EU mandates USB-C charging

The European Parliament and the Council of Europe have announced the introduction of a universal charger for mobile devices is to be taken to use. The preliminary agreement on the reform of the Radio Equipment Directive means that certain electronic devices will in future be charged with the same charger. By autumn 2024, USB Type-C will become the common charging port for all mobile phones, tablets and cameras in the EU, Parliament and Council negotiators agree: “Today we have made the common charger a reality in Europe!”

The reform is part of the EU’s efforts to improve the recycling of products, especially electronics, and to make life easier for consumers through a standard solution. The new rules are intended to ensure that consumers no longer have to buy a new charger and cord every time they buy a new device, and that all small and medium-sized devices can be charged with the same USB-C charger.

The new EU standard for charging will be USB-C connection in the EU. The speed of fast charging will also be harmonized in the near future, promises the European Parliament. Although the charge interface proposal is already certain, it will have to be formally approved by the European Parliament and the Council after the summer recess. The directive will then be published in the Official Journal of the EU, after which, after a two-year transition period, all new devices will have to use a USB-C connection.

This means that in Europe, by 2024, a USB-C connection will be required as a charging connector for portable electronics. All Mobile Phones, Tablets and Cameras sold from Fall 2024 must be able to be charged with USB-C chargers. Mobile phones, tablets, e-readers, in-ear headphones, digital cameras, headphones, handheld video game consoles and portable speakers that can be charged with a wired cable must be equipped with a USB-C port, regardless of the manufacturer, ”the release said.

Laptops must also comply with the new rules more than three years after the rules come into force. At the same time, the speed of fast charging would be harmonized for devices that support it, so that charging is equally fast on all compatible devices.

The new regulation does not apply to devices that cannot include a USB-C port due to the size of the device. These include, for example, smart watches and activity bracelets.

Or unless wireless charging then makes the whole connection unnecessary. The EU’s press release specifically says the rules apply to devices “that are rechargeable via a wired cable,” meaning a device that only charges wirelessly would not need to be fitted with a USB-C port. Wireless charging is also expected to become more common. The European Commission can therefore regulate the compatibility of wireless charging solutions with the so-called delegated regulations.

Pushing for common charger has been a long process. The European Commission announced the current plans for the legislation last September, but the bloc’s efforts to force manufacturers to use a common charging standard go back over a decade. Parliament and its Committee on the Internal Market have been pushing for a decision on universal chargers for portable electronics for ten years (first tried with microUSB). The whole time Apple has considered the EU’s move to a universal charger unnecessary. These new obligations will lead to more re-use of chargers and will help consumers save up to 250 million euro a year on unnecessary charger purchases. Disposed of and unused chargers are estimated to represent about 11,000 tonnes of e-waste annually.



  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Earpiece USB C conversion retermination with mic easy Tutorial

    Easily convert your earpiece cable to type C

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    All About USB-C: Pinecil Soldering Iron

    Today, let’s check out the Pinecil. A soldering iron by Pine64, released a few years ago, keeping the price low and quality high. It sports both a barrel jack and a USB-C port for its power input – a welcome departure from the Miniware iron strategy, where neither the barrel-jack-only TS100 nor the low-power proprietary-tip TS80 irons quite did it. And, given its design around TS100 T12-style tips, it’s no wonder Pinecil took a well-deserved spot in hobbyist world.

    Pinecil went the “PD stack software + PD frontend IC” way, devoting part of the MCU to the realtime nature of PD communications. The PD frontend used is the FUSB302, connected to the MCU over the regular I2C interface. The microcontroller itself has changed from the GD32VF103 in Pinecil v1 to the BL706 in Pinecil v2 – both of them RISC-V.

    Leading USB-C In Open-Source

    Writing a USB-C PD software stack is not as straightforward as writing, say, an ADC driver. To enforce the coexistence and safety requirements, USB-C uses state machines. If you’ve ever had someone share one of these intimidating diagrams straight from USB-C documentation pages with you, you might be inclined to believe that USB-C is best not touched by humans. That viewpoint isn’t entirely wrong – reimplementing these state machines is not something you necessarily might want to spend your time doing. On the other hand, despite the informationally aggressive nature, the state machines involved are simpler than they might look.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    All About USB-C: Manufacturer Sins

    People experience a variety of problems with USB-C. I’ve asked people online about their negative experiences with USB-C, and got a wide variety of responses, both on Twitter and on Mastodon. In addition to that, communities like r/UsbCHardware keep a lore of things that make some people’s experience with USB-C subpar.

