Ethernet for Vehicles

Ethernet for Vehicles Advances article tells that Ethernet technology in the car (a concept that was once unthinkable for the automotive industry) has been gaining momentum lately. The irony of this sudden trend is that a few years ago, Ethernet wasn’t seen as a solution to any applications in the car (one exception for this rule is that BMW cars supporting Ethernet have been on the market since 2008).

There are many existing in-vehicle technologies such as CAN, LIN, LVDS and FlexRay. Just few years ago MOST (Media Oriented Systems Transport) was seen as the de-facto standard for multimedia and infotainment networking in the automotive industry, but is has has now fallen out of favor. So now it seem to be right time for Ethernet.


A coalition of automakers and automotive suppliers said recently that they are forming a special interest group (SIG) aimed at driving broad-scale adoption of Ethernet in vehicles, largely to serve the expected boom of camera-based applications in cars. NXP and Broadcom are playing a big role in the launch of the new special interest group, known as the OPEN (One-Pair-Ether-Net) SIG. This SIG is focused on the idea of creating a single physical layer that would enable easy use of Ethernet with vehicle cameras. OPEN Alliance is designed to encourage wide scale adoption of Ethernet-based, single pair unshielded cable networks as the standard in automotive applications.

NXP said it would be the first supplier to license Broadcom’s BroadR-Reach ethernet technology (technology originally designed to extends the range of twisted pair connections from 100 meters to up to 500 meters) for in-vehicle networking. Broadcom has also introduced their Automotive Ethernet Product Portfolio. BroadR-Reach allows full-duplex operation over a single twisted pair at 100 Mbps (same type of cabling 80-110 ohms unshielded or shielded twisted pair cabling as used in FlexRay works).


Interest in one pair Ethernet technology has grown dramatically as the automotive industry accelerates its adoption of Ethernet based networks. BMW and Hyundai have teamed up with Broadcom, NXP Semiconductors, Freescale and Harman to make ethernet the computer networking technology of choice inside the car. Infotainment systems maker Harman said that higher-bandwidth connectivity will address customers’ growing demand for seamlessly integrated information, entertainment and safety features in the car.

I have been for long time wondering why the automotive makers have been very hesitant to spec Ethernet in the past since it’s such a well-proven technology? Ethernet has gained momentum in many sectors, because it’s a fast, mature technology with high production volumes in the computer industry. Now it is the time for the auto industry is to leverage the computer industry’s enormous Ethernet know-how.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Leverage Ethernet to improve passenger safety, comfort, and convenience–comfort–and-convenience?Ecosystem=communications-design

    Collision warning, comfort controls, infotainment and advanced driver assistance are just some of today’s sophisticated and diverse applications generating an increasing need for bandwidth and connectivity within and between in-vehicle networks

    In such a market, vehicle electronics are no longer considered a series of distinct stand-alone components and are evolving into a more seamless in-vehicle network. By connecting through proven IP-based Ethernet technology, auto manufacturers have the means to bridge the gap between function and entertainment within a single network, while dramatically reducing connectivity cost and cabling weight.

    An Ethernet-based 360° surround view parking system, for example, combines multiple digital sensors and cameras with low-light sensitivity and high definition image and video capture

    By combining economical Ethernet technology with high resolution imagery gathered from affordable CMOS image sensors, automotive OEMs can dramatically extend sophisticated parking assistance systems to a broader range of vehicles

    Today’s Ethernet-based automotive connectivity solutions, developed specifically to address automotive industry requirements, combine physical layer (PHY) transceiver and switch technology to deliver 100 ,Mbps over unshielded single twisted pair cable.

    Compliance with RGMII and MII interface specifications ensure compatibility with other Ethernet devices within the vehicle.

    For example, the ISO17215 standard currently in development defines video communication interfaces for on-board cameras providing driver assistance. This document set specifies the use cases, communication protocol and physical layer requirements (based on Ethernet) used within high resolution digital video interfaces. ISO17215 will standardize video communication protocols for systems such as parking assistance, night vision, lane departure warning, collision mitigation, and detection of traffic signs, blind spots and pedestrians.

    ISO/PAS 27145, currently pending formal approval, addresses this issue by creating a migration path from existing communication platforms to this worldwide harmonized (WWH) OBD standard
    WWH-OBD takes a secondary step, based on existing industry communications standards such as Internet Protocol over Ethernet.

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  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    FlexRay spec rev offers back compatibility, lower costs–lower-costs

    The FlexRay electrical physical layer spec rev. 3.0.1 has been released. Mass production of the second generation of FlexRay transceivers according to that revision has started.

    The goal of the second generation transceivers is to bring down costs without skipping currently required functionality. In terms of technological progress, new features are included.

    Back in 2006 the first vehicle including a FlexRay network hit the road. A relatively low-risk platform for learning, understanding, and experiencing was the starting point. The mentioned automotive application is known as adaptive drive (by BMW)

    To this day the number of car releases based on FlexRay electronic control units (ECUs) rises continuously. The system complexity regarding software, hardware, and network topology has increased. This fact profoundly conflicts with the cost pressure weighting down newly introduced technologies.

    According to the FlexRay definition, a compliant physical layer communication channel consists of four elements: bus driver (BD), twisted pair (TP) bus line, bus termination, and an active star (AS).

    Currently the FlexRay EPL specification revision 3.0.1 is available. Ten years after the formation of the FlexRay consortium, the second generation of FlexRay transceivers according to that specification release is in mass production

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet tackles automotive EMI challenge

    Ethernet has already been widely accepted by the automotive industry as the preferred interface for on-board-diagnostics (OBD) and has been deployed in various car models since 2008. Ethernet provides increased bandwidth speeds over traditional automotive buses, resulting in a reduction in software download times from hours to minutes compared to traditional methods. This adoption will be accelerated with the introduction of a standardized IP Diagnostics interface, as specified in ISO 13400, using Ethernet as the physical layer.

    new applications have, in tandem, generated demand for greater system bandwidth, which continues to rapidly rise, as shown in the timeline below:

    1981: CAN @1000 Kbps
    2005: FlexRay @ 10 Mbps
    2001: MOST @ 50 Mbps
    2008: Ethernet @100 Mbps
    Ethernet @ 1000 Mbps (RTPGE IEEE802.3bp)

    Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) constitutes one of the fastest growing applications within the automotive market. Driven by government legislation and a desire for enhanced in-vehicle safety camera sensor networks are becoming commonplace. By 2017, camera-based module sales are expected to increase to 34 million in total, from 6.1 million in 2010 (IMS Research).

    System costs are significantly lowered using Ethernet connectivity for multi-camera sensor networks in the car. Traditional proprietary methods are making way for open standard Ethernet. This has been reflected in the ISO 17215 Video Communication Interface for Cameras (VCIC) specification, defining Ethernet connectivity for use in vehicle camera and/or sensor applications.

    Ethernet provides many advantages over MOST® technology

    No matter what the circumstances might be, must meet car manufacturers’ EMI limits. For Ethernet to be considered for any application in operation whilst the car is moving, it must fully comply with OEM EMI specifications.

    Herein lies the challenge: the use of shielded cables would provide a solution to reducing radiated emissions within the car, but is usually undesirable. Shielded cable brings about complications in earth strategies, can adversely affect reliability, and add cost to production. Shielded cables cannot be manufactured in situ using wiring looms during production, but need to be pre-manufactured and purchased. Hence, the ultimate goal would be to operate Standard Ethernet over unshielded cable whilst meeting automotive OEM EMI limits. This solution dramatically reduces cabling costs, by up to 80%, over shielded counterparts, whilst maintaining interoperability with any other standard Ethernet device. The net result is lowest cost cable and silicon, with multiple suppliers.

    Although the use of low cost unshielded cable is clearly desirable, the perception for some time has been that this was not possible with standard Ethernet 100BASE-TX PHY, and more proprietary means were required

    After continued investigations into the EMI behavior of 100BASE-TX PHY circuitry, simple techniques have been demonstrated that sufficiently reduce the emissions, meeting automotive manufacturers’ needs. By adding a low pass filter to the transmit front-end, emissions can be reduced whilst still providing an interoperable standard Ethernet solution.

