Evolution of Mobile Communication from 1(G) to 4G, 5G, 6G, 7G …


The cellular wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology and frequency. Each generation have some standards, capacities, techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one.

Now 5G is hot technology at the top of the hype cycle. But that’s not the end of story, because when we will see that 5G does not fullfill all the promises, we start looking for to implement next version after it: 6G.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    An Introduction to LTE-Advanced: The Real 4G

    This article is an review and summary of LTE technology and an introduction to LTE Advanced, the 4G cellular technology.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Future of Wireless

    In a nutshell: More wireless IS the future

    Electronics is all about communications. It all started with the telegraph in 1845, followed by the telephone in 1876, but communications really took off at the turn of the century with wireless and the vacuum tube. Today it dominates the electronics industry, and wireless is the largest part of it. And you can expect the wireless sector to continue its growth thanks to the evolving cellular infrastructure and movements like the Internet of Things (IoT). Here is a snapshot of what to expect in the years to come.

    4G means Long Term Evolution (LTE). And LTE is the OFDM technology that is the dominant framework of the cellular system today. 2G and 3G systems are still around, but 4G was initially implemented in the 2011-2012 timeframe. LTE became a competitive race by the carriers to see who could expand 4G the fastest. Today, LTE is mostly implemented by the major carriers in the U.S., Asia, and Europe. Its rollout is not yet complete—varying considerably by carrier—but nearing that point. LTE has been wildly successful, with most smartphone owners rely upon it for fast downloads and video streaming. Still, all is not perfect.

    While LTE promised download speeds up to 100 Mb/s, that has not been achieved in practice. Rates of up to 40 or 50 Mb/s can be achieved, but only under special circumstances. With a full five-bar connection and minimal traffic, such speeds can be seen occasionally. A more normal rate is probably in the 10 to 15 Mb/s range.

    One reason why LTE is not delivering the promised performance is too many subscribers. LTE has been oversold, and today everyone has a smartphone and expects fast access. But with such heavy use, download speeds decrease in order to serve the many.

    There is hope for LTE, though. Most carriers have not yet implemented LTE-Advanced, an enhancement that promises greater speeds. LTE-A uses carrier aggregation (CA) to boost speed. CA combines LTE’s standard 20 MHz bandwidths into 40, 80, or 100 MHz chunks, either contiguous or not, to enable higher data rates. LTE-A also specifies MIMO configurations to 8 x 8. Most carriers have not implemented the 4 x 4 MIMO configurations specified by plain-old LTE. So as carriers enable these advanced features, there is potential for download speeds up to 1 Gb/s. Market data firm ABI Research forecasts that LTE carrier aggregation will power 61% of smartphones in 2020.

    This LTE-CA effort is generally known as LTE-Advanced Pro or 4.5G LTE. This is a mix of technologies defined by the 3GPP standards development group as Release 13. It includes carrier aggregation as well as Licensed Assisted Access (LAA), a technique that uses LTE within the 5 GHz unlicensed Wi-Fi spectrum. It also deploys LTE-Wi-Fi Link Aggregation (LWA) and dual connectivity, allowing a smartphone to talk simultaneously with a small cell site and an Wi-Fi access point.

    So yes, there is plenty of life left in 4G. Carriers will eventually put into service all or some of these improvements over the next few years.

    5G Revealed
    5G is so not here yet. What you are seeing and hearing at this time is premature hype. The carriers and suppliers are already doing battle to see who can be first with 5G. Remember the 4G war of the past years? And the real 4G (LTE-A) is not even here yet. Nevertheless, work on 5G is well underway. It is still a dream in the eyes of the carriers that are endlessly seeking new applications, more subscribers, and higher profits.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G targets 400 gigabits per second

    The 5G networks are still around the corner, but in Europe it is already seen after that. Under the leadership of the German Fraunhofer Institute, the Terranova program has been launched, which is already designing the sixth generation mobile network technology. The project involves seven partners from five different countries. Finland is a part of the University of Oulu.

    In Terranova, 6G technology is being developed, using frequencies reaching the terahertz region and reaching up to 400 gigabit per second. A bit commonly, it could be said that Terranova wants to bring wireless connections in place of the fastest, but expensive fiber connections.