    In engineering and hacking, there’s unspoken things we used to quietly consider as unviable. Having bidirectional power and high-speed data on a single port with thousands of peripherals, using nothing but a single data pin – if you’ve ever looked at a schematic for a proprietary docking connector attempting such a feat, you know that you’d find horrors beyond comprehension.

    When USB-C was being designed, the group looked through chargers, OTG adapters, display outputs, docking stations, docking stations with charging functions, and display outputs, and united them into a specification that can account for basically everything – over a single cable. What could go wrong?

    Of course, device manufacturers found a number of ways to take everything that USB-C provides, and wipe the floor with it. Some of the USB-C sins are noticeable trends. Most of them, I’ve found, are manufacturers’ faults, whether by inattention or by malice; things like cable labelling are squarely in the USB-C standard domain, and there’s plenty of random wear and tear failures.

    Omitting The Resistors, One Cent At A Time
    No USB-C resistors in sight, and the pins aren’t even soldered

    Yep, you got it. The first, honorary entry is omitting 5.1 kΩ pulldowns on a USB-C port intended for charging your device. “Why does my device charge with a USB-A to USB-C cable, but doesn’t charge with a USB-C to USB-C cable”, asks the user? The answer is simple – because your device’s designer decided to save one cent while building your device, and didn’t care about testing the device before selling it to you.

    In other words, your device is supposed to have two resistors connected to the USB-C plug, yet it does not, and USB-C power supplies are unable to detect that they ought to provide power. Remember, the resistor detection is fundamentally a safety mechanism, and by now, information about this problem is omnipresent.

    Omitting these resistors is one of the most infuriating Type-C mistakes for users, and often results in people debugging the problem for hours on end.

    Murderous “USB-C” PSUs At Your Local Lidl

    Remember the power article, specifically, how you get to higher voltages? Let’s recap: you get 5 V first, and then only after resistor detection. Higher voltages require negotiations over a digital protocol. This is a safety rule – it’s how you can use the same USB-C charger for your laptop, your phone, your wireless headphones, your devboards and whatever else.

    Now, what happens when someone builds a power supply with a fixed higher-than-5 V output, say, 12 V, and puts a USB-C plug on it? The answer is – seriously bad things happen. Such a power supply isn’t safe to be used on actual USB-C devices – it’s likely to destroy your phone or laptop, and it’s at a glance indistinguishable from an adapter that follows the USB-C rules laid out for everyone else.

    Who does this? Well, many no-name manufacturers do, but also Lidl Parkside tools, for one. CrowPi does this too, in their recently released CrowPi L laptop. Both of these come with dumb “USB-C” 12 V power supplies, and neither of them should be sold to consumers, especially given that the CrowPi laptop is designed for kids and educational purposes, and Parkside tools are designed for non-tech-savvy people. When your kid burns a $500 smartphone or your granddad burns his laptop due to a $2 power supply, that’s when the gravity of this standard violation really sets in.

    Blaming Companies? It’s Not That Simple

    The resistor omission is by now a thorn in consumers’ sides, and the murderous PSU designs are unforgivable. Designers should not do these things. There is, however, an area where I can forgive mistakes happening, and that’s the USB-PD protocol – specifically, the compatibility mistakes, especially in early USB-C tech.

    The PD specification is 800 pages – this is, no doubt, intimidating. If you’re getting paid to implement USB-C, however, it’s your job to be familiar with it. On the other hand, when you’re an early adopter implementing a complex specification, it’s quite likely you’re going to screw it up through no fault of your own.

    The gist is – early adoption of is more of a tricky engineering problem than we might recognize.

    In addition to that, there’s two early adopter routes for a wide-reaching interfacing technology like this. One route is – you build a device that is engineered to be specifically compatible with the pricey peripherals that you manufacture, despite being based an open standard being aimed at intercompatibility, and don’t really test the device with other things. I call this the Nintendo Switch route, for no particular reason.

    The other early adopter route is – you design a device, then test it with other devices. It’s the early adoption stage, so other devices are often similarly broken, and you end up adding a slew of workarounds and bugfixes piled up on top of each other.

