Open innovation to help in COVID-19 pandemic

We are living in the middle of the emergency over coronavirus all over the world. The reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on societies and economies around the world cannot be understated. Because an estimated 15% of COVID-19 patients require hospitalization and 5% require intensive care (Z. Wu and McGoogan 2020), the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has the potential of posing a substantial challenge to medical systems around the world (Remuzzi and Remuzzi 2020; Grasselli, Pesenti, and Cecconi 2020).

Necessity is the mother of invention. A need or problem encourages creative efforts to meet the need or solve the problem. This saying appears in the dialogue Republic, by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.

“Necessity is the mother of invention” is an English-language proverb. It means, roughly, that the primary driving force for most new inventions is a need. When the need for something becomes imperative, you are forced to find ways of getting or achieving it.

With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, many companies have joined the fight to stop the deadly virus by creating and producing various types of medical supplies and healthcare solutions. Clothing companies began to sew aprons and protective N95 masks, chemical companies produced antibacterial gels, public and private universities and research centers started projects to create solutions that would help in a simple and quick way to study and prevent the disease.

Here are some examples of sort of ingenuity we need now in the middle of pandemia. Already many people contributed those efforts. Check out on those links what is already done if you can find any useful information or can contribute to those efforts you see as good idea. Start your reserach with 7 open hardware projects working to solve COVID-19 article.

I have collected here a list of interesting open hardware project and instructions that can be useful or educational. Hopefully this list I have contributed here will be useful for someone. Keep in mind that many of those ideas are potentially dangerous if the instructions are not entirely correct, implemented exactly right and used by people that know what they are doing. You have been warned: Do not try those at home yourself! We are dealing here with things that can easily injure or kill someone if improperly implemented or used – but at right place the best ideas from those could potentially save lives.

Repairing hospital equipment

The right thing to do in his situation is that medical companies to release service manuals for ALL medical equipment so they can be repaired and maintained where they are most needed.

In the face of ventilator shortages for COVID-19 victims, iFixit is looking to make maintaining and repairing equipment as easy as possible. iFixit Launches Central Repository for Hospital Equipment Repair and Maintenance Manuals

Site offers links many service manuals


COVID-19 pandemic prompts more robot usage worldwide article tells that the coronavirus has increased interest in robots, drones, and artificial intelligence, even as some testing of autonomous vehicles pauses on public roads. It is believed that these technologies can help deal with massive staffing shortages in healthcare, manufacturing, and supply chains; the need for “social distancing;” and diagnosis and treatment.

Here are some robotics related links that could be useful:

Medical robotics expert Guang-Zhong Yang calls for a global effort to develop new types of robots for fighting infectious diseases.

Elements of Robotics Open Access Textbook


A ventilator is a machine designed to provide mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. Ventilators are sometimes colloquially called “respirators”.

A ventilator, also called a respirator, is designed to provide mechanical ventilation by oxygen into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. The machines can be used to help a person breath if they have conditions making it difficult to breathe, such as lung diseases, during and post-surgery. For patients critically ill with coronavirus access to a ventilator could be a matter of life or death.

In its simplest form, a modern positive pressure ventilator consists of a compressible air reservoir or turbine, air and oxygen supplies, a set of valves and tubes, and a disposable or reusable “patient circuit”. Modern ventilators are electronically controlled by a small embedded system to allow exact adaptation of pressure and flow characteristics to an individual patient’s needs.

They work by placing a tube in a person’s mouth, nose or small cut in the throat and connect it to a ventilator machine. The air reservoir is pneumatically compressed several times a minute to deliver room-air, or in most cases, an air/oxygen mixture to the patient.

Because failure may result in death, mechanical ventilation systems are classified as a life-critical system, and precautions must be taken to ensure that they are highly reliable
. Modern commercial ventilator is a relatively complex piece of equipment with lots of components and a dedicated supply chain.

Because there is a lack of ventilators on many hospitals in several countries, there has been a lot of creative work done to help this problem.

There has been projects going on to repair old and non-working ventilators to a working conditions. For repairing some older devices, there has been problem to get spare parts from the manufacturer and that those spare parts can be very expensive. Also getting the service information for repairing those equipment seems to be hard to get from manufacturer, Ifixit has started a project Help commit industrial espionage for the greater good! to get the service information on-line at

In middle of the emergency some people have worked on to make their own spare parts when official parts are not available, thus making more devices available. For example a startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours. An Italian hospital that ran out of life-saving equipment for coronavirus patients was saved by a ‘hero’ engineer who used cutting-edge technology to design oxygen valves within a matter of hours. At least 10 lives were saved in this way.