    Fraunhofer has already developed a prototype of a wireless multi-channel system operating at 300 gigahertz

    Source: http://etn.fi/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=7167&via=n&datum=2017-11-15_15:09:04&mottagare=30929


    TERRANOVA proposes to extend the fibre-optic systems Quality of Experience and performance reliability to wireless, by exploiting frequencies above 275GHz for access and backhaul links.

    Sustaining such a flexible and ubiquitously available Tbit/s access network in systems beyond 5G will require rethinking the design principles and architectures

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Onward to 5G, 6G, and Beyond

    Before we get to already-anticipated 6G, this coming year will see all eyes on 5G, which is only just starting to emerge from R&D labs, and will continue to develop and get implemented over the next half a decade.

    There’s no denying the dramatic ways in which mobile and wireless computing have changed the world; whether in how people work, learn, play or socialize. Many can’t get through a productive day without mobile connectivity, and yet, technologically, we’re still at the very earliest stages of “continuous computing” or “ubiquitous connectivity” or any of the plethora of monikers used to describe our always-on, always-connected future.

    Our mobile potential, from smart cities to connected infrastructure, wearable computers, autonomous driving, seamless virtual and augmented reality, AI, Internet of Machines and Things, and much more, is still very much untapped, and it’s only by looking ahead to 5G and 6G (and even 7G with space roaming), that we get a glimpse of what may be possible in the next 10 to 50 years.

    This coming year, all eyes are on 5G, which is only just starting to emerge from R&D labs, and will continue to develop and get implemented over the next half a decade, first, in conjunction with 4G LTE, tightly integrated and co-existing with that technology until 5G finds and solidifies its own footing, gradually superseding it as 6G prepares for its own experimental launch in the later 2020s. Then the cycle will repeat, with experimental 6G launches working at first in conjunction with 5G and then eventually supplanting it.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New “Network 2030” Group Asks: What Comes After 5G?

    If you listen to the hype about 5G, with its promises of self-driving vehicles and immersive virtual reality, it doesn’t take long to realize how much data the coming generation of wireless will require. But have engineers been so preoccupied with delivering low-latency networks to feed data-hungry applications that they’ve forgotten about the rest of our vast, tangled telecommunications network?

    That concern has sparked some researchers to start thinking about where all that data will go after it travels from your phone to the nearest cell tower.

    The group, Network 2030—more accurately, the ITU-T Focus Group Technologies for Network 2030 (FG NET-2030)—will explore ways to close the growing gap between the fixed and mobile components of future communications networks.

    Think of the mobile side as the antennas and radio waves that directly deliver data to our devices. This is the side that has gotten a lot of attention in recent years with the advent of 5G, along with beamforming, massive MIMO, and millimeter waves. The fixed side is everything else—including antennas to beam data wirelessly between two fixed points, and also the cables, fibers, and switches that handle the vast majority of our long-distance communications.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G is Just Rolling Out. So What’s 6G?

    Researchers don’t think in terms of quarters, but in decades. And technology is relentless.

    When the city of Oulu, Finland, invited a group of journalists to come and have a look at some of the work that they are doing to initiate research on 6G, I (like many I have spoken to) immediately thought, But we don’t even have commercial 5G yet, so how can we be talking about 6G?

    But once I got there, I began to realize that it’s just a marker — most of the work going on in Oulu, as in the rest of the world, is in rolling out 5G, carrying out trials, and figuring out business models and use cases.

    However, there needs to be a vision for what’s next in mobile networks beyond what is possible today. It would signify something way out in the future, plus a label that can also help get research funding.

    “Is it 5G long-term evolution (LTE), or is it 6G?”

    He said that they reluctantly decided to go for the 6G moniker, and the result is more than €250 million (about $291 million) worth of funding over the next eight years for its flagship 6Genesis project.

    The project, “6Genesis — the 6G-Enabled Wireless Smart Society & Ecosystem,” is focused on the development of wireless technology, exploring the implementation of 5G communication technology and the development of a possible 6G standard.

    It’s really about the academic world thinking outside of the box and thinking about the vision for 2030. The 6Genesis project is led by the University of Oulu in collaboration with Nokia, the VTT Technical Research Center of Finland, Aalto University, Business Oulu and the Oulu University of Applied Sciences.