    Immunity to other electro-magnetic disturbances
    Standard 100BASE-TX Ethernet PHYs have been shown to be robust enough to meet the demands of automotive immunity limits, whilst operating in a reduced emissions configuration.

    One of the key differentiators for standards-based solutions is the resulting multiple suppliers.

    It was recently been announced that two Ethernet PHY vendors have independently demonstrated PHY technology with reduced emissions meeting automotive OEM limits, based on standard IEEE802.3 Ethernet. Micrel and Marvell have successfully demonstrated interoperability both with each other and, since these PHYs are IEEE Standard, other IEEE 802.3 Ethernet PHYs.

    Utilizing standard IEEE 100BASE-TX Ethernet, PHY technology can take advantage of the existing IEEE802.3 ecosystem which has been widely adopted for networking applications, eliminating the need to create any new tooling or support infrastructure including standardization groups

    Real-time performance with Ethernet is relatively straightforward with the necessary quality of service (QoS) guaranteed by use of IEEE Audio Video Bridging (AVB) specifications.

    both IEEE 1588v2 and IEEE 802.1as time synchronization protocols.

    IEEE 802.1Qat Stream Reservation allows network bandwidth and buffer resources to be reserved for specific traffic schemes using SRP (Stream Reservation Protocol). IEEE 802.1Qav Queuing and Forwarding methods are based on segregating traffic into isochronous (time critical) and asynchronous (non-time critical) packets and prioritising using the priority class defined in IEEE 802.1p

    If Ethernet is going to be adapted as a true automotive network bus, then automotive makers will demand a commonly agreed solution that is open and freely accessible.

    Progress is already underway for next generation vehicle networks with the formation of a new IEEE 802.3 Gigabit Ethernet Study Group for Automotive.

    There is nothing complex about Ethernet technology overall; it is simple, proven and open — the reason for its success. Cost is a crucial factor in any market and Ethernet has consistently demonstrated the lowest cost of ownership of any network.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The MOST auto connectivity spec is on the way out as new unshielded single twisted-pair cable arrives for auto Ethernet (compare it with regular Ethernet cable on the left). This means automakers can leverage the ubiquitous Ethernet standard while reducing the connectivity cost and cabling weight.


  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Ethernet: Evolution in the fast lane–Evolution-in-the-fast-lane

    The usage of Ethernet in the car means a paradigm shift in the design of next-generation in-vehicle networking systems: connecting different domain networks, transporting different kinds of data (control data, streaming, etc.) and fulfilling the stringent robustness demands in terms of extended temperature range and EMC performance.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Broadcom’s CTO on Ethernet’s six key directions

    Broadcom is a relative newcomer to automotive electronics, but it has set up an alliance to drive Ethernet into tomorrow’s cars using Broadcom silicon. It competes with the Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) group formed in 1998.

    “We will see a transition to Ethernet in automotive [because] as we’ve seen in every other market, Ethernet always wins,” said Samueli. “We are doing extraordinarily well with 100-plus members in our alliance– every major auto maker behind a single copper pair for 100 Mbits/s Ethernet in automobiles.

    “This year BMW will deploy it in some models,” Samueli said. “It’s taking off better than expected, and in five plus years it will the de facto standard in cars,” he predicted.

    “MOST is the incumbent and has a lot of backers, but Ethernet always wins”

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet preps for real-time role in cars, factories–factories

    Engineers are driving real-time capabilities into Ethernet for use in cars and the factory floor. The work is spread across nearly a dozen standards efforts many of which will be implemented in products that could ship before the end of next year.

    Industrial and automotive giants including Bosch, GE, Rockwell and Siemens are working with Ethernet chip vendors on the new specs.

    “They are making 100 Mbit/s devices now, but going to Gbit is a big deal, so they would rather just buy the part,” he said.

    Teener chaired the Audio Video Bridging (AVB) efforts that paved the way for streaming media.

    “Two milliseconds is good enough for real-time A/V, but industrial guys wanted orders of magnitude better than that,” Teener said. “We knew we could do it but it would take more time,” he said.

    So the group changed its name to Time-Sensitive Ethernet to reflect its new charter. It aims to enable versions of Ethernet with latencies of a few hundred microseconds for some apps and less than 10 microseconds for others.

    One important consideration was not changing anything in the physical layer of Ethernet.

    Today’s 100M chips are generally sufficient for linking end points in a car. But over the next few years car makers will need Gbit/s links for their backbone nets and future high-res, long-distance cameras.

    “In the short term they could use existing Gbit Ethernet components with some difficulty because they are not intended for that nasty automotive EMI environment, so we have to shield the hell out of the cables,”

    Cabling represents the third heaviest and second most expensive class of components in cars today, he noted.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Ethernet: Evolution in the fast lane–Evolution-in-the-fast-lane

    Communication and bandwidth requirements increase as more and more complex applications appear in the car, for example for enhanced safety and entertainment solutions. End users expect the same level of entertainment functions in the car as known from their home environment. Furthermore, existing vehicle control networks such as the LIN, CAN and FlexRay standards are not designed to cover these increasing demands in terms of bandwidth and scalability that we see with various kinds of Driver Assistance Systems (DAS). Future networking technology should re-use as much as possible from consumer and other non-automotive domains, while taking into account the automotive-specific requirements. T

    A new in-vehicle networking system built from scratch and without legacy would most likely have the architecture as shown in the right schematic of Figure 1. Here, ECUs are structured in a hierarchical architecture where application domains are connected through a data highway. Ethernet provides all the prerequisites for such a holistic approach. It could be used as a backbone bus to connect the various application domains as well as for sub-networks that just require higher bandwidth.

    The usage of Ethernet in the car means a paradigm shift in the design of next-generation in-vehicle networking systems: connecting different domain networks, transporting different kinds of data (control data, streaming, etc.) and fulfilling the stringent robustness demands in terms of extended temperature range and EMC performance.

    Driver Assistance Systems are increasingly using video cameras for applications like surround view. Activities for the standardization of the communication protocol and physical layer have recently been started in ISO 17215 called “Video Communication Interface for Cameras”. In order to further develop the Automotive Ethernet technology, an industry-wide Special Interest Group named One Pair EtherNet Alliance has been formed for the physical layer. The so-called “OPEN Alliance” will work on standardization for components and compliance tests based on the Broadcom BroadR-Reach technology [2]. A further intention of the interest group is to gather requirements for future technologies such as “Reduced Pair Gigabit”. Finally, AUTOSAR addresses Automotive Ethernet in their software layer stack.

    the required real-time performance and Quality of Service. AVB already includes measures to ensure the timely delivery of media streams.

    For the Automotive AVB Gen2 Work Group, latency time improvements are one of the major targets. First applications for Time-Triggered Ethernet took place in Avionic systems [3] with highest safety level requirements. Defined in SAE AS6802 and different to Audio/Video Bridging, TTEthernet is based on a distributed clock-synchronization algorithm that finally results in an exact schedule with deterministic behavior.

    The first Ethernet applications for the automotive industry are On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) and the update of ECU flash memories.

    The second generation of Automotive Ethernet will address infotainment and camera systems for surround view applications. Today’s rear-view camera solutions often use LVDS for the transfer of video data, which works well for single cameras.

    Recent infotainment solutions are mainly based on proprietary and non-scalable technologies. Automotive Ethernet addresses this emerging application field in a cost-effective manner by making use of the AVB standard.

    While for generation 1 and 2 Ethernet remains confined to subnets of certain applications like infotainment and driver assistance, with generation 3 Ethernet will become the backbone of the in-vehicle network.

    The communication network will be organized in a highly hierarchical way with the main domain controllers connected via an Ethernet backbone. Sub-networks below the domain controllers may be Ethernet-based, too, with switches bridging between the network levels. This structure provides a scalable solution as each port of a switch can in general be implemented as 10Mbps, 100Mbps or 1Gbps without any changes to higher protocol layers.