So great thinking for 3d printing of valves. Are they sterilized and suitable? 3D printing has been used in numerous cases for medical parts already. Most 3D printing operates at relatively high temperatures and printed objects are actually naturally sterilized when they are made. Anyway the right kind of plastic needs to be selected and the part needs to be built in exactly right way that is works reliably as designed. If they are used and the individual gets worse, does the fact that equipment not medical certified (environment, storage, shipping, etc) put the hospital in additional jeopardy for a lawsuit? All valid questions each medical liability officer will have to address. But if people are going to literally die if you do nothing, then taking a risk with a part that you 3D print seems like an idea that is worth to try.


A startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours

Firm ‘refuses to give blueprint’ for coronavirus equipment that could save lives

3D printed life-saving valves: already a dozen in operation

Volunteers produce 3D-printed valves for life-saving coronavirus treatments
Volunteers made the valves for about $1

Another tried trick is try to use one ventilator with more than one patient. Daily Mail writes that ventilators can be modified to help FOUR coronavirus patients breathe at the same time if the NHS is still critically short of the machines when the outbreak peaks, scientists say. Here are some links to material on using one ventilator to more than one patient:


Here has been work going on in creating an open source ventilator design project. Here are some links to this project and some other DIY ventilator designs.

There’s A Shortage Of Ventilators For Coronavirus Patients, So This International Group Invented An Open Source Alternative That’s Being Tested Next Week

Open-source Oxygen Concentrator

Macgyvilator Mk 1 (3-19-2020) – “ventilator” for disasters and/or low resource environments
Macgyvilator Mk 1 is a disaster “ventilator”, a simple apparatus to compress a bag-valve-mask with some control over tidal volume and rate. Constructed quickly and simply using wood, PVC, velcro, common fasteners, and easily sourced and assembled electronic components.

An Arduino based Open Source Ventilator to Fight against COVID-19?
Low-Cost Open Source Ventilator or PAPR

Low-cost Ventilators

Arduino Respirator Prototype (pen source solution from Reesistencia Team, which is undergoing testing)

OxyGEN project
“OxyGEN is an open hardware project to build an emergency mechanism that automates an AMBU type manual ventilator in extreme shortage situations such as the one caused by coronavirus (COVID-19) in some parts of the world.”

NOTE: Take a look at the expression VILI before thinking about trying one of these. It is hard making a ventilator that doesn’t harm the lungs. It is easy to get Ventilator-associated lung injury or die if the ventilator does not work exactly correctly all the time.

Testing for infection

There are many approaches thought to be helpful to finding out if someone is infected or something is contaminated.
Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus
. However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever (it can take 2-10 days before infected people get the fewer).

Open-Source Collaboration Tackles COVID-19 Testing

Low-cost & Open-Source Covid19 Detection kits

This Open Source Device Can Detect Coronavirus on Surfaces
The Chai team has developed a detection test that works with their Open qPCR tool.

Prevent touching face

It is recommended to stop touching your face to minimize spread of coronavirus and other germs. People touch their faces frequently. They wipe their eyes, scratch their noses, bite their nails and twirl their mustaches.

Not touching your face is a simple way to protect yourself from COVID-19, but it’s not easy. If you can reduce face-touching, you can lower people’s chances of catching COVID-19. Why is it so hard to stop? Face-touching rewards us by relieving momentary discomforts like itches and muscle tension.

If you you want to change, you can try to replace it with a competing response that opposes the muscle movements needed to touch your face. When you feel the urge to touch your face, you can clench your fists, sit on your hands, press your palms onto the tops of your thighs or stretch your arms straight down at your sides. Some sources recommend object manipulation, in which you occupy your hands with something else. You can rub your fingertips, fiddle with a pen or squeeze a stress ball.

Related links:

This pair of Arduino glasses stops you from touching your face

Don’t Touch Your Face
Don’t touch your face — easy to say, hard to do. This device, worn like a watch, will buzz whenever your hand aims for trouble.

Hand sanitizer

Hand sanitizer is a liquid or gel generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. It depends on the case if hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer is preferred. For Covid-19 WHO recommends to wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them thoroughly. Use alcohol-based handrub if you don’t have immediate access to soap and water.

It seems that there are many places where there is shortage of hand sanitizers. This has lead to situation where people have resorted to making their own. Recipes for DIY hand sanitizer are popping all over the internet. A quick search reveals news articles, YouTube how-to’s and step-by-step visual guides. But think twice about joining them — experts are wary and even caution against the idea. The World Health Organization even has an official guide to making hand sanitizer. But it’s intended for populations that do not have clean water or other medical-grade products in place. Don’t try to make your own hand sanitizer just because there’s a shortage from coronavirus.

Can’t get your hands on hand sanitizer? Make your own

Photos show why hand sanitizer doesn’t work as well as soap and water to remove germs

Emergency DIY hand sanitizers (read the description)

“Every time a new health incident occurs there’s a rush on hand sanitizers, often causing shops to sell out.
Here’s how to make some simple emergency sanitizers at home, noting that they are not as effective as just washing your hands, and only some viruses can be damaged by simple sanitizers. These options are offered as a last resort when commercial versions are not available.”
“For the alcohol one the higher the percentage of alcohol the better, up to around 70-80%.”

