Open innovation to help in COVID-19 pandemic

We are living in the middle of the emergency over coronavirus all over the world. The reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on societies and economies around the world cannot be understated. Because an estimated 15% of COVID-19 patients require hospitalization and 5% require intensive care (Z. Wu and McGoogan 2020), the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has the potential of posing a substantial challenge to medical systems around the world (Remuzzi and Remuzzi 2020; Grasselli, Pesenti, and Cecconi 2020).

Necessity is the mother of invention. A need or problem encourages creative efforts to meet the need or solve the problem. This saying appears in the dialogue Republic, by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.

“Necessity is the mother of invention” is an English-language proverb. It means, roughly, that the primary driving force for most new inventions is a need. When the need for something becomes imperative, you are forced to find ways of getting or achieving it.

With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, many companies have joined the fight to stop the deadly virus by creating and producing various types of medical supplies and healthcare solutions. Clothing companies began to sew aprons and protective N95 masks, chemical companies produced antibacterial gels, public and private universities and research centers started projects to create solutions that would help in a simple and quick way to study and prevent the disease.

Here are some examples of sort of ingenuity we need now in the middle of pandemia. Already many people contributed those efforts. Check out on those links what is already done if you can find any useful information or can contribute to those efforts you see as good idea. Start your reserach with 7 open hardware projects working to solve COVID-19 article.

I have collected here a list of interesting open hardware project and instructions that can be useful or educational. Hopefully this list I have contributed here will be useful for someone. Keep in mind that many of those ideas are potentially dangerous if the instructions are not entirely correct, implemented exactly right and used by people that know what they are doing. You have been warned: Do not try those at home yourself! We are dealing here with things that can easily injure or kill someone if improperly implemented or used – but at right place the best ideas from those could potentially save lives.

Repairing hospital equipment

The right thing to do in his situation is that medical companies to release service manuals for ALL medical equipment so they can be repaired and maintained where they are most needed.

In the face of ventilator shortages for COVID-19 victims, iFixit is looking to make maintaining and repairing equipment as easy as possible. iFixit Launches Central Repository for Hospital Equipment Repair and Maintenance Manuals

Site offers links many service manuals


COVID-19 pandemic prompts more robot usage worldwide article tells that the coronavirus has increased interest in robots, drones, and artificial intelligence, even as some testing of autonomous vehicles pauses on public roads. It is believed that these technologies can help deal with massive staffing shortages in healthcare, manufacturing, and supply chains; the need for “social distancing;” and diagnosis and treatment.

Here are some robotics related links that could be useful:

Medical robotics expert Guang-Zhong Yang calls for a global effort to develop new types of robots for fighting infectious diseases.

Elements of Robotics Open Access Textbook


A ventilator is a machine designed to provide mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. Ventilators are sometimes colloquially called “respirators”.

A ventilator, also called a respirator, is designed to provide mechanical ventilation by oxygen into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. The machines can be used to help a person breath if they have conditions making it difficult to breathe, such as lung diseases, during and post-surgery. For patients critically ill with coronavirus access to a ventilator could be a matter of life or death.

In its simplest form, a modern positive pressure ventilator consists of a compressible air reservoir or turbine, air and oxygen supplies, a set of valves and tubes, and a disposable or reusable “patient circuit”. Modern ventilators are electronically controlled by a small embedded system to allow exact adaptation of pressure and flow characteristics to an individual patient’s needs.

They work by placing a tube in a person’s mouth, nose or small cut in the throat and connect it to a ventilator machine. The air reservoir is pneumatically compressed several times a minute to deliver room-air, or in most cases, an air/oxygen mixture to the patient.

Because failure may result in death, mechanical ventilation systems are classified as a life-critical system, and precautions must be taken to ensure that they are highly reliable
. Modern commercial ventilator is a relatively complex piece of equipment with lots of components and a dedicated supply chain.

Because there is a lack of ventilators on many hospitals in several countries, there has been a lot of creative work done to help this problem.