    A further characteristic of the new architecture is that in principle there will be one backbone network technology only, namely Ethernet, which has to accommodate different data communication classes like diagnostics, video/audio streaming and highly dependable control data. While AVB Ethernet and TTEthernet can already provide different levels of Quality of Service (QoS) combined with real-time performance, further R&D activities are needed to validate the secure coexistence of these different data communication classes on the same network.

    Though 100Mbps Ethernet and IP technology has been available since the early 1990s, it took Ethernet almost 20 years to attract the interest of the automotive industry as a next-generation in-vehicle networking standard. This was partly because of the lack of a physical layer suitable for use in vehicles.

    The high symbol rate of 125 MBaud for both Fast and Gigabit Ethernet makes a significant contribution to electromagnetic emissions in the critical FM radio band and thus rules out the use of inexpensive unshielded twisted pair cable in an automotive environment. The BroadR-Reach technology has managed to almost halve the symbol rate to 66.6 MBaud and paved the way for the use of unshielded twisted-pair cable. In principle, BroadR-Reach can be regarded as a “light version” of Gigabit, adopting the bi-directional communication scheme while requiring only one pair of cables.

    Automotive applications impose considerably higher requirements on electronic systems and their components compared to the consumer world, mainly in terms of EMC [ISO11452] and environmental conditions

    The BroadR-Reach technology allowing the usage of unshielded twisted-pair cable makes Ethernet cost-competitive for automotive applications. Since FlexRay cable is able to cope with harsh automotive environmental conditions it is the first choice for Automotive Ethernet, too.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Evolution – 1 Step at a Time

    As I follow the automotive industry, where safety demands are paramount, a long product development cycle is a given, and margins are low, I’m slowly learning that revolutionary changes are hard to come by.

    In contrast, in the electronics industry where I grew up as a beat reporter, changes — I mean, big, constant changes — are the key to survival.

    In that context, when I attended the Integrated Electrical Solutions Forum (IESF), an automotive industry event held here last week sponsored by Mentor Graphics, I was fascinated to note names like Google and Tesla coming up so often — during the keynote speech, presentations, even at cocktail hour and dinner. Google and Tesla, both tech companies with no traditional automotive ties, appear to be very much admired but also viewed as a thorn in the side of Detroit’s automakers.

    I also learned that an idea like bringing Ethernet into cars, which might have been once viewed as a “revolutionary” step, is slowly but surely gaining a foothold even in the conservative automotive industry.

    During a speech entitled “In-Vehicle Networking Simulation: Both Sides of the Story,” Vincent Bidault, telecom and network specialist at Renault, showed slides that illustrate how applications of CE technology are becoming an integral part of the in-car networking roadmap.

    When asked, after the presentation, where Renault stands in terms of embracing Ethernet in its cars, Bidault replied, “We’ve started to look into [the transition from FlexRay to] Ethernet.”

    Of course, such a transition is no overnight affair. Any changes in in-car networking require good system vision and a lot of electrical simulations. But also, a growing number of carmakers, including Renault, are beginning to see Ethernet as a fault-tolerant bus for fast and reliable applications.

    The Ethernet, by replacing the bottleneck CAN bus, has powers to speed up the process of ECU flashing.

    The need for high bandwidth is primarily driving the use of Ethernet in cars, Mantsch explained. But another reason is cost. Rather than sticking to the automotive industry’s proprietary network technologies such as MOST or FlexRay, which can get costly, Ethernet — already used in huge volume in consumer electronics products — could bring down the cost for automotive applications.

    So, realistically speaking, how many Ethernet devices are there in cars these days?

    cars in the premium segment are known to use about 20 to 30 Ethernet nodes, roughly half being switches.

    “Up to 10 [Ethernet switches] are currently used in a premium car.”

    Perhaps more important, NXP’s Hank added that many carmakers “will keep the existing networking architecture with LIN, CAN, and FlexRay while they introduce Ethernet for new applications such as Advanced Driver Assistance and camera systems.”

    “For OEMs that have not yet introduced FlexRay, Ethernet could be a good option as they can leap-frog”

    Meanwhile, for the compact car segment, “Ethernet is being introduced in the next few years,” said Hank. The minimum number of electrical control units with Ethernet is in the range of two or three, he added. “The Central Gateway will have Ethernet interfaces to the diagnosis connector as well as to major ECUs — for example, to allow fast software updates during service. The number of Ethernet devices will increase over the next years and replace systems such as existing infotainment solutions based on MOST.”

    So, where will Ethernet switches be placed?

    According to Hank, “Electrical Control Units such as Central Gateway, Head Unit, and Surround View Processing Unit include Ethernet switches and are spread all over the car, mainly inside of the vehicle interior.”

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Scope option aids BroadR-Reach PHY compliance

    Offering a one-box solution for BroadR-Reach physical-layer compliance testing, Option BRR for Tektronix oscilloscopes automates the full range of tests required by the BroadR-Reach Ethernet specification, including power spectral density and return loss measurements.

    BroadR-Reach enables 100-Mbps connections over unshielded single twisted-pair cable. It is expected to gain widespread adoption within the automotive industry, helping to improve in-vehicle safety, comfort, and infotainment.

    Starting price for Option BRR software-only is $2000.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The coming age of automotive Ethernet

    Broadcom recently announced a line of wireless chips for automotive infotainment applications

    It said the chips will allow drivers and passengers to easily sync and stream content from mobile devices to the car’s infotainment system and rear-seat displays. They will also enable high-speed connectivity beyond the vehicle, serving content via LTE or from a Hot Spot connection.

    Rahul Patel, Broadcom’s VP of Wireless Connectivity, says that car connectivity is “the new battleground for product differentiation and the next frontier for Broadcom.”

    High-speed Ethernet is especially important for Broadcom and for car connectivity. Broadcom’s BroadR-Reach Ethernet solutions allow multiple in-vehicle systems to access information simultaneously over a single unshielded twisted pair cable at speeds of up to 100 Mbps. Broadcom estimates that by eliminating shielded cabling automakers can reduce connectivity costs up to 80 percent and reduce cabling weight up to 30 percent.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    In 2020, four out of ten for a new car is equipped with an Ethernet network. Growth will be rapid, as this year, ethernet is only found in one per cent of new cars.

    For vehicles developed its own Ethernet standard in 2011. BroadR-Reach received the name of the technology to transfer data at 100 megabits per second speed.

    According to ABI, the Ethernet will slowly replace the MOST and FlexRay networks

    In addition to Ethernet, cars are becoming increasingly wireless networks through which smartphone älykellot and similar hand-held devices connected to the Internet. The technique is generally used in these low-voltage ac bluetooth or the type of WLAN connection.

    Source: Elektroniikkalehti

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet: Ticket to Driverless Car

    After much hype and discussion, the age of the connected car is finally upon us. This leap forward in automotive innovation has been made possible by a number of factors coming together at the same time. Advances in components, connectivity, and standardization have brought us to a point where the reality of the connected car rests within touching distance.

    But as we contemplate a slightly more distant future that goes even beyond the connected car towards the eventual widespread acceptance of autonomous driving, we must already begin thinking about what technological solutions we will have to deploy in order to make this a global reality. One of those technologies is sure to be the Open Alliance BroadR-Reach® (OABR) Automotive Ethernet standard — which, for a number of reasons, is the key to unlocking the truly smart vehicles of the future.

    Why Ethernet?
    Applications of the future will depend on high data rates that cannot possibly be supported by today’s CAN, LIN, and FlexRay systems. Parking cameras, HD digital infotainment, ADAS sensors like Radar and eventually the “eyes and ears” for self-driving systems of the future will all be built on a high bandwidth Ethernet backbone.