Make Your Own Hand Sanitizer At Home When It’s Sold Out Everywhere

Sanitizing things

With deadly coronavirus spreading worldwide at an alarming speed, personal hygiene has become paramount importance to contain the infection spread further. Mobile phones are known to house several germ, and if you thing they are contaminated, you should maybe disinfect them. The CDC recommends that everyone “clean all “high-touch” surfaces every day” to protect against the spread of COVID-19.

How to Disinfect Your Smartphone article says CDC recommends that for your smartphone you should use 70% rubbing alcohol or alcohol-based disinfectant spray to wipe down the back and sides of your device. For example Apple recently updated its official cleaning advice, so ccording to Apple, it’s now safe to clean your iPhone with disinfecting wipes if you do it correctly. You should not try to spray any liquid to your phone.

The other option is to use a smartphone sanitizer device that cleans using UV rays. Sanitizers that use ultraviolet (UV) rays to kill bacteria and viruses have been around for a while now and they can kill 99% of bacteria in as little as five minutes. However its efficacy hasn’t been tested against nasties like SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. Coronavirus effect: Samsung offers UV-C sanitizing service for Galaxy devices. Samsung is using Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) disinfection technology, which uses of uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate bacteria, virus, molds and other pathogenic microorganisms on smartphones.

The UV-C light is capable of destroying nucleic acids and DNA. It will kill many things, but you don’t want that hitting your eye or skin. World Health Organization only states: “UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands, or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation.

Here are some UV C related links:

Good UV versus bad UV. All available on eBay.

Protective masks

The protective mask ratings used by hospitals are typically N95, FFP2 or FFP3. FFP2 protection level is 94%. FFP3 protection level is 99%. N95 protection level is 95%. An N95 FFR is a type of respirator which removes particles from the air that are breathed through it. These respirators filter out at least 95% of very small (0.3 micron) particles. N95 FFRs are capable of filtering out all types of particles, including bacteria and viruses. The N95 mask is mainly for use if you already have the virus to keep it from spreading and many have argued that coronavirus is smaller than the 0.3 micron filter rating of the mask and thus, not that helpful, for people outside of healthcare. In fact, the U.S. Surgeon General wants consumers to stop buying masks.

Due to the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a huge shortage of N95 masks. Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation claims that widespread use of masks by the general population could be an effective strategy for slowing down the spread of COVID-19: “Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”.

With masks sold out during the coronavirus outbreak, many people will have to make do with what some scientists have called “the last resort”: the DIY mask. Many people have been working on designs for a DIY mask that may be able to protect those who haven’t been able to secure their own masks. It seems that cotton homemade masks may be quite effective as alternatives and there are also other ideas. For any DIY ideas, be warned that there is no guarantee that those designs are effective. So I don’t recommend to use them as alternative to proper mask when they are available. Bit of proper marks are not available, they can be better than nothing.

Keep in mind the right filter type to use: Hepa filters do have the ability to filter particles and viruses, but they wont protect you 100% of the time. The real secret is layers. The problem is, more layers, more restriction. Keep in mind that charcoal filters will make your air fresher, but have almost no effect on cleaning the air of viruses. Coronavirus virions (or ‘particles’) are spherical particles with diameters of approximately 125 nm (0.125 microns). The smallest particles are 0.06 microns, and the largest are 0.14 microns. This means coronavirus particles are smaller than PM2.5 particles, but bigger than some dust particles and gases.

General information:

Guide to Dust Mask Ratings

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?


DIY project links:

Homemade N95 Masks In A Time Of Shortage

“According to a studied performed at Cambridge University during the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, while surgical masks perform the best at capturing Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria (0.93-1.25 microns) and Bacteriophage MS virus (0.023 microns), vacuum cleaner bags, tea towels, and cotton T-shirts were not too far behind. The coronavirus is 0.1-0.2 microns, well within the range for the results of the tests.”

What Are The Best Materials for Making DIY Masks?

“Data shows that DIY and homemade masks are effective at capturing viruses. But if forced to make our own mask, what material is best suited to make a mask? As the coronavirus spread around China, netizens reported making masks with tissue paper, kitchen towels, cotton clothing, and even oranges!”

Can DIY Masks Protect Us from Coronavirus?

“DIY masks to protect against from viruses sounds like a crazy idea. Data shows masks work incredibly well, and they’re also really cheap. Surgical masks cost a few pennies, and they’re capable of filtering out 80% of particles down to 0.007 microns (14 times smaller than the coronavirus).”