There has been projects going on to repair old and non-working ventilators to a working conditions. For repairing some older devices, there has been problem to get spare parts from the manufacturer and that those spare parts can be very expensive. Also getting the service information for repairing those equipment seems to be hard to get from manufacturer, Ifixit has started a project Help commit industrial espionage for the greater good! to get the service information on-line at

In middle of the emergency some people have worked on to make their own spare parts when official parts are not available, thus making more devices available. For example a startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours. An Italian hospital that ran out of life-saving equipment for coronavirus patients was saved by a ‘hero’ engineer who used cutting-edge technology to design oxygen valves within a matter of hours. At least 10 lives were saved in this way.

So great thinking for 3d printing of valves. Are they sterilized and suitable? 3D printing has been used in numerous cases for medical parts already. Most 3D printing operates at relatively high temperatures and printed objects are actually naturally sterilized when they are made. Anyway the right kind of plastic needs to be selected and the part needs to be built in exactly right way that is works reliably as designed. If they are used and the individual gets worse, does the fact that equipment not medical certified (environment, storage, shipping, etc) put the hospital in additional jeopardy for a lawsuit? All valid questions each medical liability officer will have to address. But if people are going to literally die if you do nothing, then taking a risk with a part that you 3D print seems like an idea that is worth to try.


A startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours

Firm ‘refuses to give blueprint’ for coronavirus equipment that could save lives

3D printed life-saving valves: already a dozen in operation

Volunteers produce 3D-printed valves for life-saving coronavirus treatments
Volunteers made the valves for about $1

Another tried trick is try to use one ventilator with more than one patient. Daily Mail writes that ventilators can be modified to help FOUR coronavirus patients breathe at the same time if the NHS is still critically short of the machines when the outbreak peaks, scientists say. Here are some links to material on using one ventilator to more than one patient:


Here has been work going on in creating an open source ventilator design project. Here are some links to this project and some other DIY ventilator designs.

There’s A Shortage Of Ventilators For Coronavirus Patients, So This International Group Invented An Open Source Alternative That’s Being Tested Next Week

Open-source Oxygen Concentrator

Macgyvilator Mk 1 (3-19-2020) – “ventilator” for disasters and/or low resource environments
Macgyvilator Mk 1 is a disaster “ventilator”, a simple apparatus to compress a bag-valve-mask with some control over tidal volume and rate. Constructed quickly and simply using wood, PVC, velcro, common fasteners, and easily sourced and assembled electronic components.

An Arduino based Open Source Ventilator to Fight against COVID-19?
Low-Cost Open Source Ventilator or PAPR

Low-cost Ventilators

Arduino Respirator Prototype (pen source solution from Reesistencia Team, which is undergoing testing)

OxyGEN project
“OxyGEN is an open hardware project to build an emergency mechanism that automates an AMBU type manual ventilator in extreme shortage situations such as the one caused by coronavirus (COVID-19) in some parts of the world.”

NOTE: Take a look at the expression VILI before thinking about trying one of these. It is hard making a ventilator that doesn’t harm the lungs. It is easy to get Ventilator-associated lung injury or die if the ventilator does not work exactly correctly all the time.

Testing for infection

There are many approaches thought to be helpful to finding out if someone is infected or something is contaminated.
Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus
. However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever (it can take 2-10 days before infected people get the fewer).

Open-Source Collaboration Tackles COVID-19 Testing

Low-cost & Open-Source Covid19 Detection kits

This Open Source Device Can Detect Coronavirus on Surfaces
The Chai team has developed a detection test that works with their Open qPCR tool.

Prevent touching face

It is recommended to stop touching your face to minimize spread of coronavirus and other germs. People touch their faces frequently. They wipe their eyes, scratch their noses, bite their nails and twirl their mustaches.

Not touching your face is a simple way to protect yourself from COVID-19, but it’s not easy. If you can reduce face-touching, you can lower people’s chances of catching COVID-19. Why is it so hard to stop? Face-touching rewards us by relieving momentary discomforts like itches and muscle tension.

If you you want to change, you can try to replace it with a competing response that opposes the muscle movements needed to touch your face. When you feel the urge to touch your face, you can clench your fists, sit on your hands, press your palms onto the tops of your thighs or stretch your arms straight down at your sides. Some sources recommend object manipulation, in which you occupy your hands with something else. You can rub your fingertips, fiddle with a pen or squeeze a stress ball.

