The international backbone of Internet is largely based on a network submarine fiber optic cables. There are lots of them. TeleGeography’s free interactive Submarine Cable Map is based on Global Bandwidth research, and depicts active and planned submarine cable systems and their landing stations. Selecting a cable on the map projection provides access to the cable’s profile which has lots of information on the cable.
Submarine Cable Map 2014 provides another view to the same cable data in different graphical format. I recommend to check out both of the maps to get a good view on the global telecom network. Keep in mind that the cable routes on those maps are stylized to improve readability (and maybe also for security reasons), and do not reflect the physical cable location or exact termination point.