    Not Testing PD Implementations Enough

    Nowadays, there’s no excuse to release a poorly tested USB-C product. If an open-source project can have an array of power supplies to test a USB-C PSU with, large companies have no excuse. If you bought a hefty powerbank that doesn’t put enough effort into figuring out power roles and ends up getting charged from the laptop when you need the opposite, that means it’s not been tested on laptops like yours, and chances are, yours isn’t special. Let’s face it – a company developing powerbanks can afford to buy a few laptops with different OSes and test the behaviour until it works well.

    The PD compatibility problems are out there, and you might stumble upon them eventually, especially when it comes to charging. There’s laptops that don’t work with specific chargers

    Of course, there’s ways to mis-manage specifications, but let’s face it – there’s gotta be a more fundamental cause for this.

    Part of the problem is lack of information sharing. When a large open-source project solves a tricky compatibility problem and adds a workaround, it goes onto GitHub for everyone to see and make use of, with a searchable description of the problem in the commit message.

    When a commercial entity fixes the same bug, it is thrown into /dev/null for all other informational intents and purposes, except for the binary blob they push as a firmware update – if even. In this case, each company implementing PD-talking stuff, has their own database of PD quirks, working around peculiarities of devices they tested with. Those PD quirks ought to be openly available information, but they’re not.

    Proprietary solution developers aren’t paid to share things, whereas in open-source project, the sharing happens naturally, through no extra effort, once again exposing the fundamental inferiority of proprietary processes. Large part of the reason you have buggy USB-C devices, is that companies would rather make you overpay and suffer incompatibilities, than put effort into sharing information between themselves.

    Microcontrollers with PD peripherals are often tough to work with, too. Again, this is a lack of effort put into making those peripherals friendly for developers, whether through better design or better documentation – often, more open code, as you might be able to guess, sadly. T

    Don’t Add, Don’t Tell

    You can buy a $1000 laptop, and find out that its USB-C port only does USB3 – no charging or DisplayPort. Or, you can buy a mid-tier $500 smartphone, and find out that it can’t charge and do OTG at the same time, despite USB-C making it so that devices can easily do precisely that in a standardized manner, killing off all those MicroUSB splitter adapters with weird resistors on the ID pin.

    The cherry on top is a single USB-C port on a laptop – and nothing else — you might have seen Macbooks like this. You’re basically required to carry a dongle with PD passthrough around, there’s nowhere to plug your wireless mouse receiver in, and the USB-C port becomes the living definition of the word “bottleneck”. When it comes to right to repair, having a single USB-C port for absolutely everything means adding a giant failure point that will leave you laptop-less if you accidentally use too cheap of a charger and end up melting the only port’s plastic. If it’s not a Macbook, good luck finding a replacement port; custom-made small-batch USB-C ports can be quite literally impossible to find for a hobbyist.

    Still, Workarounds Exist

    Remember: if your USB-C cable is broken or wonky, you should stop using it and buy a replacement. Mark devices that misbehave, and talk online about them; name and shame liberally. Read online reviews if compatibility is what you worry about, scroll down on Aliexpress, or search the product name to see if the device you’re buying has the resistors it needs. When buying a USB-C power supply or an expensiveish dock, it can be good to test it with your device and make sure you can return it or exchange it for a different one.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Pian myös voimatyökaluja ladataan USB:n yli

    C-tyypin USB on jo käytännössä kaikkien pienten laitteiden de facto -latausväylä, mutta tehotason kasvaessa siitä tulee myös suurempaa tehoa vaativien laitteiden latausväylä. Kehitystä kuvaa hyvin STMicroelectronicsin uusille latauspiireilleen saama sertifiointi.

    ST kertoo saaneensa USB-IF-sertifioinnin kahdelle IC-latauspiirille. Piirien (lähde ja vastaanotto) avulla ST:n USB-lattauspiirien valikoima laajenee 140 watin tehoon. Tämä tarkoittaa, että yhdellä AC–DC-sovittimella voidaan ladata tietokoneita, älykkään kodin toimilaitteita, sähkötyökaluja ja sähköpyöriä perinteisten älypuhelimien ja tablettien lisäksi.