Related links:

This pair of Arduino glasses stops you from touching your face

Don’t Touch Your Face
Don’t touch your face — easy to say, hard to do. This device, worn like a watch, will buzz whenever your hand aims for trouble.

Hand sanitizer

Hand sanitizer is a liquid or gel generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. It depends on the case if hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer is preferred. For Covid-19 WHO recommends to wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them thoroughly. Use alcohol-based handrub if you don’t have immediate access to soap and water.

It seems that there are many places where there is shortage of hand sanitizers. This has lead to situation where people have resorted to making their own. Recipes for DIY hand sanitizer are popping all over the internet. A quick search reveals news articles, YouTube how-to’s and step-by-step visual guides. But think twice about joining them — experts are wary and even caution against the idea. The World Health Organization even has an official guide to making hand sanitizer. But it’s intended for populations that do not have clean water or other medical-grade products in place. Don’t try to make your own hand sanitizer just because there’s a shortage from coronavirus.

Can’t get your hands on hand sanitizer? Make your own

Photos show why hand sanitizer doesn’t work as well as soap and water to remove germs

Emergency DIY hand sanitizers (read the description)

“Every time a new health incident occurs there’s a rush on hand sanitizers, often causing shops to sell out.
Here’s how to make some simple emergency sanitizers at home, noting that they are not as effective as just washing your hands, and only some viruses can be damaged by simple sanitizers. These options are offered as a last resort when commercial versions are not available.”
“For the alcohol one the higher the percentage of alcohol the better, up to around 70-80%.”

Make Your Own Hand Sanitizer At Home When It’s Sold Out Everywhere

Sanitizing things

With deadly coronavirus spreading worldwide at an alarming speed, personal hygiene has become paramount importance to contain the infection spread further. Mobile phones are known to house several germ, and if you thing they are contaminated, you should maybe disinfect them. The CDC recommends that everyone “clean all “high-touch” surfaces every day” to protect against the spread of COVID-19.

How to Disinfect Your Smartphone article says CDC recommends that for your smartphone you should use 70% rubbing alcohol or alcohol-based disinfectant spray to wipe down the back and sides of your device. For example Apple recently updated its official cleaning advice, so ccording to Apple, it’s now safe to clean your iPhone with disinfecting wipes if you do it correctly. You should not try to spray any liquid to your phone.

The other option is to use a smartphone sanitizer device that cleans using UV rays. Sanitizers that use ultraviolet (UV) rays to kill bacteria and viruses have been around for a while now and they can kill 99% of bacteria in as little as five minutes. However its efficacy hasn’t been tested against nasties like SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. Coronavirus effect: Samsung offers UV-C sanitizing service for Galaxy devices. Samsung is using Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) disinfection technology, which uses of uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate bacteria, virus, molds and other pathogenic microorganisms on smartphones.

The UV-C light is capable of destroying nucleic acids and DNA. It will kill many things, but you don’t want that hitting your eye or skin. World Health Organization only states: “UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands, or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation.

Here are some UV C related links:

Good UV versus bad UV. All available on eBay.

Protective masks

The protective mask ratings used by hospitals are typically N95, FFP2 or FFP3. FFP2 protection level is 94%. FFP3 protection level is 99%. N95 protection level is 95%. An N95 FFR is a type of respirator which removes particles from the air that are breathed through it. These respirators filter out at least 95% of very small (0.3 micron) particles. N95 FFRs are capable of filtering out all types of particles, including bacteria and viruses. The N95 mask is mainly for use if you already have the virus to keep it from spreading and many have argued that coronavirus is smaller than the 0.3 micron filter rating of the mask and thus, not that helpful, for people outside of healthcare. In fact, the U.S. Surgeon General wants consumers to stop buying masks.

Due to the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a huge shortage of N95 masks. Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation claims that widespread use of masks by the general population could be an effective strategy for slowing down the spread of COVID-19: “Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”.

With masks sold out during the coronavirus outbreak, many people will have to make do with what some scientists have called “the last resort”: the DIY mask. Many people have been working on designs for a DIY mask that may be able to protect those who haven’t been able to secure their own masks. It seems that cotton homemade masks may be quite effective as alternatives and there are also other ideas. For any DIY ideas, be warned that there is no guarantee that those designs are effective. So I don’t recommend to use them as alternative to proper mask when they are available. Bit of proper marks are not available, they can be better than nothing.