    While truly autonomous driving is several years away many car OEMs are already developing systems around Automotive Ethernet. For example, BMW’s camera based driver assistance system is supported by Ethernet, which works in conjunction with more traditional networking architectures. This is likely to be the model for the next generation of cars employing Ethernet — not directly replacing systems like CAN and LIN but used alongside for specific data intensive applications.

    The gradual introduction of electronic functions like cruise control, ADAS, DAB radio, satellite navigation, V2X, etc., within the vehicle mean that the amount of copper cabling in cars has risen steadily, along with the associated cost and weight.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Debunking MOST vs. Ethernet Debate
    Choosing the right transport for automotive data

    Car electronic systems are some of the most complex systems in production, consisting of many subsystems or domains. As more functions are added to each vehicle, these domains must communicate with each other, and sometimes there needs to be coordination between multiple domains.

    For example, an Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) needs to process information from multiple cameras and other sensors. The result of this processing needs to be presented to the user through screens and audio playback devices, typically part of the infotainment system.

    All this interaction among various domains is best achieved if there is a network that can serve as a communication backbone between various systems. Much is being written about the most appropriate network for doing this. The situation is often presented as a battle between Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST technology), the de facto standard used as the infotainment backbone in vehicles, and Ethernet, the standard used for the IT infrastructure in the consumer/commercial world.

    No need to make hard choices
    The reality is that there is no need to make a hard choice between these technologies, and their combination results in a system that takes the advantages of each one without the limitations each can have.

    A car is made up of subsystems that may communicate with one another but have very different requirements for the data transports that they use.

    You won’t be running a full TCP/IP stack or even a Controller Area Network (CAN) controller to keep track of the window.

    Instead, many cars use an inexpensive serial bus called Local Interconnect Network (LIN) that uses a single wire for communication. CAN also provides many useful functions in the vehicle and, though more complex than LIN, is easy to implement in a variety of automotive microcontrollers.

    In the late 1990s, the automotive industry developed MOST technology to fulfill its audio and video communications needs.

    There are now more than 165 car models with MOST networks in them, according to the MOST Cooperation

    The Internet Protocol (IP) has also become important as the car connects to the outside world. Most of the traffic in the IT world uses various protocols geared around Ethernet and IP packets, and many applications rely on this standard to process the information that can be flowing in and out of the car to reach all the way around the world.

    Despite often being portrayed as adversaries where only one should prevail, MOST technology and Ethernet each have certain advantages, and there is a lot of synergy between them. In fact, the MOST150 standard natively supports a dedicated Ethernet-packet channel that can carry unmodified Ethernet frames.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Development environment for in-vehicle Ethernet

    An automotive hardware/software solution streamlines development of infotainment systems incorporating Ethernet Audio Video Bridging (AVB) for the connected car.

    Freescale has added a hardware/software development system for enabling automotive grade Ethernet connectivity for next generation infotainment, instrument cluster, camera telematics and rear seat entertainment designs. The new solution will, the company says, support real-time data transport throughout the vehicle and replace expensive digital technologies and other alternatives.

    The SABRE (Smart Application Blueprint for Rapid Engineering) for Auto Infotainment (AI) development system uses Freescale’s i.MX 6 series applications processors to speed and simplify Ethernet Audio Video Bridging (AVB) deployment. The development system helps connect a broad array of onboard multimedia nodes using automotive-grade Ethernet components and is optimized for hardware/software integration. Freescale has introduced automotive-grade AVB Ethernet software stacks engineered to work with the development system’s hardware for a comprehensive solution.

    “The newest SABRE AI development system brings Freescale’s networking expertise into the vehicle, delivering Ethernet AVB solutions that connect cars to their drivers, the cloud and the rest of the Internet of Things

    The development system saves OEMs considerable hardware system cost and cabling weight by using Ethernet AVB using 2-wire CAN cabling to replace more expensive connectivity technologies. SABRE AI supports both 100 Mbps automotive Ethernet physical interfaces as well as multi-port switches.

    Competitive solutions often rely on generic software that is not application-specific, which can require cycle-hungry abstraction and result in low performance.

    More information:

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet for Drive-by-Wire?

    Few people would dispute that Ethernet is gaining momentum as an in-vehicle network.

    But beyond being the audio/visual (A/V) network for in-vehicle infotainment systems, what’s the potential impact of Ethernet on the whole car? Opinions vary.

    In a recent interview with EE Times, Rick Kreifeldt, president of the AVnu Alliance and vice president of Research and Innovation at Harman International, told us: “A/V was our original big focus.” But, he added, car OEMs today are looking “to use Ethernet architecture for drive-by-wire and autonomous vehicles.”

    In short, the Ethernet is ready to control networks inside cars, where time-sensitive scheduling and latency are critical.

    Work at the IEEE groups has made enough network enhancements, Kreifeldt said, for Ethernet to achieve the “precise timing” that can organize sensor information in sync for fusion, with “super-low latency” — a must for critical safety applications.

    The automotive Ethernet will even introduce “redundancy” for in-vehicle communication, said Kreifeldt. The goal is a “full Ethernet car with an ability to work, no matter what [happens to a node in the network].”

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet for ADAS: Solving Automotive Challenges

    The adoption of ISO 13400 diagnostics over IP has made Ethernet common in today’s cars. There remain challenges, however. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are one application where the industry is looking maximize Ethernet’s benefits.

    The adoption of ISO 13400 diagnostics over IP, which provides rapid re-programming speeds over a standard Ethernet physical interface, has made Ethernet common in today’s cars.

    There remain challenges, however, for its adoption as the ubiquitous in-vehicle networking bus of choice for automotive makers. Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), including camera systems, are one application where the industry is looking maximize Ethernet’s benefits.

    Why should someone consider Ethernet-based connectivity over analog or LVDS methods? Especially as the camera and central unit processing cost can be greater (Figure 1). There are number key factors beyond this one metric that ultimately provide lower costs and greater performance.

    One such factor is that the ability to employ low-cost unshielded cable significantly reduces cable costs. In addition, power-over-Ethernet (PoE) is possible with standard-based 100BASE-TX Ethernet, so no additional power cable is needed.

    But the true value of Ethernet is greater than simply reducing the bill of materials.

    The ultimate goal for Ethernet is to deliver a single ubiquitous in-vehicle network with seamless cross-domain communications — with a common data stream and physical media (cable) being utilized across vehicle domains, including chassis, powertrain, body, infotainment, and ADAS.

    This vastly reduces cost and complexity because there is no need for bridging, as a single network now allows the sharing of information both within a domain as well as across multiple domains. In short, Ethernet is a networking technology; this is its greatest value and how it reduces costs in any market, be it automotive, consumer, enterprise or industrial.

    The solution: Ethernet-based ADAS
    Micrel, together with automotive sensor specialist Silicon Micro Sensors (SMS), has designed a “production ready” solution for the most stringent automotive and industrial applications, featuring a high dynamic range (HDR) mega-pixel (720p) camera, field of view 55° up to 190°, MJPEG video compression, Ethernet AVB with PoE support, low-cost unshielded twisted-pair cabling, and IP68 / IP6k9 class, water-tight, anti-scratch and fog

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Revs for Connected Cars

    Tomorrow’s cars are moving to Automotive Ethernet to get the bandwidth they need and lower the weight of wiring harnesses.

    As you may have already noticed via that pesky “check engine” light, cars today are highly computerized. From monitoring engine temperature to whether your gas cap is open, even the least-expensive, bare-bones car has some sort of computer in it.

    Data is usually being passed around on a megabit, half-duplex communication Controller Area Network (CAN). While there are a few more notable schemes, they all share the similarity that they communicate over a single twisted pair using differential signaling. They are very robust and very well tested. However, they are exceedingly slow compared to modern technology.

    Today’s fully loaded luxury sedan comes complete with an accident avoidance system, 360-degree cameras, adaptive cruise control, and satellite navigation system. These systems are far too bandwidth intensive to run over the existing CAN bus

    This situation has fostered Automotive Ethernet. Using a single twisted-pair cable similar to that used by a CAN bus, an Automotive Ethernet link can currently provide 100 MByte/s of bandwidth, with a GByte/s in the works. This increase in speed allows the thick bundles of CAN cabling to be replaced with a single twisted pair.