    “Humans are already connected, so the promise of 5G or 6G will be to connect even more objects,” Pouttu said. “The near-instant connectivity is still not fully solved in 5G in terms of latency: millisecond latency is not good enough for some [time-critical] applications, so there is still a lot of potential to improve communications capability.”

    When you go up in data rates, you need to go up in frequency — with ranges from 100 GHz all the way up to terahertz frequencies.

    “For this, distances will be short, with radios everywhere,”

    Pouttu said that there is already a line of thinking that there will be 1,000 radios per person in the next 10 years.

    “A lot of computing will be done at the edge, with a lot of modelling done in the handheld device itself,”

    “If you look at millimeter-wave, the first fundamentals might have been done around the 2000 time frame, but industry has really only developed a level of maturity with this 10 to 15 years later,” Parssinen said. “Even so, 5G mmWave is still 10 times more difficult to implement. The same fundamental principles might apply, but the dimensions are getting smaller. The antennas are getting tiny, with more electronics around it, and this will get even more difficult in terahertz communications.”

    In future 5G development and in 6G, Parssinen says that the area of interest will be from 100 GHz to a terahertz. There will be so much frequency available that it can contain an absurd amount of data. Data intensity will not only be increased in information technology but also in terms of its wireless transport.

    “We must come up with a solution that makes this reasonable and physically possible in those frequencies,”

    But long before 6G is an actual thing, there is also the rollout of 5G. This is also a big part of the work being done within the project. This includes a 5G test network (5GTN) operated by the University of Oulu and VTT, supported by Nokia and its core network products. It has about 25 partners who are also involved in the funding.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G is soon here – the time to get into 6G research is right now

    The world is on the verge of entering the fifth generation in cellular networking, or 5G. 2019 will be the year of 5G, with commercial 5G networks rolled out across the globe. 5G is full of promise: driverless cars, smart homes, and virtual reality (VR) for everyone, everywhere. We are headed into the next generation, but no one can still say exactly how 5G will change our lives. Which is why right now is the perfect time to start looking at 6G.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Discover how 6G will change our lives

    Research in 6G Flagship is organised into four interrelated strategic research areas where scientific breakthroughs are sought in the development of fundamental technology components for 6G systems.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:


    Japanilaisoperaattori NTT Docomo on testannut Rohde & Schwarz kanssa 5G-verkkojakin nopeampaa tiedonsiirtoa 150 gigahertsin taajuusalueella. Tulevaisuudessa 100-300 gigahertsin taajuuksista odotetaan paljon 5G-verkon jälkeisten verkkojen kehittämiseen.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Radioresurssit jakoon – väitöskirja pohjustaa 6G-rakenteita


  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    CONNECTIVITY 5G is already here; 6G will arrive soon

    While 5G is still aiming at connecting high-speed devices such as computers, smartphones and connected cars, 6G will be mostly an IoT network.

    The Center for Converged TeraHertz Communications and Sensing (ComSenTe) is already working on the initial 6G specifications. They expect that the next generation of wireless connectivity will provide speeds of 1 to 100 Gbps to the end user and MU-MIMO capability of 100 to 1,000 simultaneous independently modulated beams effectively providing speeds in the tens of terabytes per second. Apart from providing precision localization to a fraction of an inch, supplementing GPS, 6G imaging techniques will identify any person or moving object. This intelligent, immersive infrastructure will support low-latency virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR), and seamless telepresence.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Trump demands 6G technology in rant against American companies: ‘We must be the leader in everything we do’

    Donald Trump has called on American companies to become leaders around the world in “5G, even 6G” technology in a series of tweets.

    “I want 5G, and even 6G, technology in the United States as soon as possible,” the president tweeted on Thursday morning. “It is far more powerful, faster, and smarter than the current standard. American companies must step up their efforts, or get left behind.”

    “There is no reason that we should be lagging behind on something that is so obviously the future,” he continued.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G will achieve terabits-per-second speeds

    Initial, upcoming 5G is going to be a disappointment, a University of Oulu researcher says. 6G, with frequencies up to terahertz, will be needed for true microsecond latency and unlimited bandwidth.