Keep in mind the right filter type to use: Hepa filters do have the ability to filter particles and viruses, but they wont protect you 100% of the time. The real secret is layers. The problem is, more layers, more restriction. Keep in mind that charcoal filters will make your air fresher, but have almost no effect on cleaning the air of viruses. Coronavirus virions (or ‘particles’) are spherical particles with diameters of approximately 125 nm (0.125 microns). The smallest particles are 0.06 microns, and the largest are 0.14 microns. This means coronavirus particles are smaller than PM2.5 particles, but bigger than some dust particles and gases.

General information:

Guide to Dust Mask Ratings

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?


DIY project links:

Homemade N95 Masks In A Time Of Shortage

“According to a studied performed at Cambridge University during the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, while surgical masks perform the best at capturing Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria (0.93-1.25 microns) and Bacteriophage MS virus (0.023 microns), vacuum cleaner bags, tea towels, and cotton T-shirts were not too far behind. The coronavirus is 0.1-0.2 microns, well within the range for the results of the tests.”

What Are The Best Materials for Making DIY Masks?

“Data shows that DIY and homemade masks are effective at capturing viruses. But if forced to make our own mask, what material is best suited to make a mask? As the coronavirus spread around China, netizens reported making masks with tissue paper, kitchen towels, cotton clothing, and even oranges!”

Can DIY Masks Protect Us from Coronavirus?

“DIY masks to protect against from viruses sounds like a crazy idea. Data shows masks work incredibly well, and they’re also really cheap. Surgical masks cost a few pennies, and they’re capable of filtering out 80% of particles down to 0.007 microns (14 times smaller than the coronavirus).”

“The homemade cotton masks captured 50% of 0.02-1 micron particles, compared with 80% for the surgical mask. Although the surgical masks captured 30% more particles, the cotton masks did surprisingly well. The researchers concluded that homemade masks would be better than nothing.”

“The Cambridge data shows that homemade masks made using cotton t-shirts can filter out some particles that are 0.02–1 microns in size. That’s pretty good, however its only one test.”

Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?

This old hack doesn’t require any cutting or sewing:

Copper 3D makes the free N95 mask design to fight COVID-19 pandemic spread

Copper 3D – A Chilean manufacturer of innovative antibacterial filaments designed the own version of the popular N95 protective mask and prepared it perfectly optimized for 3D printing on desktop 3D printers of the FDM / FFF type. The project is released under an open-source license and has been simultaneously patent pending to prevent other entities from commercializing it.”

“Copper 3D team quickly got to work on developing the patent for a model similar to a standard N95 mask but with some peculiarities (Antiviral, Reusable, Modular, Washable, Recyclable, Low-Cost), which were completely designed in a digital environment so that it could be downloaded anywhere in the world and 3D printed with any FDM/FFF equipment, even a low cost one. The mask was called “NanoHack”.”

#HackThePandemic site offers the technical details of the N95 mask and download set of STL files for printing on own 3D printer


“This is NOT a straight replacement for a N95 mask. In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Prusa Protective Face Shield – RC2

“In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation

“Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”

“Potentially, simply wrapping a suitable, large cloth around the face is easy to implement (Fig. 2), would arguably be more socially acceptable than surgical masks, and would be superior to a complete lack of face mask use.”


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Here’s how the coronavirus opens the ‘door’ to enter a human cell

    Q&A: How Covid-19 hijacks human cells

    The virus that causes Covid-19 hijacks human cells by exploiting a ‘doorway’ that is potentially also used by other deadly viruses such as HIV, dengue and Ebola, according to recent research that may help to explain why the coronavirus is so highly infectious to a wide range of organs in the body.

    Dr Yohei Yamauchi, a viral cell biologist at the University of Bristol, UK, who led the research, believes that the finding could not only lead to new drugs against Covid-19, but other anti-viral treatments that could be used to save patients’ lives in future pandemics.

    Why is the molecular biology of viruses important?

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Besides temperature, the ring measures heart rate, breathing and physical activity, helping it distinguish between temperatures from running to catch a bus and those caused by the body fighting an infection.