“The homemade cotton masks captured 50% of 0.02-1 micron particles, compared with 80% for the surgical mask. Although the surgical masks captured 30% more particles, the cotton masks did surprisingly well. The researchers concluded that homemade masks would be better than nothing.”

“The Cambridge data shows that homemade masks made using cotton t-shirts can filter out some particles that are 0.02–1 microns in size. That’s pretty good, however its only one test.”

Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?

This old hack doesn’t require any cutting or sewing:

Copper 3D makes the free N95 mask design to fight COVID-19 pandemic spread

Copper 3D – A Chilean manufacturer of innovative antibacterial filaments designed the own version of the popular N95 protective mask and prepared it perfectly optimized for 3D printing on desktop 3D printers of the FDM / FFF type. The project is released under an open-source license and has been simultaneously patent pending to prevent other entities from commercializing it.”

“Copper 3D team quickly got to work on developing the patent for a model similar to a standard N95 mask but with some peculiarities (Antiviral, Reusable, Modular, Washable, Recyclable, Low-Cost), which were completely designed in a digital environment so that it could be downloaded anywhere in the world and 3D printed with any FDM/FFF equipment, even a low cost one. The mask was called “NanoHack”.”

#HackThePandemic site offers the technical details of the N95 mask and download set of STL files for printing on own 3D printer


“This is NOT a straight replacement for a N95 mask. In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Prusa Protective Face Shield – RC2

“In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation

“Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”

“Potentially, simply wrapping a suitable, large cloth around the face is easy to implement (Fig. 2), would arguably be more socially acceptable than surgical masks, and would be superior to a complete lack of face mask use.”


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    CDC Cuts Recommended Covid Isolation Time From 10 To 5 Days

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced on Monday that people infected with coronavirus will only need to self-isolate for five days if asymptomatic, cutting its existing isolation guidance in half after finding transmission greatly decreases after the onset of illness.

    The updated guidance calls for five days of isolation, followed by five days of wearing a mask around others.

    The CDC also updated guidance for those exposed to Covid, saying those who are fully vaccinated and boosted do not need to quarantine, but should wear a mask around others in the 10 days following exposure.

    Anyone exposed who is unvaccinated or has gone more than six months without receiving a booster should quarantine for five days and then wear a mask for another five days, according to the CDC.

    “The Omicron variant is spreading quickly and has the potential to impact all facets of our society,” CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky said in a statement. “CDC’s updated recommendations for isolation and quarantine balance what we know about the spread of the virus and the protection provided by vaccination and booster doses.”

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The WHO chief has repeatedly said equality in global health is critical to ending the pandemic.

    New Variants Could Be ‘Fully Resistant’ Against Current Vaccines Or Previous Infection, WHO Director Says

    New variants of coronavirus could “become fully resistant to current vaccines or past infection,” Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, the head of the World Health Organization (WHO), said Wednesday as he voiced concern about the spread of omicron and delta variants causing a “tsunami” of new Covid cases.

    He said he was “highly” concerned that a “tsunami” of new cases caused by the spread of delta and omicron will put “immense pressure on exhausted health workers and health systems on the brink of collapse” and disrupt livelihoods.

    His comments came as 4.99 million new virus cases were reported globally between December 20-26, up 11% from the previous week, according to the WHO.

    As of Wednesday morning, the U.S. shattered its seven-day average of new infections, which totaled around 282,000, surpassing the previous record set in January, according to data compiled by Johns Hopkins University.

    92. That’s the number of WHO member countries that missed the agency’s 40% target to get their populations vaccinated by the end of this year. The WHO has 194 member countries. The WHO chief said nearly half of its member nations missed the target due to a “combination of limited supply going to low-income countries” and “vaccines arriving close to expiry and without key parts” such as syringes.

    The WHO has warned “blanket” vaccine booster shot programs could drag out the pandemic by allowing the virus to continue to spread and possibly cause mutations in countries with low vaccination rates. Wealthy countries are urging their citizens to receive booster shots, and last week Israel became the first country to greenlight a fourth dose.

    At Wednesday’s press conference, the WHO chief called on governments to make it their “new year’s resolution” to support the agency’s campaign to vaccinate 70% of the population in every country by the beginning of July 2022.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Tampereella kehitetty aine tuhoaa viruksia ”kuin kranaatti” – näin keksintö toimii

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    FDA Authorizes Pfizer’s Antiviral Covid Treatment Pills For Emergency Use

    The Food and Drug Administration has authorized a coronavirus treatment in pill form for emergency use from Pfizer, the first at-home oral antiviral treatment for the virus, as new infections surge across the country driven by the new omicron variant.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Pfizer’s Paxlovid consists of a series of pills to be taken at home and is designed for coronavirus patients ages 12 and older who are at higher risk of developing complications from the disease, the company said in an announcement Wednesday.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Guido Burger hacked an IKEA PELARBOJ into a CO2 traffic light, designed to help to vent rooms and keep aerosol concentrations low.

