EU mandates USB-C charging

The European Parliament and the Council of Europe have announced the introduction of a universal charger for mobile devices is to be taken to use. The preliminary agreement on the reform of the Radio Equipment Directive means that certain electronic devices will in future be charged with the same charger. By autumn 2024, USB Type-C will become the common charging port for all mobile phones, tablets and cameras in the EU, Parliament and Council negotiators agree: “Today we have made the common charger a reality in Europe!”

The reform is part of the EU’s efforts to improve the recycling of products, especially electronics, and to make life easier for consumers through a standard solution. The new rules are intended to ensure that consumers no longer have to buy a new charger and cord every time they buy a new device, and that all small and medium-sized devices can be charged with the same USB-C charger.

The new EU standard for charging will be USB-C connection in the EU. The speed of fast charging will also be harmonized in the near future, promises the European Parliament. Although the charge interface proposal is already certain, it will have to be formally approved by the European Parliament and the Council after the summer recess. The directive will then be published in the Official Journal of the EU, after which, after a two-year transition period, all new devices will have to use a USB-C connection.

This means that in Europe, by 2024, a USB-C connection will be required as a charging connector for portable electronics. All Mobile Phones, Tablets and Cameras sold from Fall 2024 must be able to be charged with USB-C chargers. Mobile phones, tablets, e-readers, in-ear headphones, digital cameras, headphones, handheld video game consoles and portable speakers that can be charged with a wired cable must be equipped with a USB-C port, regardless of the manufacturer, ”the release said.

Laptops must also comply with the new rules more than three years after the rules come into force. At the same time, the speed of fast charging would be harmonized for devices that support it, so that charging is equally fast on all compatible devices.

The new regulation does not apply to devices that cannot include a USB-C port due to the size of the device. These include, for example, smart watches and activity bracelets.

Or unless wireless charging then makes the whole connection unnecessary. The EU’s press release specifically says the rules apply to devices “that are rechargeable via a wired cable,” meaning a device that only charges wirelessly would not need to be fitted with a USB-C port. Wireless charging is also expected to become more common. The European Commission can therefore regulate the compatibility of wireless charging solutions with the so-called delegated regulations.

Pushing for common charger has been a long process. The European Commission announced the current plans for the legislation last September, but the bloc’s efforts to force manufacturers to use a common charging standard go back over a decade. Parliament and its Committee on the Internal Market have been pushing for a decision on universal chargers for portable electronics for ten years (first tried with microUSB). The whole time Apple has considered the EU’s move to a universal charger unnecessary. These new obligations will lead to more re-use of chargers and will help consumers save up to 250 million euro a year on unnecessary charger purchases. Disposed of and unused chargers are estimated to represent about 11,000 tonnes of e-waste annually.

Sources:
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/fi/press-room/20220603IPR32196/trilogisopu-yleislaturista-tavoitteena-vahentaa-elektroniikkaromun-maaraa
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/en/press-room/20220603IPR32196/deal-on-common-charger-reducing-hassle-for-consumers-and-curbing-e-waste
https://www.europarl.europa.eu/news/fi/press-room/20220412IPR27115/common-charger-meps-agree-on-proposal-to-reduce-electronic-waste
https://multimedia.europarl.europa.eu/en/webstreaming/press-conference-by-alex-agius-saliba-rapporteur-on-outcome-of-trilogue-on-common-charger_20220607-1230-SPECIAL-PRESSER
https://www.theverge.com/2022/6/7/23156361/european-union-usb-c-wired-charging-iphone-lightning-ewaste?scrolla=5eb6d68b7fedc32c19ef33b4
https://www.iltalehti.fi/digiuutiset/a/ba6a457b-65af-4bb9-931f-bbcef2f3b195
https://www.is.fi/digitoday/art-2000008869932.html
https://www.uusiteknologia.fi/2022/06/07/eurooppa-valitsi-usb-c-latausliitannan-kayttoon-vasta-2024/
https://www.uusiteknologia.fi/?s=USB-C
https://www.epanorama.net/blog/2010/12/30/eu-standards-for-common-mobile-phone-charger/
https://www.macrumors.com/2022/05/11/iphone-15-ditch-lightning-for-usb-c/?scrolla=5eb6d68b7fedc32c19ef33b4
https://techcrunch.com/2022/04/20/eu-common-charger-rules/
https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/13448-apple-rimpuilee-eu-n-laturipaeaetoestae-vastaan
https://www.epanorama.net/blog/2021/05/27/higher-power-usb-c-will-deliver-240w/