    The first of the upcoming 5G network technologies won’t provide significant reliability gains over existing wireless, such as 4G LTE, according to a developer involved in 5G.

    Additionally, the millisecond levels of latency that the new 5G wireless will attempt to offer—when some of it is commercially launched, possibly later this year—isn’t going to be enough of an advantage for a society that’s now completely data-driven and needs near-instant, microsecond connectivity.

    “Ultra-reliability will be basically not there,” Ari Pouttu, professor for Dependable Wireless at the University of Oulu, told me during a visit to the university in Finland.

    We think “6G will emerge around 2030 to satisfy the expectation not met with 5G,” Pouttu said. “It will eventually offer terabits per second,” along with microsecond latency.

    The school has been a major research partner in millimeter 5G development, alongside Nokia, and is now starting work on 6Genesis, its 6G development program. 6G is also sometimes called 5G Long Term Evolution.

    Problems with 5G

    “Millisecond latency [found in 5G] is simply not sufficient,” Pouttu said. It’s “too slow.”

    “there will be 1,000 radios per person in the next ten years.” That’s going to be because the millimeter frequencies that are being used in 5G, while being copious in bandwidth, are short in travel distance. One will need lots of radioheads and antennas—millions—all needing to be connected. And it is why one needs to think up better ways of doing it at scale—hence 6G’s efforts.

    Researchers in the University of Oulu’s 6Genesis program, as well as those in the U.S.’s Center for Converged TeraHertz Communications and Sensing (ComSenTer), which I wrote about in June, say frequencies from 100GHz up to terahertz (THz) are the way to go.

    Mobile Edge Computing and Multi-access Edge Computing on the way

    Pouttu said we will also begin to observe more of a new form of computing called Mobile Edge or Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) to handle 5G as it transitions to 6G. That’s a network architecture where heavy processing takes place near people on server-cum-base-stations, but most of the final work, such as AI and problem modelling, happens in the mobile device or IoT device somewhere in the vicinity.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    FCC opens up experimental spectrum licenses for 6G

    5G has barely gotten off the ground, and US regulators are already looking to the next big thing in wireless.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G Kicks Off with Trump Tweets, FCC Action, and a Summit

    Interest in 6G has picked up momentum in recent weeks, even more so after US President Donald Trump’s tweet saying American companies must step up their efforts towards it. Now the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has created a new category of experimental licenses for use of frequencies between 95 GHz and 3 THz, and this week industry and academia are meeting at a ski resort in Finland to map out the first collaborative effort to draft a joint vision of what 6G might look like.

    The FCC is keen to encourage development of new communications technologies and expedite the deployment of new services in the spectrum above 95 GHz.

    To enable access to this spectrum, the FCC’s Spectrum Horizons First Report and Order created a new category of experimental licenses with durations of up to 10 years to give innovators the flexibility to conduct experiments, and to more easily market equipment during the experimental period.

    It also makes a total of 21.2 gigahertz of spectrum available for use by unlicensed devices.

    White Paper on 6G Vision
    Professor Ari Pouttu, vice-director of the 6G Flagship program at the University of Oulu, whom we spoke to last September about their 6G research in Finland, said it typically takes 10 years from starting research to getting to market, and he expects this could be the case for 6G too. Last week he told us, “Industry is just starting to roll out 5G, so we expect standardization for 6G may probably happen around 2030. This will be around the time when 5G peaks, and 4G will probably only peak around 2025.” He said the first industry timeline for 6G was presented at the IEEE Globecom Summit in Abu Dhabi last December.

    5G is Just Rolling Out. So What’s 6G?

    Researchers don’t think in terms of quarters, but in decades. And technology is relentless.

    When the city of Oulu, Finland, invited a group of journalists to come and have a look at some of the work that they are doing to initiate research on 6G, I (like many I have spoken to) immediately thought, But we don’t even have commercial 5G yet, so how can we be talking about 6G?