    CO2 Traffic Light for Indoor Air Quality, COVID and beyond

    While we started with CO2 monitor almost 2 years back, we always look for new housings… 3D printed, laser cut – now an IKEA “PELARBOJ”

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Facial Recognition For Covid-19 Tracking In Seoul

    The city of Bucheon, population 830,000, is a satellite city southwest of Seoul and part of the greater metropolitan area and the site of a pilot program to apply AI facial recognition and tracking technologies to aid Covid-19 epidemiological investigators. South Korea has been generally praised for its rapid response to coronavirus patient tracking since the beginning of the outbreak. People entering public facilities enter their information on a roster or scan a QR code. Epidemiologists tracking outbreaks use a variety of data available to them, including these logs, electronic transaction data, mobile phone location logs, CCTV footage, and interviews. But the workload can be overwhelming, and there are only a fixed number of workers with the required training available, despite efforts to hire more.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New ‘IHU’ B.1.640.2 Covid-19 Coronavirus Variant Detected In France

    One thing that’s clear about the Covid-19 coronavirus, it can mutate. And mutate. And mutate. So it shouldn’t be a surprise that yet another new variant has been detected in France with 46 mutations and 37 deletions in its genetic code, many affecting the spike protein. This variant currently bears the name B.1.640.2

    And, no, the “IHU” variant does not stand for the “I Hate You” variant

    It’s also been temporarily dubbed the “variant IHU” because a team from the Méditerranée Infection University Hospital Institute (IHU) in Marseilles, France, was the first to report the variant in a pre-print uploaded to MedRxiv on December 29.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Did Omicron Come From Mice? Chinese Scientists Believe So

    Researchers in China have gathered evidence that the super infectious Omicron variant may have originated through a chance encounter with mice. Their work has some caveats, but it provides an interesting alternative to the prevailing theory that the variant evolved in a chronically sick person with a weak immune system.

    Their study was published in the Journal of Genetics and Genomics on Christmas Eve, but a free-to-read draft of the paper can be found on the pre-pint server bioRxiv.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    With how important N95 masks may be in this pandemic, this could be huge.

    N95 Respirators Can Be Safely Cleaned And Reused Up To 25 Times In New Process

    N95 respirators (masks) are commonly used in hospitals. They can filter out 95 percent of very small particles and droplets, making them much more effective at protecting health care workers from pathogens than cloth face masks. However, they are usually one-use only, and due to the lack of PPE, many were forced to reuse them or use surgical or face masks.

    Now, researchers at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and the MIT have found a way to counteract PPE shortages (thinking ahead for the next pandemic and dealing with the one we’re still in) by safely and effectively reprocessing N95 respirators. They found that using vaporized hydrogen peroxide (VHP) to clean these devices was extremely successful and safe.

    Using VHP is a standard decontamination approach. As reported in the American Journal of Infection Control, applying this process to the N95 respirators allowed them to be cleaned while maintaining their function and effectiveness for up to 25 cycles of reuse.

    “The findings from our study expand upon previous findings that VHP is a relatively safe method for reprocessing N95 respirators, and could help address shortages in future epidemics,”

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A total of 25 cases of a strain dubbed ‘deltacron’ have been found in that country.

    Scientists Identify Coronavirus Strain In Cyprus That Blends Delta And Omicron

    Scientists in Cyprus have found 25 cases of a strain of the coronavirus that they say combines elements of the delta and omicron variants, dubbing it “deltacron,” with a high proportion of the variant found in patients hospitalized for Covid-19, a professor involved in the identification of the new strain said Saturday.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The new study raises further questions about the CDC’s decision to shorten the recommended Covid-19 isolation time to 5 days.

    Peak Infectiousness Of Covid-19 With Omicron is 3-6 Days After Symptom Onset, Says New Study

    A new study conducted by Japanese researchers has shown that peak viral loads in people infected with omicron occur between 3 to 6 days after the onset of symptoms. The study raises further concerns about the CDC cutting the self-isolating time for people with Covid-19 to 5 days, not 10.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Koronan akilleen kantapää

    Kuvittele, jos voisit suihkauttaa sieraimiisi koronatartunnan estävää sumutetta ja lähteä sen turvin yökerhoon tai jumppatunnille vapautuneesti. Virologi Anna Mäkelän mukaan se voi pian olla mahdollista.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    With how important N95 masks may be in this pandemic, this could be huge:

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    N95, KN95 Or Cloth Masks? What To Wear To Best Protect Against Omicron

    Experts recommend wearing a tight-fitting mask with efficient filtration like an N95, KN95 or KF94 mask, which can filter out at least 95% of airborne particles, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    The difference between the three masks comes down to which country or organization certified the mask

    If N95, KN95 or KF94 masks are difficult to find, experts say double masking, specifically a surgical mask with a cloth mask on top, can provide better protection than just a single cloth mask.