15 Comments

  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Android smartphone makers, stop doing this!
    Ports are meant to be used. Make sure we can use them.
    https://www.zdnet.com/article/android-smartphone-makers-stop-doing-this/

    Reply
  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Adding USB-C To An IPhone 13 Is Delicate Work
    https://hackaday.com/2022/06/24/adding-usb-c-to-an-iphone-13-is-delicate-work/

    USB-C seeks to rule the roost when it comes to connectors, and even has Big Europe on its side. Apple hasn’t had to abandon Lightning just yet, but [Restore Technique] has put a USB-C port into an iPhone 13 to give us all an idea what it’s going to be like in the brave new future ahead of us.

    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1yudWXta6dM

    Reply
  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Brazil joins fight to make USB-C standard on iPhone
    https://appleinsider.com/articles/22/06/29/brazil-joins-fight-to-make-usb-c-standard-on-iphone?utm_source=sendible&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=RSS

    In early June, the European Union put forth new rules that would require all smartphones to utilize the USB-C standard for charging.

    Shortly after, U.S. senators called on the U.S. Commerce Department mandate a universal common charger standard.

    Now, Brazil has also called for universal charging support. But, like the EU, they believe Apple should swap its proprietary Lightning connector for the more widely-adopted USB-C.

    According to Technoblog, as spotted by 9to5Mac, Brazilian regulators are pushing for smartphone manufactures to standardize their charging ports.

    Apple may already be working on a USB-C iPhone. Apple analyst Ming-Chi Kuo says that the 2023 “iPhone 15″ will abandon the Lightning connector and instead use USB-C.

    Reply
  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    USB PD also delivers 19 volts, up to 60 watts with standard cable (and 100 watts with special ones). There are numerous USB-C to whatever-laptop-connector adapters around. Covers MOST of laptops around without USB-C.

    Reply
  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    All Smartphones Must Use The Same Charger By 2024 Says EU, UK Will Not Follow
    Apple must conform to the universal solution by 2024 if they wish to sell in the EU.
    https://www.iflscience.com/all-smartphones-must-use-the-same-charger-by-2024-says-eu-uk-will-not-follow-63994

    Reply
  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    https://www.electronicdesign.com/power-management/whitepaper/21246867/electronic-design-this-week-in-powerbites-solidstate-caps-and-solarenergy-fuses?utm_source=EG+ED+Auto+Electronics&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CPS220808133&o_eid=7211D2691390C9R&rdx.identpull=omeda|7211D2691390C9R&oly_enc_id=7211D2691390C9R

    The European Parliament’s recent directive mandating a common USB-C charging port on all mobile phones by autumn 2024 is creating new challenges for manufacturers, suppliers, and especially designers. While USB harmonization offers considerable benefits to the consumer and the environment, it also imposes stiffer electrical design requirements on some designers.

    Until now, many companies would design and ship a specific charger for their product. In some cases, they even used non-standard barrel-style jacks to ensure consumers would only use the charger they conceived. The European initiative will suddenly require that one charger must work with a wide range of devices, requiring engineers to account for more edge cases, faulty sink systems, etc.