    By moving from a simple half-duplex messaging system to a full-on TCP/IP network, we gain the ability to have multiple data streams running simultaneously over the same network. Using Precision-Time-Protocol and Audio-Visual-Bridging technologies, it becomes possible to run your infotainment and 360-degree camera system over the same network that your time-sensitive engine and traction control systems use. In the end, the automobile turns into more of an Internet of Things system.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Evolves to Connect the Connected Vehicle

    The Connected Car, in reality, already relies on Ethernet. From infotainment systems and backup camera connections, Ethernet’s low cost, high-capacity and versatility readily helped it establish a footprint in today’s cars.

    After a successful 30+ year career in computer networking, Ethernet’s being groomed for an encore role as the automotive bus which will power the era of the so-called Connected Vehicle.

    Regardless of whether Ethernet or some other technology gets the nod, the industry is overdue for something to replace the buses used in today’s cars. CAN bus, FlexRay, MOST, J1850/1939 and the other semi-proprietary protocols used in today’s cars are coming dangerously close to the limits of their capabilities while the electronic systems they support continue to grow in complexity

    Ethernet is ideal as the bus technology connecting tomorrow’s Connected Vehicles because it can deliver the capacity, performance and versatility the industry needs. This article will explore the requirements of tomorrow’s automotive networks and how the new 2-wire Ethernet PHYs currently under development will meet them.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Modern Avionics Rely on Robust, Flexible FPGA Designs

    Thanks to advances in programmable logic, today’s FPGAs can now be used to make high-reliability systems such as those in avionics both flexible and configurable as well as dramatically reduce the chance of errors that could compromise safety.

    AFDX in Today’s Avionics

    Asynchronous Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX, designated ARINC-664) has been designed to account for the growing number of avionic subsystems in modern aircraft and their complex interaction. It resembles a true IP and UDP packet based on switched Ethernet compliant to the IEEE 802.3 industry standard. Based on these well-established standards, the AFDX technology adds protocol extensions to provide reliable packet transport and bounded transport latency to make it suitable for avionic applications.

    At the application level, ADFX emulates logical point-to-point connections with clear separation of data streams and bandwidth allocation. In fact, a logic path that provides the same properties to an application as an ARINC-429 connection exists in AFDX. In addition, several of these connections are now multiplexed and run through one Ethernet wire, making AFDX a network architecture that significantly reduces the amount of cable runs.

    An AFDX network consists of switches and end systems, which are components connected to the network capable of handling all AFDX-related protocol operations. Usually, an end system is part of an avionic or aircraft subsystem, which needs to send or receive data over the AFDX network. Depending on the network hierarchy, one or more switches are located on the data path between two end systems.

    At the application level, AFDX is intended to replace ARINC-429 connections. With ARINC-429 representing point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connections, it is not surprising, that AFDX has similar characteristics, with the ARINC-429 connections represented by AFDX virtual links (VLs).

    FPGA Technology in an AFDX End System

    End systems must continuously receive non-redundant packets on both interfaces with full wire speed without packet loss. Traditionally this was carried out on ASIC technology or on pure software implementations of the protocol stack.

    A hardware implementation in general has advantages, because the logic and its timing are easier to prove, due to the synchronous nature and the true parallelism in execution. And today’s high end FPGAs are fast, large and robust enough to implement the AFDX protocol for handling the requirements of modern avionics systems.

    Any safety-relevant system design needs to consider all possible failure modes of the component, their effects at the interface level, and finally, the probability for them to occur during the period of operation.

    Safety and Reliability

    Since AFDX provides the main interconnect between the major subsystems of today’s aircraft, it is literally the backbone of the avionics. The integrity of the data travelling along this path, its timely delivery, and the availability of the transport service to the clients that need them, at the time they are needed, are key factors in a truly safe and reliable AFDX-based system.

    An AFDX end system needs to be robust with respect to its failure rates, specifically defined in this instance as follows: the probability of the failure mode “loss of function” must be very low, usually in the magnitude of less than 10-6 per flight hour.

    The triple-module redundancy (TMR) architecture in the FPGA is a way to affect this rate.

    As AFDX End-Systems are deployed in avionics subsystems a line-replaceable units (LRUs), a certification according to DO-254 has to be considered in the design of the FPGA, as well as the process that is established to achieve the design and its verification.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Spirent to Test Renault’s In-Vehicle Networks

    The French auto maker chooses an leading communications test company to provide systems for BroadR-Reach Ethernet testing. But, can there ever be enough testing to eliminate failures?

    Like it or not, the connected car is coming and it will need a lot of testing. To that end, Renault has selected Spirent Communications as the equipment provider for its Automotive Ethernet BroadR-Reach testing. Spirent will provide its BroadR-Reach Conformance and Performance Test System to Renault. The auto manufacturer will use the system to develop, verify, and qualify its next generation in-vehicle networks.

    Renault now joins manufacturers such as BMW as they race to use Ethernet to provide communications for driver-assistance features such as 360° video cameras and advanced driver assist systems.

    “Renault is at the forefront of technology and is constantly looking to provide drivers and passengers with new features to create a ‘Passion for Life.’ Automotive Ethernet will help provide a lot of these features and benefits,”

    “As the automotive industry adopts new information technology and creates the connected car, it needs to embrace new systems. As a leading provider of solutions to help the world communicate and collaborate faster, better and more securely, Spirent has the expertise and innovation to implement new technologies like automotive Ethernet.”

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Vehicles will get a gigabit network next year

    The car is really becoming one of networked devices in the near future.
    Broadcom has now presented his own one hundred megabits Ethnernet for car.
    Next year will see gigabit speeds – already a new standard is in making.

    Broadcom has its own BroadR-Reach chipset, based on its own tailor-made Ethernet technique. The new switching circuits are manufactured in 28-nanometer process.

    Broadcom says the switch is ready to Gigabit Ethernet. IEEE is expected by next summer to accept the final version of the car IEEE1000BASE-T1 standard.

    The different thing then is when the cars seen in the first gigabit ethernet networks. Broadcom, the more effective higher speed the bus means higher power consumption and therefore greater fuel consumption, for example. Premium class cars Gigabit Ethernet should be guaranteed within a year or two, but this will take longer before it becomes more commonly used.


  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Driven by IEEE Standards, Ethernet Hits the Road in 2016

    A new trend emerging in the automotive market in 2016 is the migration of Ethernet, a tried- and-true computer network technology, into connected cars. The proliferation of advanced driver assistance system (ADAS) features in many vehicles is also expected to expand Ethernet use.

    Although carmakers already use Ethernet for on-board diagnostics connectivity, new in 2016 is the use of “automotive Ethernet” as an in-vehicle network backbone.

    Automotive chip suppliers’ expectations are running high for Tier Ones and car OEMs to start embracing Ethernet switches to connect safety sensors, 360-degree camera systems, infotainment, head units and dashboards.

    For this scenario to become reality, the Open Alliance led by Broadcom has paved the way by developing BroadR-Reach, a 100Mbit per second Ethernet physical-layer standard specifically designed for automotive connectivity applications

    BroadR-Reach can run high-bandwidth data over a single-pair unshielded twisted-pair copper wire, cutting cable and connector costs, while reducing the weight of the wiring harness inside a car.

    The BroadR-Reach-based automotive Ethernet is already designed into several BMW models and series, as well as Jaguar and Volkswagen’s Passat. However, the number of automakers and car models that has embraced automotive Ethernet remains limited.

    Two factors are coming into play to change that landscape in 2016 — the completion of IEEE standards and a roadmap for the future.

    The completion of IEEE 100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1 standards are both expected next year. Some automotive industry observers view this as critical for the proliferation of automotive Ethernet chips and design wins.

    For example, Broadcom licenses today the BroadR-Reach technology to other chip suppliers, including NXP. Micrel and Marvell developed their own family of automotive Ethernet PHYs and switches (with Micrel is now a part of Microchip) but neither is a member of the Open Alliance.