    N95, KN95 and KF94 masks can be reused, as long as they don’t have bodily fluids on them, broken straps or a broken nose piece, according to the CDC.

    Decontamination & Reuse of N95 Respirators

    CDC’s Strategies for Optimizing the Supply of N95 FFRs were written to follow a continuum using the surge capacity approach in the order of conventional (everyday practice), contingency (expected shortages), and crisis (known shortages) capacities. N95 FFRs are meant to be disposed after each use. CDC developed contingency and crisis strategies to help healthcare facilities conserve their supplies in the face of shortages.

    When the availability of N95 FFRs become limited due to an expected shortage, supplies first should be conserved using contingency strategies.

    Contingency Strategies
    With extended use, N95 FFRs are worn for a prolonged period, for multiple patient contacts, before being removed and discarded (unlike conventional strategies in which an N95 FFR is used for one patient contact then discarded). This will slow the N95 FFR burn rate to help alleviate supply concerns.
    N95 FFRs are used beyond the manufacturer designated shelf-life for fit testing and training.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    WHO: Toistuva rokottaminen nykyrokotteilla ei toimi

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Compounds in cannabis can prevent infection from the virus that causes Covid-19 by blocking its entry into cells, according to a study published this week by researchers affiliated with Oregon State University.

    Study Finds Cannabis Compounds Prevent Infection By Covid-19 Virus

    Compounds in cannabis can prevent infection from the virus that causes Covid-19 by blocking its entry into cells, according to a study published this week by researchers affiliated with Oregon State University. A report on the research, “Cannabinoids Block Cellular Entry of SARS-CoV-2 and the Emerging Variants,” was published online on Monday by the Journal of Natural Products.

    The researchers found that two cannabinoid acids commonly found in hemp varietals of cannabis, cannabigerolic acid, or CBGA, and cannabidiolic acid, also known as CBDA, can bind to the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19. By binding to the spike protein, the compounds can prevent the virus from entering cells and causing infection, potentially offering new avenues to prevent and treat the disease.

    “Orally bioavailable and with a long history of safe human use, these cannabinoids, isolated or in hemp extracts, have the potential to prevent as well as treat infection by SARS-CoV-2,” the researchers wrote in an abstract of the study.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Does A New Study Really Show That Hydroxychloroquine Might Be Effective Against Omicron?

    Hydroxychloroquine, the anti-malaria drug controversially touted as a cure for COVID despite a lack of robust evidence, is creating renewed interest as a potential treatment for omicron.

    The researchers conclude, as many others have, that antibodies (the proteins that neutralise the virus) against previous variants or induced by vaccines are less effective against omicron. What’s interesting, though, is that the study finds that omicron may have changed the way it enters cells.

    This means that SARS-CoV-2 has two ways to enter cells: from the surface or via an endosome. The University of Glasgow study shows that omicron has picked up mutations that improve its ability to enter our cells via endosomes – and this is where hydroxychloroquine comes into play.

    Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a drug that accumulates in endosomes and decreases their acidity, which disrupts their function. Making endosomes less acidic reduces membrane fusion, thereby reducing SARS-CoV-2’s ability to enter cells. So HCQ could act as an antiviral.

    This is possibly how HCQ acts as an anti-malarial and anti-inflammatory drug (although some researchers dispute this). It’s important to note that the new study does not test HCQ’s effect on omicron.

    But will hydroxychloroquine be effective against omicron? I struggle to see the benefits of treating omicron infections with HCQ. In the University of Glasgow study, the researchers show that omicron enters cells via endosomes more so than other variants, but they do not show that omicron is limited to using endosomes. It can still enter from the cell surface. Using HCQ to stop omicron entering via endosomes would therefore only marginally limit the virus from entering cells.

    However, unlike in March 2020 when HCQ was first suggested as a treatment, we have plenty of drugs to treat COVID including antivirals, such as molnupiravir and remdesivir, anti-inflammatories, such as dexamethasone, and antibody therapies.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Two New Drugs To Treat COVID-19 Given Official Thumbs Up By WHO

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has made the move to officially recommend two new drugs to treat patients with COVID-19: an arthritis drug called baricitinib and the monoclonal antibody sotrovimab.

    As reported in the BMJ today, the WHO Guideline Development Group of international experts strongly recommends treating people with severe COVID-19 with baricitinib, a janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor also used to treat rheumatoid arthritis.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    AstraZeneca Booster Shot Generates Strong Immune Response Against Variants Including Omicron

    A booster shot of AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 vaccine generated a stronger immune response against various coronavirus variants, including the infectious omicron variant, the company said Thursday citing early trial data, as countries around the world ramp up booster campaigns to tackle new waves of infection.