    Temperature Sensing Rings Might Prevent Covid-19’s Spread Through Early Fever Detection

    In the 1970s the invention of rings that change color depending on the temperature of the wearer started a fad. Today a more advanced version could help stop a pandemic, although the team testing them warn larger samples are needed before their effectiveness can be confirmed.

    “Mood rings” got their name from the claim that temperature variations, revealed in the changing colors of the rings’ liquid crystals, indicated the wearer’s emotions. After a while people noticed this wasn’t a very reliable measure, since slightly higher temperatures could be an indication of anything from excitement to anger to the room, rather than the wearer, heating up.

    Mood ring color changes could also indicate a fever preceding a bout of the flu

    Working with Finnish company Oura, Smarr has tested something more sophisticated, and perhaps less aesthetically appealing, than retro jewellery store products. Besides temperature, the ring measures heart rate, breathing and physical activity, helping it distinguish between temperatures from running to catch a bus and those caused by the body fighting an infection.

    Moreover, by wearing the rings before they got sick, people established their base-line temperatures. “Temperature varies not only from person to person but also for the same person at different times of the day,” Smarr noted in a statement. Science News By knowing what an individual’s temperature should be under specific conditions, the rings could avoid a lot of false positive readings other checks might report.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    ‘Autoantibodies’ may be driving severe Covid cases, study shows
    Scientists find aberrant immune system in patients with virus could also be cause of ‘long Covid’

    Dramatic levels of “friendly fire” from the immune system may drive severe Covid-19 disease and leave patients with “long Covid” – when medical problems persist for a significant time after the virus has been beaten – scientists have said.

    Researchers at Yale University found that Covid-19 patients had large numbers of misguided antibodies in their blood that targeted the organs, tissues and the immune system itself, rather than fighting off the invading virus.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Tukes: Kansanmaski ei suojaa käyttäjäänsä virustartunnalta

    Turvallisuus- ja kemikaalivirasto (Tukes) on testauttanut markkinoilla olevia kansanmaskeja ja tutkinut niiden suodatustehokkuutta ja hengitysvastusta. Testitulosten mukaan pestävien maskien suodatustehokkuus oli pienillä, alle 0,2 mikrometrin partikkeleilla alhainen, useimmiten alle 30 prosenttia, joten kansanmaski ei suojaa käyttäjäänsä virustartunnalta. Koronavirusten kokoluokka on yleisesti noin 0,05–0,2 mikrometriä, kerrotaan Tukesin tiedotteessa.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Simulations suggest that long streams of cough-generated droplets can trail behind an infected person if they quickly walk down a narrow corridor.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Koronarokotteiden hinnat livahtivat vahingossa julkisuuteen – tämän verran EU-maat maksavat per pistos

    Hinnat yhtä rokoteannosta kohden ovat taulukon mukaan seuraavat:

    Oxford/AstraZeneca: 1,78 € (EU varannut 300 miljoonaa annosta)
    Johnson & Johnson: 8,50 (6,94 €, EU varannut 200 miljoonaa annosta)
    Sanofi/GSK: 7,56 € (EU varannut 300 miljoonaa annosta)
    CureVac: 10 € (EU varannut 225 miljoonaa annosta)
    Pfizer/BioNTech: 12 € (EU varannut 200 miljoonaa annosta)
    Moderna: 18 (14,7 €, EU varannut 80 miljoonaa annosta)
    Kaikkiaan koronarokotus maksaa siis 3,56–29,4 euroa EU-jäsenvaltion asukasta kohden, sillä rokoteannoksia tulee ottaa kaksi.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): What parents should know
    How to protect yourself and your children.

    The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has upended the lives of children and their families around the world. As COVID-19 has spread, so has misinformation – fueling discrimination and stigma. UNICEF is working with health experts to promote facts over fear, bringing trustworthy guidance and answering some of the questions families might have.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Vaccination Is the Only Acceptable Path to Herd Immunity

    Population-level herd immunity is critical for long-term control of SARS-CoV-2. However, proposals to reach the herd immunity threshold through naturally acquired infection, rather than vaccination, have complicated public health efforts and popularized policies that will lead to widespread transmission and mortality. Vaccination is the only viable path to herd immunity.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    You can’t sue Pfizer or Moderna if you have severe Covid vaccine side effects. The government likely won’t compensate you for damages either

    Under the PREP Act, companies like Pfizer and Moderna have total immunity from liability if something unintentionally goes wrong with their vaccines.
    A little-known government program provides benefits to people who can prove they suffered serious injury from a vaccine.
    That program rarely pays, covering just 29 claims over the last decade.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Data can prevent the next global health emergency. Here’s how

    Unnecessary uncertainty has surrounded much of the decision-making throughout this pandemic.
    We can mitigate the fallout of future health emergencies through better use of use of data and advanced analytics.
    The Trinity Challenge is an alliance of public and private sector organizations, trying to put systems in place to streamline data-driven decision-making.