    The 100BASE-T standard won’t be the end of the story for automotive Ethernet. Gigabit Ethernet is also coming in 2016.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet chip meets automotive EMC requirements

    Leveraging Quiet-Wire programmable, integrated EMI filtering, the KSZ8061 10Base-T/100Base-TX Ethernet physical-layer transceiver from Microchip reduces line emissions and enhances receiver immunity in both automotive and industrial applications. The single-chip device handles data communication over low-cost unshielded twisted pair cables and includes an embedded signal-quality indicator for dynamic monitoring of link-error margins.

    The KSZ8061MNx has a Media Independent Interface (MII) for direct connection to MII-compliant Ethernet MAC processors and switches, while the KSZ8061RNx features a Reduced Media Independent Interface (RMII) for direct connection to RMII-compliant Ethernet MAC processors and switches.

    The KSZ8061 is available now for sampling at $1.16 each in lots of 10,000 units for the industrial grade. Volume production is expected 1Q 2016.


  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Ethernet Moving to Time-Sensitive Environments

    Automotive systems designers need to understand current and emerging automotive technologies that require TSN over Ethernet, and how IP can be leveraged to meet the complex requirements.

    Time-sensitive networking (TSN) is not necessarily a new topic but an area that has certainly been getting a lot of attention in the last few years, especially in the automotive market. A collection of Ethernet sub-standards, TSN enables deterministic real-time communication over Ethernet. As more and more systems are incorporated into cars, the need for TSN increases. These systems are often being re-engineered and shifting from hydro-mechanical to electro-mechanical, creating the need for more software and dependencies between the systems. To add to the complexity, hundreds of automotive systems must communicate with one another, while maintaining safety and reliability. To successfully deliver these systems, designers should understand current and emerging automotive technologies that require TSN over Ethernet, and how IP can be leveraged to meet the complex requirements.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Simulate automotive electrical noise on the bench

    Vehicles are notoriously noisy environments, and I don’t mean the kind of noise you can hear. All those spark plugs, actuators, alternators, and motors generate enough noise to disrupt communications systems, even the wired kind and even with shielding. Thus, you often need to inject noise into communications buses such as Ethernet, which is taking hold in vehicle ECUs (engine control units) at the component and at the system level.

    The AING-5000 from Spirent Communications is a noise generator specifically targeted at automotive digital communications systems. It lets you inject controlled noise from 10 kHz to 600 MHz into BroadR-Reach automotive Ethernet for functional testing, precompliance testing, and troubleshooting.

    The AING-5000 also comes with predefined interference signals such as alternator noise and AM/FM carriers.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to Guarantee the Timing Behavior of an Automotive Ethernet Bus

    Ethernet is increasingly being used as an automotive networking bus. It is ideal for applications such as diagnostics, software download, Audio Video Bridging (AVB) or as a vehicle network backbone bus that offers high-bandwidth and reliable performance. Ethernet also provides new types of dynamic communication, such as service-oriented communications in addition to streamed communications. Designing for these applications with the different topology elements and attributes imposes new challenges to guarantee sufficient bandwidth is available and communication deadlines are met. This session provides an introduction to the Ethernet topology, attributes and communication types, in addition to addressing some of the challenges they impose on determining the communication latency. A demonstration will also show a worst case timing analysis scenario for an Ethernet cluster using Mentor Automotive Volcano VSA tools.

    Volcano Vehicle Systems Architect (VSA)

    Volcano Vehicle System Architect (VSA) is a systems design tool for AUTOSAR-based systems. It enables engineers to design automotive SW and HW architectures and to manage the relationships between the two. At the same time, it provides the user with required support to manage industrial-scale projects with distributed development partners.

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Digi-Key – Transformers for automotive applications and where high reliability is required (Bourns PT61018AAPEL)

    Bourns has introduced two additional LAN transformers: PT61018AAPEL and SM13072APEL. They are available now from Digi-Key. They are IEEE 802.3 compatible, single-port, and potted construction LAN 10/100 Base-T impedance matching/isolation transformer modules. They include common mode chokes for noise attenuation for Ethernet applications.

    These LAN transformers offer 1.5kVRMS isolation voltage and an extended operating temperature range of -40C to +85C for the PT61018AAPEL and -40C to +125C for the SM13072APEL.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Industrial Ethernet extenders for train networks

    Westermo’s DDW-002-B1 is an industrial Ethernet extender designed to interconnect Ethernet networks within rail cars using the existing cables in the train coupling.

    The DDW-002-B1 uses power-line communication technology according to IEEE 1901 and is able to support data communication networks by propagating high bandwidth Ethernet traffic over a 2-wire cable. The unit requires no configuration, and plug-and-play simplicity allows for quick installation and commissioning. The DDW-002-B1 also has potential for use in a variety of non-rail applications

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    From your dorm room to your car: ethernet is back

    Wi-Fi, DSRC, Bluetooth, NFC — there are so many ways to connect without cables that ethernet seems retro, like a flip phone. But ethernet is staging a comeback in our cars. Manufacturers like Hyundai and Land Rover are using this old-school technology to connect the sensors that allow for advanced driving assistance systems (ADAS) and baby steps toward self-driving cars.

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    1000Base-T1 Compliance Test Solution Oscilloscope

    Rohde & Schwarz announced the launching of the R&S RTO-K87 option, the first compliance test software on the market for automated testing of IEEE 1000Base-T1 interfaces. Fast data transmission within automotive Ethernet networks is critical for driver assistance systems as well as for autonomous driving applications. Rohde & Schwarz has been an active participant in IEEE and OPEN Alliance, using its expertise to help drive the development of a reliable test solution.

    The Rohde & Schwarz compliance tests for 1000Base-T1 and 100Base-T1/BroadR-Reach as well as the trigger and decoding options for LIN, CAN, CAN-FD, FlexRay and CXPI provide the automotive industry with a comprehensive, yet compact test solution for ECU development.

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    IEEE publishes IEEE 802.3bu for provisioning Power over Data Lines (PoDL) of single balanced twisted-pair Ethernet

    EEE and the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) have announced the availability of IEEE 802.3bu-2016—Standard for Physical Layer and Management Parameters for Power over Data Lines (PoDL) of Single Balanced Twisted-Pair Ethernet.

    According to IEEE, “single pair Ethernet was initially developed to support automotive manufacturer’s increasing demand for Ethernet connectivity in vehicles. IEEE 802.3bu-2016 defines specifications and parameters for adding standardized power to that cabling. The standard supports the latest single balanced twisted-pair Ethernet physical layers, 100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1, using unshielded twisted-pair cable—a relatively low-cost cabling solution for the automotive industry resulting in reduced weight and cost, and increased reliability due to the need for fewer cables and connectors in automotive applications.”

    “The IEEE 802.3bu project was initiated due to the increased utilization of Ethernet in automobiles in a single pair configuration. It also holds a good deal of promise for further applicability across a wide range of industries and within a rapidly growing Internet of Things ecosystem,” said Dan Dove, chair, IEEE P802.3bu Task Force.

    IEEE 802.3bu-2016 is available for purchase at the IEEE Standards Store.

  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    IEEE publishes 802.3bv standard amendment for 1000 Mb/s Ethernet operation over plastic optical fiber

    IEEE and the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) have announced publication of the IEEE 802.3bv—Standard for Ethernet Amendment: Physical Layer Specifications and Management Parameters for 1000 Mb/s Operation Over Plastic Optical Fiber. IEEE says the IEEE 802.3bv standard amendment “responds to increased demand for high-speed Ethernet solutions for automotive, industrial, and home network connectivity. Plastic optical fiber provides unique capabilities for these applications where long link lengths aren’t required,” adds the consortium.

    “Increasingly, automotive and industrial networks are migrating towards Ethernet,” states an IEEE press release. “Plastic optical fiber is already in use in automobiles and other vehicles, and IEEE 802.3bv provides a robust and reliable media option for Ethernet automotive networks. As an alternative transmission medium, the standard is also applicable to harsh, electrically noisy environments such as industrial automation islands and other applications with similar requirements.”