    To help designers better understand these challenges, STMicroelectronics has prepared an informative blog post on using its TCPP02-M18 to protect USB Type-C ports against the overcurrent and overvoltage conditions specified in the EU directive. Besides the obligatory product pitch, the post covers important topics that include:

    New Challenges from Harmonization
    What Makes Source Protection Special?
    VBUS Protection
    CC and VCONN Protection

    You can check it out at https://blog.st.com/tcpp02-m18/

    Reply
  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TCPP02-M18, Creating Fast and Powerful USB-C Chargers For Products No One Designed Yet
    https://blog.st.com/tcpp02-m18/

    The TCPP02-M18 protects USB Type-C ports in source mode against over-current on the VBUS pin and against over-voltages of up to 24 V on the communication channel (CC lines). It is a companion chip to USB-C platforms running on STM32 MCUs that includes a current sensing mechanism accessible by the microcontroller for greater application control. The TCPP02-M18, is a Type-C Port Protection (TCPP) for devices that send a charge (source), unlike the TCPP01-M12, which protects USB-C ports in sink mode (charging). And while both have similarities, like system-level ESD protection rated at ±8 kV IEC61000-4-2 Level 4 on CC1 and CC2 pins, they tackle significantly different challenges.

    The New Challenges from Harmonization
    A small USB-C charger
    A small USB-C charger

    The European Commission has been pushing for charging devices to use USB-C connectors, thus creating new challenges. In fact, the European Parliament announced a new directive last week mandating a common USB-C charging port on all mobile phones by autumn 2024. Previously, many companies would design and ship a specific charger for their product. Designers even used rare barrel jacks to ensure consumers would only use the charger they conceived. The European initiative will suddenly mean that one charger will work with a wide range of devices. As a result, engineers must account for more edge cases, faulty sink systems, etc. The environmental benefits of such a measure are essential. However, the electrical challenges it represents are significant.

    Amongst the many issues engineers must solve, there are three main concerns: power optimizations, form factor, and cost. Consumers are demanding smarter chargers. Designers must thus create applications that optimize power consumption, especially when pushing the charger to its limits. Additionally, despite all this, consumers still want cheaper and smaller chargers. After all, the whole spirit behind the EU’s initiative is to reduce electronic waste. Hence, solving all three issues is particularly difficult.

    The Ability to Do More With an STM32 and the TCPP02-M18

    Traditionally, engineers rely on a port controller. The problem is that they don’t house an entire Cortex-M core and their memory capabilities remain small. They thus represent an added cost to the bill of materials (BoM). Engineers can’t use them for anything else except the USB-C port and adding essential features like current sensing often means integrating even more components onto the motherboard. Consequently, shrinking the PCB while adding all this becomes a serious issue that requires much work and can delay a release to market. Moreover, a controller and a protection device also require external PMOS transistors, increasing the BoM.

    Engineers, however, have solutions to sidestep all these landmines. For instance, using an STM32 microcontroller with built-in USB-C PD controllers allows for far greater computational throughput.

    Size and Cost

    Another consequence of using an STM32 and a TCPP02-M18, or any TCPP devices for that matter, is reducing components on the PCB. It becomes possible to create a robust system without adding complex ad hoc controllers or a myriad of external components. As a result, shrinking a design becomes far more straightforward. Engineers also get better reliability assurances. Indeed, fewer devices mean fewer fail points. Moreover, STM32 microcontrollers have a 10-year support warranty, while the TCPP family directly benefits from our BIPOLAR-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) technology, recently recognized as an IEEE Milestone. As chargers must now handle a wide range of use-cases, it is essential to meet new reliability requirements.

    USB Type-C Port Protection for Source application
    https://www.st.com/en/protections-and-emi-filters/tcpp02-m18.html

    he TCPP02-M18 is a MCU companion chip enabling cost-effective USB-C source solution. It provides protections and functionalities to safely comply with the USB-C specification. On provider path, TCPP02-M18 drives external N-channel MOSFET to ensure overcurrent protection on VBUS pin, as well as a discharge path. It features an analog current sense and amplifier with an output accessible for a MCU ADC, thus minimizing system cost.
    The TCPP02-M18 features 24 V tolerant ESD protection as per IEC61000-4-2 level 4 on USB Type-C™ connector communication channel pins (CC). Also, it provides overvoltage protection on CC1 and CC2 pins when these pins are subjected to short circuit with the VBUS pin that may happen when removing the USB Type-C™ cable from its receptacle.
    TCPP02-M18 embeds I2C slave registers with two possible addresses, ideal for dual-port chargers or multiple port applications.

    All features

    Externally programmable VBUS over current protection (OCP)
    Integrated charge pump and gate driver for external N-channel MOSFET
    VBUS current sense and amplifier with analog output
    Integrated discharge on VBUS and VCONN
    Over temperature protection
    Over voltage protection (OVP) on CC lines against short-to-VBUS
    VCONN OCP (100 mW max), OVP (6 V max)

    ESD protection for CC1, CC2, compliant with IEC 61000-4-2 Level 4 (±8 kV contact discharge, ±15 kV air discharge)
    Compliant with PPS (programmable power supply)
    I2C communication, with two I2C addresses available
    Junction temperature from -40 °C to 125 °C
    Compliant with USB-C power delivery standard 3.1, standard power range (SPR), up to 100 W
    ECOPACK2 compliant

    Reply
  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ensimmäinen älykäs ohjain USB-virransyötölle
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/13849-ensimmaeinen-aelykaes-ohjain-usb-virransyoetoelle

    C-tyypin USB-liitännästä on vauhdilla tullut kaikkien pienempien laitteiden latausliitäntöjen de facto -standardi. Silanna Semiconductor helpottaa valmistajien elämää maailman ensimmäisellä buck-tyyppisellä muunninpiirillä, johon on integroitu älykäs, mukautuva virranjako.

    Yhden sirun USB-porttivirtalähde vähentää komponenttien määrää ja yksinkertaistaa virranjaon suunnittelua moniporttisissa pikalatureissa. SZPL3002A on muunninpiiri, johon on sisäänrakennettu USB PD/FC -porttiohjain. Integroitu ratkaisu vähentää merkittävästi komponenttien määrää, joita tarvitaan 65 W:n pikalaturi- ja sovitinsovellusten toteuttamiseen jopa neljällä portilla.

    SZPL3002A-muunninpiirin mitat ovat vain 5 x 5 millimetriä. Silannan kehittämä DC-DC-muunnos toimii yli 98 prosentin hyötysuhteella. Integroitu porttiohjain tarjoaa täyden tuen USB PD V3.0 Type C -liitäntöille ja QC2.0/3.0/4.0/5.0 tuen tyypin A/C -liitännöille. Ohjain mahdollistaa virran jakamisen ja porttien tehon tasaustoiminnon kahdessa, kolmessa tai neljässä portissa. Ohjain varmistaa, että portin teho mukautuu tietyn laitteen tarpeisiin riippumatta siitä, milloin kytkennät tehdään.

    Reply
  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    USB-C Power Delivery Sink – CYPD3177
    A USB-C PD Sink up to 20V 5A based on the Cypress CYPD3177 USB PD Controller
    https://hackaday.io/project/168762-usb-c-power-delivery-sink-cypd3177

    This is a USB PD Sink Trigger / Decoy board. Rev 5 now available. Another improvement with TVS protection diodes on input and output and new FETs as power switches. The new FETs have a Rds_on of only 6.9 mOhm (measured), which reduces the dissipation even more compared to the previous version even with 5 A current draw.
    What is it?

    USB-C PD offers the option to negotiate power delivery from a compatible power supply. The USB-C PD-Sink plays the role of a sink device, enabling any device to be powered from a USB-PB power supply. Any type of power connector can be attached through a 2-pin screw terminal or directly soldered into the PCB for a lower profile. The voltage can be set to 5V, 9V, 15V (12V with solder bridge), or 20V and the current can be set to 1A, 2A, 3A, or 5A. This board has new FETs, which have a Rds_on of only 6.9 mOhm measured. Also new in this latest revision are 2 TVS diodes on the input and output for over voltage and surge protection.

    Reply
  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    https://hackaday.com/2022/08/16/usb-c-charging-mod-brings-in-the-juice/

    By now we’re well under way with the consolidation of low-voltage power supplies under the USB-C standard, and the small reversible connector has become the de facto way to squirt some volts into our projects. But for all this standardization there are still a few places where the harmony of a unified connector breaks down, and things don’t work quite the way they are supposed to. One such case has occupied [James Ide] — devices which will accept power from a USB-A to USB-C cable, but not from a USB-C to USB-C one. His solution? A small flexible PCB upgrade.

    https://github.com/ide/usb-c-to-c-power-mod

    Reply

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