    A recently published report, Better decisions to protect against health emergencies, outlines how COVID-19 has highlighted the pre-existing weaknesses in our data sharing, analytics and learning systems. There are three core lessons we should take away:

    Humanity needs to get the right people the right access to the right data at the right time
    We need to improve our ability to share insights and information across disciplines, departments, sectors and geographies
    We need to utilize the data available to make fact-based decisions to improve health, economic and social outcomes.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    “Knowledge is power in many ways, so I think understanding which hospitalized COVID-19 patients are at highest risk of mortality can help guide difficult treatment decisions.”

    Large Study Identifies Greatest Risk Factors For COVID-19 Mortality

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Moderna Vaccine’s Antibodies May Not Last As Long As We Hoped

    With the rollout of Covid-19 vaccines finally underway across the United States, data on the vaccines’ effectiveness is starting to become more available. But one key piece of information is still relatively unknown: how long the vaccines’ effectiveness will last.

    A significant determinant of vaccines’ effectiveness in controlling a pandemic is antibody duration—how long the antibodies last in a person’s system. For those 18-55 years old, the majority only show a slight decrease in neutralizing antibodies in the three months following their second vaccine dose. Two of the 34 patients in this age group saw a significant drop in neutralizing antibodies.

    However, sustained antibody counts are not the case in the 56-70 and 71+ age groups. In these subsets, the neutralizing antibody counts fall anywhere between 50 and 75 percent. This suggests that in these age groups, the duration of neutralizing antibodies from the Moderna vaccine will be relatively short, potentially less than a year.

    Moderna is simultaneously producing vaccines for avian influenzas H10N8 and H7N9. These two vaccine candidates show similar drops in neutralizing antibody counts to mRNA-1273 after three months. According to data from Science Direct, antibodies persisted up to six months after injection, but dropped as much as 90% in that time. Sustained protection from the virus requires sustained neutralizing antibodies, yet the patterns indicate that Covid-19 vaccines may be more than a one-time occurrence.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:
    “The shutdown last spring cost Finland 1.2 billion euros a week! However, Finland has a smarter option now. We could test the entire population, isolate the infected, and shut down the virus, not the society.”
    The Author, a medical doctor, suggests:
    1- Mass-testing of all or majority of the population
    2- Enforced and controlled quarantine of infected, exposed and arrivals
    3- Mandatory use of masks in public

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A study has found that masks are 99.9 percent effective at blocking large water droplets when worn properly, but their efficacy for aerosol was not tested.

    Mask Wearing Is 99.9 Percent Effective At Retaining Large Droplets When Worn Properly, Study Finds

    A lab experiment which used mechanical mannequins to test the efficacy of face masks in reducing the spread of large droplets when coughing and speaking has found that they can block 99.9 percent of drops when worn properly. The findings were published in the journal Royal Society Open Science.

    The respiratory coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 which triggered the COVID-19 pandemic spreads through water droplets and with new strains on the loose which have an increased transmissibility capacity it’s more important than ever to try and prevent disease spread. Face coverings have been promoted as one way of achieving this, as while they can’t stop the pathogen entering the mask, they can keep the water droplets of the wearer in. By doing this, it reduces the chance of drops containing the virus making it into the nose, mouth or eyes of a person who hasn’t yet had the disease.

    “Our results indicate that face coverings show consistent efficacy at blocking respiratory droplets and thus provide an opportunity to moderate social distancing policies,” wrote the study authors in the paper.

    “However, the methodologies we employed mostly detect larger (non-aerosol) sized droplets,” they wrote. “If the aerosol transmission is later determined to be a significant driver of infection, then our findings may overestimate the effectiveness of face coverings.”

