “To detect misinformation, or biased news even, requires media literacy. That means you need to understand the ins and outs of your source. How are they getting their stories to you? What words are they using? Images? Maybe even famous people? And are they providing legitimate linked sources?”

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Jack Dorsey and Mark Zuckerberg will face Congress again, this time about the election

    After giving in to the looming threat of subpoenas, two of tech’s most high profile CEOs will again be grilled by Congress.

    On Tuesday, the Senate Judiciary Committee will host Twitter’s Jack Dorsey and Facebook’s Mark Zuckerberg for what’s likely to be another multi-hour airing of assorted grievances. In this round, Republican lawmakers called the hearing to press the tech titans on “Censorship, Suppression, and the 2020 Election.” The hearing, which was scheduled before the election, was apparently inspired by the platforms’ decisions to limit the reach of a dubious New York Post story presenting leaked information purporting to implicate now President-elect Joe Biden and his son Hunter in a corrupt political influence scheme in Ukraine.

    If the last hearing is any indication, and it likely is, Tuesday’s tech vs. Congress showdown will be less about cornering the two tech platform CEOs on the stated topic than it will be a far-ranging complaint session about Republicans’ ongoing complaints about anti-conservative bias punctuated by bipartisan soliloquies on lawmakers’ various pet topics.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    YouTube just changed its rules on video monetization, and YouTube creators aren’t happy. Essentially, Google will now show ads on all videos, even if their creators don’t want ads. And creators won’t get a penny.


  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Newsmax CEO Suggests Airing Unconfirmed Voter Fraud Claims Is Good For Business

    As his network continues to gain popularity among conservative audiences for its ardent support of President Trump, Newsmax CEO Christopher Ruddy said he does not feel he is misinforming viewers by airing unconfirmed voter fraud claims, and even suggested that it’s been good for ratings.

    Pressed in an interview by The New Yorker about why Newsmax—unlike others, including Fox News—continued to air election fraud claims without evidence, Ruddy said broadly the network has an “editorial policy of being supportive of the president and his policies” and is within its right to question the electoral process, but also made the link between providing a platform to these allegations and a rise in viewership. 

    “At the end of the day, it’s been great for news,” said Ruddy, adding that Newsmax is “getting one million people per minute” tuning into its broadcasts. 

    Critics accuse outlets like Newsmax that are giving a platform to the president’s unfounded allegations without sufficient context of contributing to a broad distrust in the U.S. electoral system. A Reuters/Ipsos poll published Nov. 18 found that about half of Republicans surveyed believed President Trump “rightfully won” the election but that it was stolen from him by widespread voter fraud in favor of President-elect Biden. Ruddy did not accept responsibility for any part in this narrative. 

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Did Mark Twain Say ‘It’s Easier to Fool People Than to Convince Them That They Have Been Fooled’?

    While the quote “it’s easier to fool people than to convince them that they have been fooled” is often attributed to Mark Twain, there’s no evidence that the author actually wrote this phrase.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    WAN-IFRA and UNESCO join forces to support journalism in the face of existential economic menace

    2020-11-24. The announcement of the co-operation was made at the 40th-anniversary celebration of UNESCO’s International Programme for the Development of Communication (IPDC), an inter-governmental forum for media development.

    As the world continues to battle the COVID-19 pandemic and its impact, the decimation of journalism in many areas of the world constitutes a growing threat, bringing existing challenges to a tipping point. Each month brings new reports of job losses in journalism and the closure of once-vibrant local media outlets.

    “Professional, independent journalism is critical for providing populations with life-saving information during this crisis and plays an essential role in building and strengthening our democracies, justice and peace,” said the Director-General of UNESCO, Audrey Azoulay.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:


    HTTrack is a free (GPL, libre/free software) and easy-to-use offline browser utility.

