Commonly used AC voltage levels

AC voltage levels:

0.316V The most common nominal level for consumer audio equipment is -10 dBV, 0.316 volts root mean square (VRMS).

0.7746V The reference voltage for the decibel unloaded (0 dBu) is the voltage required to produce 1 mW of power across a 600 ohms load (approximately 0.7746 VRMS)

1V  The reference voltage for the decibel volt (0 dBV) is 1 VRMS, which is the voltage required to produce 1 milliwatt of power across a 1 kilo-ohm load

1.228V The most common nominal level for professional equipment is 4 dBu. A signal at +4 dBu is equivalent to a sine wave signal with a peak amplitude of approximately 1.737 volts,or any general signal at approximately 1.228 VRMS.

12V A low voltage lighting system usually operates on 12 or 24 volts.

24V A low voltage lighting system usually operates on 12 or 24 volts.

24V Used for controlling relay coils in some automation and control systems.

50V Extra-low voltage high limit is 50V AC

warning-02

50V Low Voltage Directive is effective for voltages in range 50 – 1000 volts a.c. or between 75 and 1500V DC

75V Typical telephone line ring voltage is 75 V a.c.(20 or 25 Hz), it could be between 40 and 150 Volts (15-68 Hz)

100V Mains voltage in Japan. Reference voltage level used on electrical power stations measurements (100V = nominal high voltage on line being measured)

110V Mains power in USA, the voltage you expect to get from mains outlet
115V Mains power in USA, the voltage you expect to get from mains outlet
120V Mains power in USA, the output voltage on the distribution transformer

200V If the voltage is less than 200 V, then the human skin is the main contributor to the impedance of the body in the case of a macroshock—the passing of current between two contact points on the skin.

208V The voltage you expect to get between two phases in USA in case our apartment
gets two phase wires from three phase transformer (208/120V)

220V Old European nominal voltage, harmonized to 230V

230V Electricity supplies within the European Union are now nominally 230 V ± 6% at 50 Hz

240V the voltage you expect get between two hots in USA on your hous
240V Old nominal mails voltage used in UK, harmonized to 230V
240V the voltage you get between two hots in USA on the distribution transformer

277V Voltage between phase and neutral on 277/480V three phase system, used in USA for example lighting loads on big buildings

380V Voltage between phases on 220/380V three phase system (old European system)

400V Voltage between phases on 230/400V three phase system (modern European system)

415V Voltage between phases on 240/415V three phase system (old UK system)

450V If the voltage is above 450–600 V, then dielectric breakdown of the skin occurs

480V Voltage between phases in USA in commonly used 3 phase distribution

600V Three phase power voltage

690V Three phase power voltage used in industry for larger electrical motors (Europe)

warning-02

1000V Isolation test voltage for 130V rated working voltage basic isolation (IEC950)

1000V Low Voltage Directive is effective for voltages in range 50 – 1000 volts a.c. or between 75 and 1500 volts d.c
1000V There phase power voltage used on 1 kV power distribution (in use in Finland)

1350V Basic insulation of 1350V rms is needed for test-and-measurement instruments rated at 250V (IEC 61010-1)

1500V Basic insulation of 1500V rms is needed for information-technology products rated at 250V (IEC 60950-1)

1500V Isolation test voltage for 230V rated working voltage (IEC950) (basic isolation)

2100V Isolation test rating for reinforced isolation for 130V rated devices

2300V Use 2300V rms or 3250V dc test voltage for dielectric-withstand test for double insulation

7.2kV Common distribution voltage in USA

10kV Common distribution voltage in Finland

11kV Common distribution voltage in UK, New Zealand and Australia

12.47kV Common distribution voltage in USA

20kV Common distribution voltage in Finland

25kV Electrical trains use 25kV 50Hz power in Finland

33kV Common distribution voltage in UK, New Zealand and Australia

34.5kV Common distribution voltage in USA

110kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

220kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

400kV Commonly used voltage level on long distance electrical transportation lines

65 Comments

  1. URD Cable says:

    336.4 Linnet ACSR Cable consists of one or more layers of aluminium wires stranded over a high strength steel core that can be single or multiple strands depending on the requirement.

    Reply
  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The dizzying variety of voltages, frequencies and plug configurations reflects the evolutionary history of electrical products around the world.