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Should You Get The Covid-19 Vaccine If You Have Already Had Coronavirus?

    A Majority Of Americans Are Opposed to Trump’s Plan To Reopen Schools
    A Politico/Morning Consult poll found the majority of Americans do not want schools to reopen this fall.
    Current Time

    What do having had Covid-19 and wearing a fanny pack have in common? Neither should affect whether you should get the Covid-19 vaccine.

    Some may claim that they are “immune to the Covid-19 coronavirus” after recovering from an infection and therefore not need a Covid-19 vaccine. However, the response to such a statement should be “immunity maybe,” a variation of the Carly Rae Jepsen song. It’s not clear what percentage of people who have had Covid-19 develop enough of an immune response to protect them from subsequent infection. What degree of immunity you may develop could depend on a variety of factors such how severe your first bout of Covid-19 happened to be.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why Americans will demand to be able to prove they’re vaccinated

    You’ve received a coronavirus vaccination — but can you prove it? The answer to that question will help determine how the global economy functions for the next few years.

    Why it matters: The federal government will probably neither mandate nor encourage digital immunity passports or other proofs of vaccination. But privately-operated digital certificates are already being developed — and U.S. law means that anybody who gets vaccinated here should be able to obtain the proof they need.

    The big picture: Your employer has a clear interest in knowing whether you’ve been vaccinated, as do the immigration staff in any foreign country you want to visit.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Reverse Engineering the source code of the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    Welcome! In this post, we’ll be taking a character-by-character look at the source code of the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Reverse Engineering the source code of the BioNTech/Pfizer SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine

    let’s start off with a small part of the very source code of the BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine, also known as BNT162b2, also known as Tozinameran also known as Comirnaty.

    The BNT162b mRNA vaccine has this digital code at its heart. It is 4284 characters long, so it would fit in a bunch of tweets. At the very beginning of the vaccine production process, someone uploaded this code to a DNA printer (yes), which then converted the bytes on disk to actual DNA molecules.

    Out of such a machine come tiny amounts of DNA, which after a lot of biological and chemical processing end up as RNA (more about which later) in the vaccine vial. A 30 microgram dose turns out to actually contain 30 micrograms of RNA. In addition, there is a clever lipid (fatty) packaging system that gets the mRNA into our cells.

    RNA is the volatile ‘working memory’ version of DNA.

    Each RNA character weighs on the order of 0.53·10⁻²¹ grams, meaning there are 6·10¹⁶ characters in a single 30 microgram vaccine dose. Expressed in bytes, this is around 25 petabytes, although it must be said this consists of around 2000 billion repetitions of the same 4284 characters. The actual informational content of the vaccine is just over a kilobyte. SARS-CoV-2 itself weighs in at around 7.5 kilobytes.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Mild And Asymptomatic COVID-19 Cases Have Some Long-Term Immunity To Virus

    In a new study, scientists report that 89 percent of healthcare workers still had neutralizing antibodies 16 to 18 weeks after infection, while most also had T cells capable of recognizing multiple different parts of the virus.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    .The WHO estimates that mild cases of Covid-19 should resolve in two weeks. For many people, that is not the case.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Pfizer-BioNTech And Moderna Covid-19 Vaccines: Here Are 5 Differences

    1. The age limits for the vaccines are different.
    2. The time in between the first and second doses are different.
    3. They have different storage requirements.
    4. The quantity of vaccine in each dose and the amount you can order will differ.
    5. Their containers will hold different quantities of vaccines.

    Chances are you won’t be able to choose which vaccine you get. It won’t be like a hot dog stand where you can say, “I will have the Pfizer vaccine with some relish,” or “give me the Moderna vaccine with some extra cheese.” While some vaccination locations may get both vaccines, many may get only one type of vaccine or at least be administering one type of vaccine at a given time. So the differences between the two vaccines may have more of an impact on the people delivering and giving the vaccine.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Pfizer And Moderna Have Both Posted Great Vaccine Data. Here’s What’s Next

    Dr. Stephen Thomas, an infectious diseases physician-scientist and the principal investigator for the Pfizer / BioNTech Covid vaccine trial occurring at SUNY Upstate Medical University, discusses what the next steps are for Pfizer and Modern’s vaccines.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Alcohol can reduce the effectiveness of COVID vaccine, experts say

    Drinking alcohol can reduce the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines, according to UK experts.