  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    KDPOF technology entirely
    preconditions of the
    new IEEE
    providing reliable and proven solutions for automotive
    applications. Carlos Pardo, CEO and Co-founder of KDPOF
    , c ommented:
    h the recently announced sampling in 2017 of the first automotive
    Gigabit Ethernet POF (GEPOF) transceiver
    , we perfectly meet the
    requirements of carmakers by providing high connectivity with a flexible
    digital host interface, low latency, low jitter, and low linking time.” The
    is o
    ptimized for low power and small footprint and transmits
    data at 1000/100 Mbps on standard SI-POF, MC-POF,
    or PCS, according to
    1000BASE-RH (IEEE 802.3bv).

  36. Tomi Engdahl says:

    GigE chips ease network design

    A suite of 48 Gigabit Ethernet chips, Microchip’s GigEpack lineup reduces the complexity of deploying high-speed industrial, automotive, and consumer networks. The portfolio includes single-chip switches with integrated HSR/DLR redundancy, as well as automotive-grade USB 3.1 Gen 1 to Gigabit Ethernet bridge chips that support ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance System) and infotainment systems on a variety of physical network layers.

    The GigEpack suite comprises three product families. Supporting both copper and fiber, the KSZ9477/9567/9897 switch family allows the creation of ultra-reliable networks using HSR (high-availability seamless redundancy) and DLR (device level ring) redundancy protocols. The LAN7800/LAN7850/LAN7801 bridge family enables customers to add Gigabit Ethernet to embedded processors via USB 3.1 Gen 1, USB 2.0, or HSIC (High Speed Inter-Chip) bridging to such physical layers as 1000Base-T or 100Base-T1. These products join the existing KSZ9031 family of automotive-grade Gigabit PHY transceivers.

  37. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive Ethernet Was the Hidden Trend at CES 2016

    The one trend most silicon vendors were talking about when it came to automotive is the use of Ethernet under the hood. This is in the form of 100 Mbit/s BroadR-Reach, 100 Mbit/s 802.3bw 100Base-T1, and 1 Gbit/s, 802.3bp 1000Base-T1. All utilize a single twisted pair allowing the use of low-cost connectors and significantly lowering cabling costs. The systems provide full duplex operation and it is possible to provide power over the same twisted pair using the P802.3bu 1-Pair Power over Data Lines (PoDL) standard.

    The OPEN Alliance (One-Pair Ether-Net) Special Interest Group (SIG) supports BroadR-Reach technology was developed by Broadcom. BMW is already using the technology to connect the four cameras for surround-view in the BMW X5. IEEE 802.3bw uses the same PHYs as OPEN. The faster 1000Base-T1 can handle multiple 4K video streams (Fig. 2). The standards utilize the normal Ethernet MAC, but change the PHYs.

    The new Ethernet standards are designed for fast startup, but limit the run length to 15 m. This is more than sufficient to handle most transportation-related applications. It is even applicable to larger platforms where switches could be connected using conventional Ethernet cabling that can handle longer connections.

  38. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet In Cars
    Why just adding more bandwidth isn’t enough to deal with the growing volume of data.

    The automobile is encountering possibly the biggest changes in its technological progression since the invention of the internal combustion engine nearly 150 years ago. Increasing levels of autonomy will reshape how we think about cars and car travel. It won’t be just a matter of getting from point A to point B while doing very little else — we will be able to keep on doing what we want while in the process of getting there.

    As it is, the modern car already incorporates large quantities of complex electronics – making sure the ride is comfortable, the engine runs smoothly and efficiently, and providing infotainment for the driver and passengers. In addition, the features and functionality being incorporated into vehicles we are now starting to buy are no longer of a fixed nature. It is increasingly common for engine control and infotainment systems to require updates over the course of the vehicle’s operational lifespan.

    Such an update is the one issue that proved instrumental in first bringing Ethernet connectivity into the vehicle domain. Leading automotive brands, such as BMW and VW, found they could dramatically increase the speed of uploads performed by mechanics at service centers by installing small Ethernet networks into the chassis of their vehicle models instead of trying to use the established, but much slower, Controller Area Network (CAN) bus. As a result, transfer times were cut from hours to minutes.

    As an increasing number of upgradeable Electronic Control Units (ECUs) have appeared (thereby putting greater strain on existing in-vehicle networking technology), the Ethernet network has itself expanded.

    mage sensing, radar and LiDAR functions will all produce copious amounts of data. So data-transfer capacity is going to be a critical element of in-vehicle Ethernet networks, now and into the future. The industry has responded quickly by first delivering 100 Mbit/s transceivers and following up with more capacious standards-compliant 1000 Mbit/s offerings.

    But providing more bandwidth is simply not enough on its own. So that car manufacturers do not need to sacrifice the real-time behavior necessary for reliable control, the relevant international standards committees have developed protocols to guarantee the timely delivery of data. Time Sensitive Networking (TNS) provides applications with the ability to use reserved bandwidth on virtual channels in order to ensure delivery within a predictable timeframe. Less important traffic can make use of the best-effort service of conventional Ethernet with the remaining unreserved bandwidth.

    The industry’s more forward-thinking semiconductor vendors, Marvell among them, have further enhanced real-time performance with features such as Deep Packet Inspection (DPI), employing Ternary Content-Addressable Memory (TCAM), in their automotive-optimized Ethernet switches.

  39. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Valens Takes to Untangling and Untwisting Connected Cars

    High-end cars are some of the most complex machines in the world, with miles of wires linking more than a hundred electronic control units powering everything from windshield wipers to digital speedometers. This is all programmed with millions more lines of code than a fighter jet.

    Valens started out over a decade ago selling networking chips for professional audio and visual devices. But now it is trying to use the same technology to recreate the car’s connective tissue. Its chips encode data so that they can traverse the car’s network over a single unshielded twisted pair cable, replacing many others to reduce cost and weight.

    “The car is becoming like an advanced data center,” said Micha Risling, vice president of Valens’ automotive business, only two years old but already selling a series of chipsets. The comparison works because the cameras, radar, and other sensors in a fully driverless vehicle could discharge more than four terabytes of data every hour and a half of driving.

    To handle it all, Valens is betting on HDBaseT, a standard it invented to transmit uncompressed audio and video, control, Ethernet, USB, and a hundred watts of power simultaneously. It can do this over a single copper cable, which does not have the thick, expensive insulation of traditional cables. That way, it can be tucked into tight spaces in cars.

    Along with Samsung and Sony, the chipmaker turned HDBaseT into a standard in 2010.

    over a copper cable up to 328 feet

    But last year, Daimler said that it would use HDBaseT to connect its infotainment, telematics, and advanced driver assistance systems. Valens’ chief executive, Dror Jerushalmi, said that Daimler would start using it in production cars by 2020. GM, which sits on the alliance’s board, declined to comment on whether it planned to use HDBaseT.

    With the money, Valens can expand its product line to compete with bigger rivals like Marvell and Broadcom, which makes networking chips for Ethernet that – like HDBaseT – work with a single unshielded copper cable.

    “The automotive industry will not have a choice but to move to a centralized approach, simply given that so much processing power is needed. And again, the raw data will have to be processed differently to be used in different clusters,” said Risling in a recent interview. “The sensors really should be as dumb as possible.”

    “Moreover, HDBaseT is not limited to point-to-point topologies and can also support daisy-chaining as well as multi-hop switching and [in that way] reduces the connectivity bottlenecks towards the main ECUs,” he said. “Our ability to support multi-streams over a single channel opens the door for advanced cost-effective interfacing options with other chips in the system.”

    Valens can also deal with electromagnetic interference that leaks out of cables and can cripple performance. The company’s chips can monitor and cancel noise. It also shorted the range of HDBaseT to 50 feet so that cables could transmit at lower frequencies, which can better resist interference.