    It allows you to download a World Wide Web site from the Internet to a local directory, building recursively all directories, getting HTML, images, and other files from the server to your computer. HTTrack arranges the original site’s relative link-structure. Simply open a page of the “mirrored” website in your browser, and you can browse the site from link to link, as if you were viewing it online. HTTrack can also update an existing mirrored site, and resume interrupted downloads. HTTrack is fully configurable, and has an integrated help system.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why the Web Spreads Information and Misinformation Equally Well

    “A lie gets halfway around the world while the truth is putting on its shoes.” That’s a great line, but who originally said it? Was it Mark Twain, always good for an epigram, or the oft-quoted Winston Churchill? According to The New York Times, it’s an adaptation of something written three centuries ago by famed satirist Jonathan Swift: “Falsehood flies, and the Truth comes limping after it.”

    “Truth is the first casualty of war.”

    Served up by content-management systems that algorithmically compose documents from multiple sources, the modern Web gradually converged with Nelson’s vision for transclusion—with one key difference: The Web offers no single source of truth, nor any ultimate reference to a set of trusted sources. Instead, everything points to everything else (or to itself), which tends to make the Web appear to be fuller and more authoritative than it really is. That helps explain why conspiracy theories like QAnon are so difficult to root out.

    It would only take a few subtle changes to nudge the Web away from the shifting sands of links and plant it firmly in the real world of universally accepted facts. The nature of these authoritative sources will be fought over, naturally, as fierce rivals battle it out to set the terms for defining the truth. Yet where we can build consensus, humanity would possess “a truth universally acknowledged”—to borrow a line that we can all agree belongs to Jane Austen.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    - Kuinka verkkosivujen latautumista voi nopeuttaa?

    Osa meistä muistaa modeemiajan, jolloin kuvat latautuivat sivustoille palkki kerrallaan. Nopeutuneiden yhteyksien vuoksi kovinkaan moni ei nykyään jaksa odottaa sivuston avautumista puolta sekuntia pidempään. Hitaus karsii osan kävijöistä jo alkumetreillä.
    Palvelin vaikuttaa eniten verkkosivun nopeuteenNopea ja toimintavarma palvelintila on kaiken lähtökohta. Jos sivustolla on käytössä jokin julkaisujärjestelmä, kannattaa valita järjestelmän kannalta optimaalisin palvelu.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How Arizona State Parks Built A Content Library with 5000+ Rights-Approved Images

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nature Journals To Charge Authors Hefty Fee To Make Scientific Papers Open Access

    Springer Nature, one of the giants of academic science publishing, announced this week its plans to allow researchers to make their articles free and open access to all, for a hefty fee. The move has been welcomed as a transition to open-access publishing by some, but its high price tag at the cost of the author has raised concerns among many scientists.

    As of January 2021, authors publishing their research in the journal Nature and the 32 Nature primary research journals can make their work free to read for everyone, as long as they pay a fee of €9,500 (approximately $11,320).

    As part of this new move, Springer Nature will also pilot a system that will give researchers the option of publishing open-access articles in six of their journals under a so-called “guided open-access pilot.” After paying a nonrefundable fee of €5,000 (around $5,950), the authors can submit their work to the publishers and editors will assess the work, judging whether it’s suitable for publication. If they do get accepted, they will then pay an additional fee for the work to become published in the journal.

    Currently, many of the Nature journals are behind a paywall and require a subscription to read.

    However, many researchers have taken objection to the large fee required to make the article open access. Many influential journals already charge a fee to make the articles open access, although these charges tend to be considerably less than the new fee introduced by Nature.

    This new charge will put extra pressure on authors, funders, and research institutions. Funds set aside to carry out research may have to be redirected to publishing the research. Furthermore, many funders and foundations of scientific research, especially in Europe, also require their research to be published in an open-access format, so this new charge might have to be paid, effectively. Alternatively, it could push researchers to publish papers in other journals.