    They found that even three glasses of Prosecco halved the levels of white blood cells like lymphocytes that are crucial in creating antibodies to attack viruses, the report said.

    “You need to have your immune system working tip-top to have a good response to the vaccine, so if you’re drinking the night before, or shortly afterward, that’s not going to help,” University of Manchester professor Sheena Cruickshank told the paper.

    Cruickshank advised people to avoid drinking in the days around getting vaccinated.

    People receiving Covid vaccines ‘should avoid alcohol’

    Alcohol can reduce the immune system’s response to a Covid-19 vaccine, experts have warned.

    Distribution of the Pfizer/BioNTech jab began almost a month ago, with more than a million people having already received their first coronavirus jab.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Covid-19 immunity likely lasts for years
    A new study shows immune cells primed to fight the coronavirus should persist for a long time after someone is vaccinated or recovers from infection.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TensorFlow-Based Computer Vision System Aims to Enforce COVID-19 Safety Compliance in Construction

    Designed to enforce COVID-19 safety measure compliance, the automated system tracks distancing and mask use on incoming video feeds.

    A team of researchers from Texas A&M University, alongside colleagues from the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee and the State University of New York at Binghamton, have developed a system that uses a TensorFlow-based network to automatically monitor construction workers for COVID-19 safety compliance.

    “The World Health Organization recommends wearing a face mask and practicing physical distancing to mitigate the virus’s spread. This paper developed a computer vision system to automatically detect the violation of face mask wearing and physical distancing among construction workers to assure their safety on infrastructure projects during the pandemic.”

    An Automatic System to Monitor the Physical Distance and Face Mask Wearing of Construction Workers in COVID-19 Pandemic

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Kuva piikikkäästä koronaviruksesta on kaikille tuttu – mutta virheellinen, sillä tutkijat tekivät sen kiireessä väärin ja sitten se lähti leviämään
    Kiireellä julkaistussa ensimmäisessa havainnekuvassa on yksi proteiini liikaa. Virheellisiä kuvia käytetään edelleen.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Should You Get Vaccinated For COVID-19 If You’ve Already Had It?

    If you’ve already been infected with COVID-19, you may be wondering whether you need to be vaccinated against the virus. The short answer is: yes! Here’s what you need to know.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automatic Hand Sanitizer Project to know about this project click the link below

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Facebook claims its AI can predict four days in advance if a coronavirus patient’s condition will deteriorate – just by looking at a single chest X-ray

    Facebook claims to have designed software capable of predicting if a coronavirus patient’s health will deteriorate or will need oxygen just by scanning their chest X-rays.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How To Clean Your N95 Mask Or Face Covering With Covid-19 Coronavirus

    Keep it clean folks. If something is going to touch your face, whether its a face mask to prevent Covid-19 coronavirus transmission, a Lone Ranger mask, or that inflatable doll that you keep under your bed, you are going to want to keep it clean. After all, your face is not a roll of toilet paper. It can be the window not only to your soul but also for a bunch a microbes to infect your soul if you are not careful. So here are some suggestions first on how to wash your reusable face covering and then on how to handle medical masks like N95 masks.

    If you are using a reusable face covering, you really should be cleaning it each and every time that you wear it. A good rule to follow is that your face is as important if not more important than your genitals. Does the thought of wearing the same pair of underwear for more than a day gross you out? Then why would wearing a face covering for more than one outing seem OK? Each time you put on a face covering, it touches your mouth and nose, both of which are full of microbes. You may cough, sneeze, pant, spit, burp, sweat, run your nose, and release boogers while wearing the mask. At the same time, things in the air, including potentially viruses and a range of allergens, are being sucked into your face covering. Your face covering is in many ways like underwear for your face.

    Most fabric masks can go into the laundry with other clothes. If your mask is made out of silk chiffon, delicate lace, or cement, reconsider your choice of face covering. Avoid any fabric that has to be dry-cleaned. In fact, try to use fabric that can be washed in detergent and hot water. Don’t bedazzle your face covering or put anything else on it that can’t make it through the laundry


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