    When given as a third dose, the shot, developed with the University of Oxford and marketed as Vaxzevria, generated higher antibody responses against coronavirus variants including alpha, beta, gamma, delta and omicron, the pharmaceutical company said, citing preliminary trial data.

    The increase was observed in people who had previously been vaccinated with either AstraZeneca’s shot or an mRNA vaccine—the type made by Pfizer, BioNTech and Moderna—and safety data from the trial showed the shot to be “generally well tolerated.”

    AstraZeneca said the data, the first it has released from its booster trials, adds to growing evidence supporting the shot’s use as a third dose no matter the primary vaccination schedule.

    Previous studies have shown a third shot of the AstraZeneca shot boosts antibody levels after vaccination with Sinovac’s vaccine, which real-world data from Singapore found to be less effective at preventing deaths than Pfizer and Moderna shots.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö ohjeistaa oireettomia koronavirukselle altistuneita käyttämään nimenomaan oireettomille tarkoitettuja kotitestejä.

    STM: Oireettomien käytettävä vain oireettomille soveltuvaa koronatestiä – testien erottaminen toisistaan on hankalaa

    Fimean mukaan suurin osa kotitesteistä käy sekä oireisille että oireettomille.

    Sosiaali- ja terveysministeriö ohjeistaa oireettomia koronavirukselle altistuneita käyttämään nimenomaan oireettomille tarkoitettuja kotitestejä.

    Monelle voi tulla yllätyksenä se, että kotitestejä on erikseen oireellisille ja oireettomille. Testipakkauksen kannesta tietoa voi olla mahdotonta löytää.

    Koronatestausvalmiuden asiantuntijaryhmään kuuluva johtajaylilääkäri Mikko Pietilä myöntää, että uusi ohjeistus on jo herättänyt hämmennystä.

    Ohjeistuksen taustalla on koronatesteiltä vaadittava turvallisuus, käyttötarkoitukseensopivuus ja suorituskyky. Siitä kertoo paketin kannessa oleva CE-merkintä.

    – Myyntiin pääsyyn edellytyksenä on CE- merkintä. Mikäli CE-merkintä on saatu vain oireisten testaamiseen, emme voi viranomaisina tätä muuhun tarkoitukseen suositella, Pietilä sanoo.

    Testiä hankkivan kansalaisen voi olla mahdotonta tietää, kumpaan tarkoituksen testi on sopiva. Esimerkiksi Boson-merkkisen kotitestin kannessa ei ole tietoa siitä, sopiiko se oireellisille vai oireettomille.

    Fimea: Ei listaa oireettomien ja oireisten testeistä
    Tällä hetkellä Fimean sivuilta löytyy lista Suomessa myytävistä pikatesteistä, mutta niiden soveltuvuudesta oireettomien tai oireisten testaamiseen ei ole mainintaa.

    Tässä linkki(siirryt toiseen palveluun) Fimealle ilmoitettujen kotitestien listaan.

    Fimean ylitarkastajan Nelli Karhun mukaan sellaista erittelyä ei ole myöskään luvassa.

    – Emme aio sellaista laittaa, sillä tilanne voi muuttua nopeastikin. Valmistajat päivittävät ohjeistustaan sen mukaan, kun niiden omat tutkimukset edistyvät.

    Karhun mukaan ennen myyntiintuloa pikatestit esitestataan ensin oireisilla. Oireettomien esitestaaminen on vaikeampaa.

    – Osa valmistajista lupaa testin toimivan myös oireettomilla, vaikka laajaa esitestausta ei olisi tehty.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    David Ingram / NBC News:
    A look at the SMART Health Card, a minimal verification system that uses QR codes to check COVID-19 vaccine status, available to ~200M people in the US

    Quietly and over some objections, a national digital vaccine card has emerged

    The SMART Health Card is voluntary and minimal by design to protect personal information. About 80 percent of vaccinated people in the U.S. most likely have access to it.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Suomalais­keksintö paljastaa korona­tartunnan hetkessä – puhallus­testeri sai myynti­luvan

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Rapid Covid breath tests developed in Finland ready for EU market
    The handheld device sends data via a mobile app to a cloud-based service, which provides a test result within a few seconds.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Koronatesti yhdellä puhalluksella: tulos alle minuutissa – suomalaiskeksintö on jo myynnissä

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Last month, Pfizer reported its coronavirus antiviral drug is 89% effective at stopping hospitalizations and deaths in high-risk Covid-19 patients.

    Pfizer Says Its Covid Antiviral Pill Is Effective Against Omicron Variant

    Pfizer released three separate laboratory studies Tuesday showing its antiviral drug Paxlovid is effective at treating the omicron variant of the coronavirus, amid uncertainty over whether some other common Covid-19 treatments work against the heavily mutated new variant.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The intense work into COVID-19 may highlight treatments for one of the most puzzling diseases of our lifetimes.