  40. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Taking Automotive Ethernet for a Test Drive

    Automotive Ethernet employs a unique interface that requires new testing protocols and test equipment.

    The standards include IEEE 802.3bw 100BASE-T1 and IEEE P802.3bp 1000BASE-T1. These adopt the 100-Mb/s and 1-Gb/s Ethernet protocols we have come to know and love. They run over a single twisted pair and can have up to four inline connectors, sans the endpoints. There’s a tradeoff, though: The run length is only 15 m. Still, that’s more than enough to handle most automotive and many transportation applications.

    Automotive Ethernet will replace the Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) bus found on many vehicles today. It will also compete with systems like Maxim Integrated Products’ Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL).

    Chips and PHYs are now readily available for automotive Ethernet, as are switches. For instance, Marvell’s 8-port, 88Q5050 Secure network switch supports the 100Base-T1 standard, as well as time-sensitive networking (TSN). Audio video bridging (AVB) ingress policy and rate limiting are part of TSN. The switch also features 802.1Qav/Qbv queue-shaping support for AVB and TSN.

  41. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Architected For The Future

    With automotive Ethernet coming on strong, it helps to implement as much as possible in the hardware.

  42. Tomi Engdahl says:

    With New Chips, Aquantia Attempts to Boost Car Connectivity

    To avoid highway collisions and brake for pedestrians walking across a city street, autonomous cars need to make split second decisions. The cameras and other sensors embedded in the vehicle have to send lots of information with extremely low latency to the central processing units that act like the vehicle’s brains.

    With increasing bandwidth and reliability requirements, the car’s electronic architecture is set to change. And Aquantia is the latest company trying to position its chips as the nuts and bolts of that new architecture. On Monday, it introduced a new line of networking chips for cars that transmit up to 10 gigabits per second over a single copper cable.

  43. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nvidia, Marvell share driver’s seat

    Uber’s tragic fatal accident in Arizona put Nvidia’s autonomous vehicle tests on hold, but hasn’t dented the company’s long-term enthusiasm for the technology.

    Marvell Semiconductor this week announced its secure automotive Ethernet switch is to be integrated into the Nvidia DRIVE Pegasus Platform.

    The switch silicon, Marvell’s 88Q5050, includes features like trusted boot, deep packet inspection, and low power consumption.

    Nvidia pitches the 320-trillion operations per second DRIVE Pegasus platform at “no human required” Level 5 autonomous operations.

    The Ethernet chip gives Pegasus DRIVE a secure connection to sensors, cameras, controllers and the like, with blacklisting and whitelisting on all Ethernet ports.


  44. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Solves the Data-Glut Problem in New Vehicles

    As electronics pervade deeper into automotive design, faster networks and gateways become essential tools to handle the capacity.

    In turn, all of this has given rise to the need for wired networks to organize the various subsystems and cut down on the amount of wiring needed. Simple networks like the local interconnect network (LIN) and controller area network (CAN) have been used for years.

    But, as cars became more connected, faster networks like FlexRay and Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) were adopted. Now, though, newer vehicles are required to handle even greater amounts of data at ever-higher speeds, which has led to the adoption of Ethernet. In addition, gateways that consolidate those slower networks also evolved to meet this need.

    The initial 10-Mb/s speed has seen gradual upgrades to 100 Mb/s, 1 Gb/s, 10 Gb/s, and 100 Gb/s.

    The 1- and 10-Gb/s twisted-pair versions are the most popular today, as are related standards such as Power over Ethernet (PoE) that furnishes dc power to remote nodes. Older, slower versions are also still popular in many applications.

    In 2016, the IEEE introduced another version designated 802.3bw for automotive applications. Also called 100Base-T1, this standard supports 100-Mb/s data on a single, balanced twisted-pair cable. In addition to meeting the need for high speed, this new standard will help reduce and simplify the cumbersome, heavy, and complicated wiring harnesses used today.

    In the physical layer (PHY) of the 100Base-T1 standard, data is transmitted over a single copper twisted pair. To achieve the 100-Mb/s data rate, it uses 3 bits per symbol (PAM3). The standard supports full-duplex operation, which means transmission in both directions simultaneously. The twisted-pair cable must support a minimum of 66 MHz, with a maximum length of 15 m. No specific connector is defined.

    Some vehicles also incorporate another version of Ethernet designated as 802.3u or 100Base-TX. It supports 10- or 100-Mb/s data rates, but uses a cable with two twisted pairs. This version of Ethernet is sometimes used for diagnostics by way of the onboard diagnostic port (OBD II).


    A gateway serves as a bridge between ECUs and provides a way to translate from one protocol to another so that the different subsystems can exchange data. Gateways manage the whole communications process.

    The various subsystems or connected domains within a vehicle connect by CAN, LIN, FlexRay, or MOST networks. For example, powertrain domains may use CAN or FlexRay. Body domains typically employ LIN and/or CAN. Infotainment domains may use MOST.

    With more electronics being packed into cars, it’s significantly increased the data load, especially with the addition of Ethernet. This has led to new gateways that replace the smaller MCUs with a larger, faster processor.

    Designing an automotive Ethernet gateway is a challenge for any engineer. One good starting point is to use Texas Instruments’ TIDA-01425, a subsystem reference design for automotive gateways.

    The Ethernet ports are implemented with TI’s PHY transceivers. The DP83TC811R-Q1 transceiver handles the 100Base-T1 port and the DP83848Q-Q1 covers the 100Base-TX port.

  45. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Solves the Data-Glut Problem in New Vehicles

    Sponsored by Texas Instruments: As electronics pervade deeper into automotive design, faster networks and gateways become essential tools to handle the capacity.

  46. Tomi Engdahl says:
    DP83TC811S-Q1 on ethernet-lähettimen fyysinen osa, joka tukee gigabitin sarjamuotoista SGMII-medialiitäntää. Piiri on ensimmäinen laatuaan markkinoilla, TI kehuu.
    Itse ohjain on pakattu 6×6-milliseen koteloon. Se tukee IEEE:n 802.3bw-standardia, joten järjestelmätoimittaja voi käyttää suojaamatonta parikaapelia. Tämä tekee ratkaisusta kevyemmän ja edullisemman.

  47. Tomi Engdahl says:

    World says Single-Pair Ethernet cabling ‘is the future’

    Suddenly, interest in building automation, “smart” systems and the “Internet of Things” (IoT) is changing the scope of the next generation of cabling systems. Sensors for lighting, HVAC, occupancy, access control and other smart systems require very little bandwidth compared to typical data applications. A sensor transmits just a few bytes of data when polled by a controller or triggered by an external event. The lack of bandwidth required for this wave of network enabled devices has led the IEEE to develop a new Ethernet protocol that is designed to operate over a single pair of UTP/STP cable. 100Base-T1 and 1000Base-T1 have been available for a few years, though the intended application was to increase total bandwidth available through existing four-pair cables in primarily industrial installations.

    In March 2018 the IEEE 802.3cg Single-Pair Ethernet Task Force met near Chicago to continue defining the electrical requirements for 10Base-T1 (the presumed name). The Task Force expects the standard to be approved in June 2019. 802.3cg objectives include: 10Base-T1s – 15m link segment with up to 4 in-line connectors operating from 0.3-200MHz; 10Base-T1L – 1,000m link segment with up to 10 in-line connectors operating from 0.1-20MHz; 25m mixing segment with 8 or more nodes (network devices); support for 802.3bu 1-Pair Power over Data Lines in point-to-point and powered trunk applications; support for both automotive and industrial installations.

    As networks become increasingly ubiquitous, the applications for this new system will also extend far beyond just building cabling. Vehicles, for example, are also becoming “smart,” presenting future automotive applications. Cables supporting 10Base-T1 applications will be either very small and compact or large and rugged. In commercial installations, designers will need to deal with hundreds or thousands of devices and sensors.

  48. Tomi Engdahl says:

    100BASE-T1 Ethernet:
    the evolution of
    automotive networking


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