    Tehon kasvamisella on merkittäviä etuja käytännössä. Esimerkiksi jo sadan watin laturi riittää lataamaan esimerkiksi läppärin ja puhelimen. Yksi laturi vähemmän lentolaukussa kuulostaa aika hyvältä idealta.

    USB PD -standardin maksimiteho on nykyään 240 wattia. Yli sadan watin tehoja USB-IF-järjestö kutsuu termillä EPR eli laajennettu tehoalue (extended power range). ST:n sovelluspuolen referenssisuunnittelu perustuu STM32-ohjaimeen, analogiseen STUSB1602-etuastepiiriin, suurjännitesuojapiireihin ja erilliseen ohjelmistopinoon. Suunnittelu tukee protokollan hienosäätöä ja sopii monenlaisiin sovelluksiin.

    Sovittimen puolen rakenne tuottaa jopa 140 W ([email protected]) ulostulon ST-ONEHP:n digitaalisesta ohjaimesta, joka on erityisesti suunniteltu USB PD 3.1 EPR -latureille.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Sink and Source Protection Switches Serve USB Type-C EPR 3.1 Apps
    March 16, 2023
    The AOZ13937DI sink and AOZ15333DI source protection switches pave the way for USB Type-C EPR 3.1 designs delivering up to 140 W.|7211D2691390C9R&oly_enc_id=7211D2691390C9R

    Alpha and Omega Semiconductor, in Booth #810 at APEC, will showcase a pair of sink and source switches that can increase the power-delivery capability of USB Type-C ports to 140 W, paving the way for Type-C extended power range (EPR) implementations.

    The AOZ13937DI is equipped to handle 28-V Type-C sinking applications, while the AOZ15333DI is capable of Type-C sourcing apps. These new switches are suited for 28-V Type C EPR implementations in high-performance laptops, personal computers, monitors, docking stations, and other applications.

    The AOZ13937DI features an ultra-low, 20-mΩ resistance with soft-start, overvoltage, ideal-diode reverse-current, short-circuit, overcurrent, overtemperature, and ESD protections. It’s designed to isolate and protect downstream components from abnormal VBUS voltage and current conditions. The ideal-diode, fast reverse-current protection allows multiple power paths to be connected in parallel without interference.

    The AOZ15333DI companion source switch IC is capable of sourcing 5 V at 3 A while blocking up to 28 V. AOZ15333DI is UL 2367- and IEC 62368-1:2018 (3rd Edition)-certified as a current-limiting switch suited for Type-C sourcing applications. The device is protected against numerous fault conditions such as VIN overvoltage protection (OVP), startup short-circuit protection (SCP), overtemperature (OTP) protection, and it has a programmable ILIMIT pin.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EU varoittaa Applea rajoittamasta USBC-kaapelien lataustehoa

    EU hyväksyi viime vuonna lain, joka edellyttää, että kaikki ladattavat laitteet on varustettava USBC-portilla. Apple on tuomassa uuden liittimen iPhone-puhelimiinsa tänä vuonna, mutta yhtiön on arveltu rajoittavan muiden valmistajien kaapelien toimintaa puhelimiensa kanssa.

    Tämä tietenkin rikkoo ainakin EU-direktiivin henkeä vastaan. Mikäli vain Applen sertifioimat USBC-kaapelit lataavat iPhone-puhelimia täydellä teholla, uuden iPhonen ostajat ostavat myös Applen uuden kaapelin. Ja tarkoituksena oli ennen kaikkea vähentää syntyvän SER-romun määrää.

    Appella on laitteissaan tunnistinsiruja, jotka validoivat liitetyn kaapelin. Näin muiden valmistajien – tai oikeastaan sellaisten, joilta Applen MFi-sertifiointi puuttuu – kaapelin latausteho voitaisiin rajoittaa alhaisemmaksi, kuin mitä standardi sallii.

    Euroopan komission jäsen Thierry Breton on lähettänyt Applelle kirjeen, jossa varoitetaan, ettei USBC-kaapeleiden toimivuuden rajoittaminen ole sallittua.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Vähän ärsyttää laajemminkin, että USB-virtalähteissä ei ole enää kovin selkeitä standardeja. On QC3 ja PD3 ja 65W ja

    mikä toimii minkäkin kanssa ja mikä on jo vanha juttu.