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G cellular networks: 6 new technologies

    5G cellular or mobile technologies are the focus of this video. It includes a brief history of the four generations of cellular technologies. Then I will talk about six new technologies possibly used in the 5G cellular network: millimeter wave, massive multi-user MIMO, small cell stations, beamforming, NOMA, and Mobile Edge Computing.
    keyword: 1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G. Cellular technologies, HSPA, HSPA+, LTE- long term evolution, millimeter wave, massive multi-user MIMO, small cell stations, beamforming, NOMA, and Mobile Edge Computing.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Wireless Standard Shuffle from 1G to Wi-Fi 6

    Wireless standards set the guidelines and limits for equipment manufacturers seeking to comply with the requirements of the latest wireless-communications networks.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Terahertz frequencies will be needed to get #wireless data rates beyond #5G NYU Wireless #attenuation #6G #health https://buff.ly/2XNr7Fb

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Home> Community > Blogs > 5G Waves
    Initial 6G work is underway

    this year’s Brooklyn 5G Summit, NYU professor Ted Rappaport gave a presentation about initial research for what could become 6G sometime around 2030 to 2035. Now, you can read the details in “Wireless Communications and Applications Above 100 GHz: Opportunities and Challenges for 6G and Beyond.”

    Rappaport noted that 5G took 15 years to reach initial deployment and he assumes the same for 6G. Why go beyond 5G? The paper explains that faster wireless speeds will be needed to keep pace with ever-increasing computing power and will create new opportunities. By 2036, we could have $1000 computers that have the computation power of the human brain. Although wireless networks based on terahertz signals still won’t be fast enough to keep up with that power, it will get us closer. Perhaps 7G will get there.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    UCI Engineers Design Chip That’s 4X Faster at Processing Data Than 5G

    While most of the world is currently looking to implement 5G networks, electrical engineers at the University of California, Irvine have designed a chip that performs four-times faster than what the 5G communication standard can deliver. The ‘Beyond 5G’ 4.4-millimeter-square end-to-end transmitter-receiver features a digital/analog architecture that’s capable of operating at 100GHz and above, which is striking considering 5G operates in the 28 to 38GHz spectrum

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Electrical engineering team develops ‘beyond 5G’ wireless transceiver

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G: the new frontier – if the world can work out how to use it

    Researchers in China and beyond are looking into the next generation of wireless technology but there are strategic and technical barriers to overcome, observers say.

    From South Korea to China, tech-savvy users had their first taste of 5G’s lightning-fast internet speeds just months ago.

    While the network promises a future of self-driving cars and data-fuelled cities, tech companies and research facilities in China and around the world are already looking into 6G, the next generation of internet networks.

    Sixth-generation mobile networks will reach speeds of one terabyte per second, by some estimates. That’s 100 times the rate of even the best existing technology, but is expected to take a decade to roll out.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Sixth-generation mobile networks will reach bullshit hype speak speeds of one terabyte per second, by some of my estimates even before first networks are build.

    That’s higher the rate of even the best existing technology 5G.

    It expected to take a decade to roll out and it could even fullfill some of the promises that were given that 5G was hyped to deliver.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Existential Threat to Wireless

    As we plunge forward into the next generations of wireless—namely 5G and down the road, 6G—one hurdle stands in the way of progress: the very finite amount of spectrum.

    What’s the one thing that stifles wireless progress and puts future applications in doubt? Of course, it’s lack of spectrum. And what are we doing about it? To its credit, the industry certainly does what it can, given the tangled set of regulations, policies, red tape, politics, and business practices. But is it enough? If not, wireless progress will continue to be throttled until we find better ways to deal with the spectrum issues.

    There’s only so much electromagnetic spectrum. Once it’s allocated and used up, there is no more. Spectrum is a precious national resource. We need to learn how to divide it up and assign it to keep wireless moving ahead.

    Currently, most of the sweet spot of spectrum from about 100 MHz to 3 GHz has been allocated and is heavily used.

    Is there a real spectrum shortage? Yes and no. A great deal of spectrum has been licensed to many that want to hold on to it for potential future use or profit. They can’t sell their spectrum holdings directly to others—the FCC won’t allow it. This faulty policy means that lots of good usable spectrum exists, but no one can get to it without the approval of the FCC, which introduces delays and costs. Some of the biggest spectrum hogs are the military and government. They need what they need, but much of it is unused and unavailable.

    Spectrum transactions are the duty of the regulatory agencies.

    Keeping up with all of the existing spectrum issues, assignments, and allocations is an enormous task. And it takes time, money, and in many cases, legal help to acquire new spectrum.


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