    It’s worth highlighting that academic publishing works in a very different way to other forms of publishing, such as magazines or newspapers. Most media has to pay authors, writers, researchers, and editors to produce their content and the license to share it. In the scientific publishing world, the researchers’ work is paid for by others (typically public funding, charitable organizations, or corporations) outside of the publisher. Much of the editing is done through a process called peer-review, in which independent researchers in the same field review and critique the scientific validity of the work (this is unpaid work, something else that is contentious among scientists). Researchers then pay the journal a publishing charge upon acceptance for publication. If a study is not open-access, then anybody who wants to read it, including the scientific community and the wider media reporting on it, will also have to pay the journal to read it.

    The costs of publishing, therefore, already lies heavily on the authors and their funders, not the journals.

    The world of science and academia is pushing towards more open access, however. The new announcement by Springer Nature is partly spurred on by cOAlition S and Plan S, a movement — largely in Europe — to make all research freely available to everyone. cOAlition S said in a statement it “welcomes” the move by Springer Nature.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Where does journalism belong in an AI-powered news ecosystem?

    The media is a long-time critic of how opaque algorithms polarise views and spread misinformation. Now it is our turn to be transparent about editorial decisions and focus on bridging the divides

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Virtuaalitapahtuman järjestäjän opas: näin järjestät onnistuneen virtuaalitapahtuman

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Foreign Affairs:
    Big Tech threatens democracy and one solution may be to take away their role as gatekeepers of content and let users choose the information presented to them — Among the many transformations taking place in the U.S. economy, none is more salient than the growth of gigantic Internet platforms.

    How to Save Democracy From Technology
    Ending Big Tech’s Information Monopoly

    Among the many transformations taking place in the U.S. economy, none is more salient than the growth of gigantic Internet platforms. Amazon, Apple, Facebook, Google, and Twitter, already powerful before the COVID-19 pandemic, have become even more so during it, as so much of everyday life moves online. As convenient as their technology is, the emergence of such dominant corporations should ring alarm bells—not just because they hold so much economic power but also because they wield so much control over political communication. These behemoths now dominate the dissemination of information and the coordination of political mobilization. That poses unique threats to a well-functioning democracy.

    While the EU has sought to enforce antitrust laws against these platforms, the United States has been much more tepid in its response. But that is beginning to change. Over the past two years, the Federal Trade Commission and a coalition of state attorneys general have initiated investigations into potential abuses of these platforms’ monopoly power, and in October, the Justice Department filed an antitrust suit against Google. Big Tech’s critics now include both Democrats who fear manipulation by domestic and foreign extremists and Republicans who think the large platforms are biased against conservatives. Meanwhile, a growing intellectual movement, led by a coterie of influential legal scholars, is seeking to reinterpret antitrust law to confront the platforms’ dominance.

    Although there is an emerging consensus about the threat that the Big Tech companies pose to democracy, there is little agreement about how to respond. Some have argued that the government needs to break up Facebook and Google. Others have called for more stringent regulations to limit these companies’ exploitation of data. Without a clear way forward, many critics have defaulted to pressuring platforms to self-regulate, encouraging them to take down dangerous content and do a better job of curating the material carried on their sites. But few recognize that the political harms posed by the platforms are more serious than the economic ones. Fewer still have considered a practical way forward: taking away the platforms’ role as gatekeepers of content. This approach would entail inviting a new group of competitive “middleware” companies to enable users to choose how information is presented to them. And it would likely be more effective than a quixotic effort to break these companies up.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Hannah Natanson / Washington Post:
    A report on student grades from Virginia reveals that online learning has led to a sharp drop in students’ academic performance — A report on student grades from one of the nation’s largest school districts offers some of the first concrete evidence that online learning is forcing …

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How The Epoch Times Created a Giant Influence Machine

    Since 2016, the Falun Gong-backed newspaper has used aggressive Facebook tactics and right-wing misinformation to create an anti-China, pro-Trump media empire.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    It’s Easy Debunking Idiocy, the Problem is It Never Stops

    Claims of election fraud keep circulating, and circulating, and circulating.
    Rational Debate Challenge Accepted


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