    EU sends Apple stark warning over USB-C charging on new iPhones
    By Axel Metz published 2 days ago
    Bad news for Apple, good news for you

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    USB Type-C Solution Outputs Up to 100 W for In-Car Charging

    Infineon Technologies rolled out a dual-port automotive-grade USB-C power-delivery (PD) solution with integrated buck-boost controller that outputs up to 100 W of power for in-vehicle charging.

    Called EZ-PD CCG7D, the USB Type-C solution is specifically designed for cars that support DisplayPort (DP) in alternate mode. It enables USB devices to charge while simultaneously sharing multimedia content with the vehicle, with output power of up to 100 W per port, according to the company. The high integration in the CCG7D reduces bill-of-materials (BOM) costs when used in the main dashboard or rear-seat chargers and display systems.

    The CCG7D incorporates dual USB-C ports, with one supporting DP-Sink and the other supporting DP-Source. As a result, a two-way multimedia solution can be implemented in the vehicle, allowing USB Type-C devices to be charged and video to be streamed from a mobile phone or PC to the vehicle’s display. The new solution works with Infineon’s automotive software development kit (SDK). The SDK has configurable features like output power throttling based on battery voltage and temperature, dynamic load sharing between ports, temperature monitoring, authenticated field firmware updates, and a black box for diagnostics.|7211D2691390C9R&oly_enc_id=7211D2691390C9R&id=21265339&slide=1

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Minimal USB Device Connects With Just A Couple Of Resistors

    If you’re like most of us, your basic approach to building something boils down to: “What’s the minimum amount I need to do to get this to work?” It’s not a bad strategy in general, but the minimal build is rarely enough to meet all the requirements, as this extremely minimal but functional USB device illustrates.

    Functional, yes, but as [TM] explains, only if you define functional as being recognized by your operating system. The BOM for that job turns out to be really small — a 3.3-volt regulator, its capacitor, and a pair of resistors connected to a DIP switch. The resistors, 1.5k each, are connected to the D+ and D- lines of the USB connector and pull their respective lines up to 3V3 when their switch is closed. If the D- switch is thrown, it indicates a low-speed connection is requested, while D+ requests a speedier connection. Either way, its enough to get the familiar “USB connect” sound in Windows, and to see it listed in Device Manager or dmesg on Linux.

    See the minimum needed for a USB device to list in Device Manager

    See a demonstration of how little has to go right for a USB device to show up in Windows Device Manager or Linux dmesg and understand what that means for troubleshooting USB microcontroller/Arduino projects.

    The video I’d mentioned about beginning regarding wasting time looking for drivers: • Arduino not showi…

    00:00 Intro
    00:15 Description
    00:42 Demoboard overview
    01:29 Demoboard circuit details
    02:20 USB device enumeration
    04:03 Speeds
    05:17 Testing In Windows
    07:03 Testing In Linux
    08:39 Troubleshooting
    08:57 Physical connections
    09:35 Enable/RESET signals
    10:27 A microcontroller seems to be trying to connect
    11:19 Designs that try to connect by default

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why a Digispark should not be your first Arduino.

    See the problems you can expect to run up against if you’re going to try using a Digispark or Digispark-like board. I explain this in the video a couple of times but much of it is in text in the video. Just so that it is explained in text: These Digispark, clones of it, V-USB, Micronucleus, etc, are all fine if you know what you’re getting into. Most beginners don’t. And that’s all I am to do in the video is warn you what sorts of problems you can expect to encounter.

    In the video I show an UNO R3. Not long before I made this video they announced a new ARM-based R4 model. It has not release yet, but it seems that they’ve gone to some effort to make it as comparable as possible within reason. It may be become the new beginner’s board.The R3 UNO (or good clone of it) will probably remain the best option for beginners for a while though.

    0:00 Intro
    0:15 Digispark description
    0:52 Key feature
    1:34 Problem 1: Unprotected Bootloader
    2:14 Problem 2: Unreliable USB
    3:14 Problem 3: Limited memories and peripherals
    4:12 Problem 4: No USB Serial
    5:11 Problem 5: Unmaintained board support
    5:51 Problem 6: Disabled RESET pin
    6:38 Problem 7: Poorly constructed PCB trace plugs on boards that have them
    7:09 Problem 8: Low pin count
    7:27 Problem 9: Lack of learning materials
    7:53 Conclusion / Advice


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *