Commonly used AC voltage levels

AC voltage levels:

0.316V The most common nominal level for consumer audio equipment is -10 dBV, 0.316 volts root mean square (VRMS).

0.7746V The reference voltage for the decibel unloaded (0 dBu) is the voltage required to produce 1 mW of power across a 600 ohms load (approximately 0.7746 VRMS)

1V  The reference voltage for the decibel volt (0 dBV) is 1 VRMS, which is the voltage required to produce 1 milliwatt of power across a 1 kilo-ohm load

1.228V The most common nominal level for professional equipment is 4 dBu. A signal at +4 dBu is equivalent to a sine wave signal with a peak amplitude of approximately 1.737 volts,or any general signal at approximately 1.228 VRMS.

12V A low voltage lighting system usually operates on 12 or 24 volts.

24V A low voltage lighting system usually operates on 12 or 24 volts.

24V Used for controlling relay coils in some automation and control systems.

50V Extra-low voltage high limit is 50V AC

warning-02

50V Low Voltage Directive is effective for voltages in range 50 – 1000 volts a.c. or between 75 and 1500V DC

75V Typical telephone line ring voltage is 75 V a.c.(20 or 25 Hz), it could be between 40 and 150 Volts (15-68 Hz)

100V Mains voltage in Japan. Reference voltage level used on electrical power stations measurements (100V = nominal high voltage on line being measured)

110V Mains power in USA, the voltage you expect to get from mains outlet
115V Mains power in USA, the voltage you expect to get from mains outlet
120V Mains power in USA, the output voltage on the distribution transformer

200V If the voltage is less than 200 V, then the human skin is the main contributor to the impedance of the body in the case of a macroshock—the passing of current between two contact points on the skin.

208V The voltage you expect to get between two phases in USA in case our apartment
gets two phase wires from three phase transformer (208/120V)

220V Old European nominal voltage, harmonized to 230V

230V Electricity supplies within the European Union are now nominally 230 V ± 6% at 50 Hz

240V the voltage you expect get between two hots in USA on your hous
240V Old nominal mails voltage used in UK, harmonized to 230V
240V the voltage you get between two hots in USA on the distribution transformer

277V Voltage between phase and neutral on 277/480V three phase system, used in USA for example lighting loads on big buildings

380V Voltage between phases on 220/380V three phase system (old European system)

400V Voltage between phases on 230/400V three phase system (modern European system)

415V Voltage between phases on 240/415V three phase system (old UK system)

450V If the voltage is above 450–600 V, then dielectric breakdown of the skin occurs

480V Voltage between phases in USA in commonly used 3 phase distribution

600V Three phase power voltage

690V Three phase power voltage used in industry for larger electrical motors (Europe)

warning-02

1000V Isolation test voltage for 130V rated working voltage basic isolation (IEC950)

1000V Low Voltage Directive is effective for voltages in range 50 – 1000 volts a.c. or between 75 and 1500 volts d.c
1000V There phase power voltage used on 1 kV power distribution (in use in Finland)

1350V Basic insulation of 1350V rms is needed for test-and-measurement instruments rated at 250V (IEC 61010-1)

1500V Basic insulation of 1500V rms is needed for information-technology products rated at 250V (IEC 60950-1)

1500V Isolation test voltage for 230V rated working voltage (IEC950) (basic isolation)

2100V Isolation test rating for reinforced isolation for 130V rated devices

2300V Use 2300V rms or 3250V dc test voltage for dielectric-withstand test for double insulation

7.2kV Common distribution voltage in USA

10kV Common distribution voltage in Finland

11kV Common distribution voltage in UK, New Zealand and Australia

12.47kV Common distribution voltage in USA

20kV Common distribution voltage in Finland

25kV Electrical trains use 25kV 50Hz power in Finland

33kV Common distribution voltage in UK, New Zealand and Australia

34.5kV Common distribution voltage in USA

110kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

220kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

400kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

15 Comments

  1. pompa submersibila says:

    Your blog is so naturally informative

    Reply
  2. RJL Electrical Ltd. Electrician Ottawa says:

    RJL Electrical Ltd. Electrician Ottawa…

    [...]Commonly used AC voltage levels « Tomi Engdahl’s ePanorama blog[...]…

    Reply
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  4. AC vs DC power in data center « Tomi Engdahl’s ePanorama blog says:

    [...] that can be realistically used in data centers: two basic types of alternating current (AC) power distribution and three basic types of direct current (DC) power distribution. These five [...]

    Reply
  5. jumpjack says:

    I think there is an error:

    400V Voltage between phases on 220/400V three phase system (old European system)

    415V Voltage between phases on 230/415V three system (modern European system)

    Actually:
    220/380V before
    230/400V now

    Reply
    • tomi says:

      Thank you for your feedback.
      You found an error in my article, and that for correction.
      I just updated the corrected information to the article:

      380V Voltage between phases on 220/380V three phase system (old European system)

      400V Voltage between phases on 230/400V three phase system (modern European system)

      415V Voltage between phases on 240/415V three phase system (old UK system)

      Reply
  6. 大人気 靴 アウトレット says:

    I really like it when people come together and share opinions.
    Great website, continue the good work!

    Reply
  7. Carlos says:

    13.8 kV Common distribution voltage in Brazil

    Reply
    • Tomi Engdahl says:

      Thank you for addition.

      I was slightly wondering where does this specific voltage come from and I have a theory.

      In Europe (50 Hz power) we have on three phase power voltage is typically 400V and medium voltage of 10kV or 11 kV (sometimes 20 kV but that’d different story).

      In USA (60Hz) the three phase power is typically 480V, which is actually 20% higher than in Europe just like the frequency.
      For example many transformers and motors designed 400V 50Hz can work acceptably at 480V 60 Hz (or is pretty trivial to design one that does both).