    Why Does the World Harbor So Many Different Voltages, Plugs, and Sockets?
    https://spectrum.ieee.org/energy/the-smarter-grid/why-does-the-world-harbor-so-many-different-voltages-plugs-and-sockets

    Standardization makes life easier, but it is often impossible to introduce it to systems that have a messy evolutionary history. Electricity supply is a case in point.

    Edison’s pioneering 1882 Pearl Street station transmitted direct current at 110 volts, and the same voltage was used when alternating current at 60 hertz took over in American homes. Later the standard was raised a bit to 120 V , and in order to accommodate heavy-duty appliances and electric heating, North American homes can also access 240 V. In contrast, in 1899 Berliner Elektrizitäts-Werke was the first European utility to switch to 220 V and this led eventually to the continent-wide norm of 230 V.

    Japan has the lowest voltage (100 V) and the dubious distinction of operating on two frequencies.

    Elsewhere, the world is divided between the minority of countries with voltages centered on 120 V (110–130 V and 60 Hz) and the majority using 230 V (220–240 V and 50 Hz). North and Central America and most countries of South America combine single voltages between 110 and 130 V and the frequency of 60 Hz; exceptions

    Human beings are fully to blame for creating this dog’s breakfast of 15 plug-and-socket standards

    Reply
  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Power Connectors – Overview
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C0aLMOodVsg

    Today we’re going to be taking a look at power connectors.

    The type of connections we’ll be going over are the IEC and NEMA standard connectors frequently found in data centers, offices, and home usage.

    Let’s start with the IEC connectors.

    IEC connectors refer to their connections as either an Outlet or an Inlet compared to the standard Male/Female or Plug/Jack.

    It also uses a number system, in which the odd numbers are Outlets and the even numbers are Inlets.

    For instance, the C5 connector is an outlet and the C6 is the same form factor, but is an Inlet.

    C5 and C6 can commonly be found on laptop power supplies, portable projectors, and some desktop computers.

    C7 and C8 can commonly be found on battery chargers, power supplies, video game consoles and some A/V equipment. These connectors are available in both a polarized and non-polarized version. The key difference being that the polarized connector will have one side squared off.

    C13 and C14 can commonly be found on desktop computers, monitors, amplifiers, and printers.

    C15 and C16 can be found on appliances that generate a lot of heat. It has a similar form factor to the C13/14 but with a small notch underneath the ground. They also feature a higher temperature rating, making them ideal for higher draw equipment.

    C19 and C20 can be found on high power workstations and servers, power supplies, large network routers and power units.

    Reply
  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    International Standard IEC 60038, IEC standard voltages, defines a set of standard voltages for use in low voltage and high voltage AC and DC.

    The limits are clearly defined, however, in the IEC 60038 standard before 2017: low voltage is up to 1000 V, medium voltage is from 1000 V to 35 kV, and high voltage is over 35 kV.

    1000 – 36K was medium voltage before 2017

    But the last updated of IEC 60038
    The term medium has removed

    Reply
  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Reduced Low Voltage – Frequently Asked Question
    https://www.blakley.co.uk/sites/default/files/technical_files/TDS10_RLV_FAQs_0.pdf

    Q. What is a Reduced Low Voltage (RLV) system?A. Reduced Low Voltage is defined in the Wiring Regulations (BS7671:2008) as “A system in which the nominal line to line voltage does not exceed 110V and the nominal line to earth voltage does not exceed 63.5V”.Q. What are the benefits of an RLV system?A. The significant benefit of this system is the reduced shock risk associated with having a lower voltage between live conductors and earth. On single phase systems the maximum shock risk to earth is 55V and on three phase systems the maximum shock risk to earth is 63.5V. Since the introduction of RLV systems in the 1960s, it is believed that no one has died purely as a result of an electric shock from an RLV supply. This cannot be said of conventional mains-rated systems where the shock risk is 230V.

    Reply
  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Voltage in Japan is 100 Volt

    The frequency of electric current is 50 to 60 Hertz
    The frequency of electric current is 50 Hertz in Eastern Japan (Tokyo, Yokohama and other northern area), 60 Hertz in Western Japan (Nagoya, Osaka, Kyoto, Hiroshima and other southern area)

    One of the US plug pins is large and the others are small, and Japanese two pins are the same size as smaller US plug pins. However, many of the Japanese homes have wall outlet that the US plugs can fit.

    https://www.furniture-rental-tokyo.com/useful_info/electricity.html

    Reply
  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EEVblog 1417 – Alternating Current AC Basics – Part 1
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rrPtvYYJ2-g

    Reply

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