    Could COVID-19 And Alzheimer’s Overlaps Point Towards A Solution For Both Diseases?

    The medical community has suggested that calling Omicron “mild” is folly considering the reach of this most contagious COVID-19 variant, which continues to hospitalize the unvaccinated and move easily among the vaccinated. A leading concern is that surviving COVID infection is only half the battle for some people who can be left with debilitating symptoms, including brain damage that shares similarities with Alzheimer’s. While it’s hard to find a silver lining to the pandemic cloud, that we are learning new insights into “brain fog” brings some hope for the improved management of not just long COVID but Alzheimer’s, too.

    recent study published in the Journal of the Alzheimer’s Association found that patients with COVID-19 and associated neurological symptoms had raised levels of seven markers of brain damage, and that these were higher – in the short term – than those seen in patients with confirmed Alzheimer’s disease.

    While the frustrating truth is that finding out if COVID-19 will lead to future cases of Alzheimer’s is a matter of watchful waiting (at least for now), the more we learn about the overlap of these two diseases, the greater opportunities we have for interrupting the processes that lead to neurodegeneration.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Myocarditis: COVID-19 Is A Much Bigger Risk To The Heart Than Vaccination

    The heart has played a central role in COVID-19 since the beginning. Cardiovascular conditions are among the highest risk factors for hospitalization. A significant number of patients hospitalized with SARS-CoV-2 infections have signs of heart damage, and many recover from infection with lasting cardiovascular injury.

    It’s not surprising that debates over COVID-19 vaccines frequently centre around issues involving cardiovascular health. The high-profile collapse of Danish soccer player Christian Eriksen in June initiated a myth about the link between sudden cardiac death and vaccination among athletes that persists several months later.

    The treatment for myocarditis varies depending on its severity. Adults with mild forms of myocarditis typically need only rest and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) like ibuprofen. More severe cases require medications or even mechanical circulatory supports like left ventricular assist devices to support heart function. In some cases when treatment is no longer effective, a heart transplant is required.

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A new study suggests a huge number of adverse effects are just due to placebo, not the vaccine.

    Two-Thirds Of COVID-19 Vaccine Side Effects Caused By “Nocebo” Effect, Not Jab

    Approximately two-thirds of the negative side effects reported from COVID-19 vaccinations were also seen among people who got the placebo in clinical trials, suggesting they were caused by the expectation, rather than the vaccine itself — something researchers hope will encourage vaccinations in the future.

    Researchers have taken another look at side effects reported in studies that led to the approval of COVID-19 vaccines last year. Reactions not severe enough to prevent approval, but still unpleasant, were two-thirds as common among people who received a placebo, they report in JAMA Network Open. This means the reactions deterring people from getting vaccinated are usually, although not always, caused by expectation, fear, or worry about vaccination, not the jab itself. We have little to fear from injections but fear itself.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    No test included in the study “fully satisfied the minimum performance requirements” set by the World Health Organization or U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the researchers said.

    Rapid Covid Tests Don’t Work As Well For Kids As They Miss One Third Of Infections, Study Finds

    Rapid antigen tests to detect Covid-19 don’t work as well on children and fail to meet minimum performance standards set by public health regulators, according to research published in BMJ Evidence-Based Medicine, who questioned the effectiveness of mass testing campaigns in children a day after the Biden Administration launched its own to combat the spread of the omicron variant.

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Her son says that the anti-vax movement has “blood on their hands”

    Unvaccinated Singer Dies After Catching COVID-19 On Purpose

    The son of Czech singer Hana Horka says that the anti-vax movement has “blood on their hands” after his mother contracted COVID-19 on purpose, before dying of the disease shortly afterwards.

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Bourla kuvailee Pfizerin Paxlovid-pilleriä mullistavaksi koronataudin hoidossa.

    Pfizerin pääjohtaja Albert Bourla uskoo omikronaallon jäävän viimeiseksi rajoituksia aiheuttavaksi koronakoitokseksi

    Bourlan mukaan todennäköisimmän skenaarion mukaan koronavirus jää kiertämään maailmaa useiden vuosien ajaksi, mutta rokotesuoja ja uudet lääkkeet viruksen aiheuttamaa tautia vastaan mahdollistavat paluun normaaliin.

    BOURLA USKOO, että koronarokotuksista tulee perusterveillekin jokavuotinen toimenpide.

    ”On tärkeää, että ihmiset saavat kolme annosta Pfizerin koronarokotetta, ja sen jälkeen tarvitaan todennäköisesti vuotuisia tehosteita”, hän totesi haastattelussa. Immuunipuutteisille rokoteväli on hänen näkemyksensä mukaan noin neljä kuukautta.

    Bourlan mukaan myös lasten rokottaminen on tärkeää heidän suojaamisekseen. Rokotteen teho on lapsilla ”erittäin, erittäin hyvä”, hän sanoo.


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