      That 13.8 kV is around 20% higher than 11 kV… And Brazil is 60 Hz country.

      Reply
  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    AC/DC Power Supplies: Four Questions to Ask
    http://www.eetimes.com/author.asp?section_id=36&doc_id=1330587&

    1. Can you connect the power supplies in parallel to provide higher output power or configure them to provide multi-phase or split phase outputs?

    2. What voltages and currents can I expect from modern power supplies?

    Voltage ranges have increased, particularly in military/avionics applications. Examples include:

    Standard avionics power plant simulation, which currently runs from 360 Hz to about 800 Hz.
    Simulation of next-generation avionics power plants already requires 1200 Hz and that will increase. Power at these frequencies is needed to test the electronics that will connected to those power plants.
    Torpedo alternator simulation, 3 kHz-4kHz, is needed to test the downstream power converters and electronics that will be connected to those alternators.

    Instead of the traditional 150 and 300 VAC ranges, the latest generation of AC/DC supplies now produce voltage ranges of 200 and 400 VAC, as well as DC voltages of 250 VDC and 500 VDC. These higher DC voltages come in handy in many applications. For example, MIL-STD-704, Test Method HDC302 requires voltage transients up to 475 VDC.

    3. I need to test my equipment at multiple ranges. What do I need?

    4. What features should I look for?
    Many of today’s AC/DC power sources have features that make testing easier and more effective. These include touchscreen displays dashboards and control panels where you can save your GPIB address or set your RS-232 parameters, or set up your LAN connection.

    Reply
  9. Jon says:

    Canada

    12v – car battery

    16volt – door bells

    24v – PLC controls, Boiler Controls

    110v- single phase – PLC Controls

    120/240volt – single phase residential power, Lighting Panel in Commercial and Industrial

    120/208volt- Single phase taken from 3 phase in small commercial apps

    120/208volt- three phase small commercial apps or Lighting Panel in Commercial and Industrial

    240volt three phase – three phase old industrial sites (generally no neutral, etc delta) sometimes wild

    240/480volt – single phase – not used much anymore

    240/416volt- three phase very old commercial, or what we connect to euro equipment, while still supplying 60hz

    277/480- three phase old larger commercial apps

    480volts three phase (generally no true neutral, could have high resistance grounding) -older industrial, and oilfield sites

    347/600volt -three phase large commercial, schools, and hospitals

    600 volt – three phase (generally no neutral, could be high resistance grounding) new larger industrial, some Oilfield

    2300v- three phase larger motors

    4160volt – three phase big industrial, larger motors

    2300/4160 three phase, big industrial, and oilfield

    7.2kv – single phase voltage REA overhead lines

    13.8kv – three phase Generator stations, at big industrial sites, Oilfield, and Power Company

    14.4kv- single phase – residential underground to pad transformers, on Earth Return neutral overhead power poles

    14.4/25kv- three phase , big industrial sites, some Oilfield, Power Company Grid on Distribution side of subs

    69kv- three phase transmission (substations)

    132kv three phase transmission (to Substations from Generator Stations) usually towers city to town, around larger cites to subs

    230kv- three phase transmission to larger substaions from Generator Stations) usually H frames city to city

    500kvdc – DC Power Big Power, Generation Stations to Big Cities

    Reply
  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why doesn’t the US use 220V like everyone else in the world?
    Common question about household electrical power supply
    http://www.electronicproducts.com/Power_Products/Power_and_Control/Why_doesn_t_the_US_use_220V_like_everyone_else_in_the_world.aspx

    It’s a common question tied to a couple of common misconceptions. First is the idea that the United States is the only country in the world to use the 120V 60Hz standard. The fact of the matter is that there are many other countries that primarily use 120V. To this end, there is no “everyone else in the world”. Some countries use 240V, some 230V, others 220V, and so on.

    To answer the question, though—the US does have a higher power supply. Nearly all homes in the US have 240V alternating current lines at the service entrance to the household as well as select locations within the home. The reason it’s 240V is because that’s the power line that has been standardized over here. Some European countries use 220V, while some specify 230V; most appliances will accept 220-240V however.

    The appliances hooked up to this higher power supply (generally speaking) include more energy dependent machines like ovens and laundry machines. Regular appliances like lamps, laptops, and phones do not need access to this power.

    For those who are surprised to hear households have 240V coming into the home, the way it works is as follows: right prior to the residence entry, the line transformer secondaries are center-trapped so as to provide split-phase 240V on two hot legs (1 and 2) and neutral at the center tap (which is referenced to Earth at the breaker box). For most home outlets, either leg 1 or leg 2 is used with the neutral line to provide 120V alternating current to power small appliances with a plug-in cord.

    For larger appliances, as in the case of the aforementioned oven and laundry machine, they will use leg 1 to leg 2 voltage, which is a straight shot of 240V line to line out of special outlets, or otherwise specially hardwired to specific areas of the home. While larger appliances generally draw approximately 1800 watts (15 amps at 120V), these special outlets / hardwired spots can take up to 7200 W (30A at 240V).

    Now, historically speaking, one of the main reasons why the US stuck with 120V as its standard power supply largely has to do with the fact that it was initially tied to carbon filament lighting. Later, a metal filament was created which could be used for more efficient power distribution systems using 220V, but since the country’s power grid was already largely established using 120V infrastructure, there was no real gain to scrapping the initial system just to go with a new higher-voltage system. So 120V was made the standard.

    The United Kingdom is one area of the world that did change things up after setting up its power grid.

    So, the answer to the question is a nation’s needs come before global unity.

    Reply
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