Networking trends 2019

5G? IoT? Fiber Deep? 600G? We Are ready for networking at 2019!
For years we have all been talking about the emergence of 5G services, the Internet of Things (IoT) and the new high-capacity, low-latency network architectures that will be needed to support the resulting onslaught of bandwidth. Higher-speed data rates are critical to electronic evolution and revolution.

Here are some of my collection of newest trends and predictions for year 2018.  have picked and mixed here quotations from many articles (linked to source) with some of my own additions to make this posting.

5G: The most newsworthy stories in wireless today are all about 5G. In 2019, we enter a cautious, early-adoption phase of this next generation of wireless technology. 2019 will be the year when we see the first commercial networks turning on and first handsets arriving in the market. Only a small number of users will get a first taste of 5G in specific geographic locations, using specific applications, none of which are ubiquitous or cost-optimized. For more details read my 5G trends for 2019 posting.


Deep fiber: Deep deployment of fiber optics into national network infrastructure might not be as glamorous as the eagerly anticipated launch of fifth-generation mobile networks (5G); however, it is just as important—maybe even more important. Wired broadband access supports as much as 90 percent of all internet traffic even though the majority of traffic ultimately terminates on a wireless device. Wireline and wireless networks are driving new architectures to support the move from 4G LTE to 5G infrastructure. In fact, 5G relies heavily on fiber infrastructure. Service providers in the access market are talking about the evolution of their plants to a Fiber Deep (FD) Architecture. FD architectures move the optical node (the optical-to-electrical conversion point) deeper into the network and closer to the subscriber. This means shorter copper, faster speed, more capacity and reduction in maintenance cost for both cable TV network and telephone line based access networks.

Ethernet: Faster Ethernet speeds are taken to use. These transitions are driven by the increasing global IP traffic. Hyper-scalers and service providers are moving from 100GbE to 400GbE Ethernet rates and beyond. In this speed development 56Gb/s And 112Gb/s SerDes Matter.

TSN: Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of standards under development by the Time-Sensitive Networking task group of the IEEE 802.1 working group. TSN standards documents that are specified by IEEE 802.1 can be grouped into three basic key component categories that are time synchronization; scheduling and traffic shaping; selection of communication paths, path reservations and fault-tolerance. Industrial Ethernet networks embrace time-sensitive networking (TSN) technology to integrate operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT).

SDN: Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to cloud computing that facilitates network management and enables programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring. SD-WAN applies similar technology to a wide area network (WAN). SD-WAN allows companies to build higher-performance WANs using lower-cost and commercially available Internet access, enabling businesses to partially or wholly replace more expensive private WAN connection technologies such as MPLS.

IPv6: IPv4 and IPv6 are the two Protocols Run the Internet in 2019. The long-forecasted day the internet runs out of addresses has arrived and it marks a paradigm shift in the internet’s evolution. Though IPv6 has been available globally since 2012, it has seen a slow, if increasing, adoption rate. The migration to IPv6 is inevitable but will take time during that both systems are in use. In many networks a notable amount of traffic is already IPv6.
New Internet protocols: Internet security gets a boost with TLS 1.3. Also HTTP is in process of switching to a protocol layered on top of UDP. Today’s HTTP (versions 1.0, 1.1, and 2) are all layered on top of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) that is not very optimal in today’s applications as SSL over TCP requires subsequent round trips to establish the encrypted connection.

IoT: The IoT world is here, and the level and rate of convergence is increasing in volume and velocity. We will see the evolution of converged networks for IoT applications in mind. Network convergence (version 2.0) is here with changes and improvements made since the first converged network (Convergence 1.0). TIA TR-42 (Telecommunications Cabling Systems ANSI/TIA-568 family), BICSI (TDMM and others) and proprietary or third documents must adapt and adjust.

PoE: The IEEE 802.3bt standard, approved by the IEEE Standards Association Board on September 27, 2018, included some significant enhancements especially for LED lighting systems. This specification allows for up to 90W of delivered power for cable lengths of up to 100m through the use of all four pairs of wires.

Edge data centers: The decentralization of the cloud and data centers are happening. Hundreds of scaled-down micro data centers are appearing at the edge of the network to support latency-sensitive IoT devices, real-time safety systems and now self- driven cars.

Trade wars: It seem that there is a high tech “trade war” between USA and China. It affects specifically networking business. Big Chinese manufacturers Huawei and ZTE are have received sanctions and their products are not wanted by many countries citing  their business practices and potential security nightmares. For example Japan to halt buying Huawei, ZTE equipment and Huawei has been under fire in UK, just to mention examples. It seems that the business that is lost by Huawei and ZTE could benefit Ericsson and Nokia in the 5G base station markets for short term.

Security: The internet is going to hell and its creators want your help fixing it. All agree on one thing however: Right now there is a serious battle for heart and minds, the future of the internet and global society itself. There seems to be need for a conference to address the fact that people increasingly see tech as a threat and no longer as a pure force for good. Government set to revise internal rules on procurement to protect national cybersecurity. Your DNS might be broken, and you don’t even know it. Some DNS old hacks gets thrown out of use by February 1st, 2019.
WiFi: WiFi technology gets new marketing naming. The numerical sequence includes:  Wi-Fi 6 to identify devices that support 802.11ax technology, Wi-Fi 5 to identify devices that support 802.11ac technology, Wi-Fi 4 to identify devices that support 802.11n technology.

Faster mobile: Mobile networks are getting faster in many countries. Mobile networks are killing Wi-Fi for speed around the world. Average data speeds on mobile networks now outpace customer’s Wi-Fi connection, on average, in 33 countries. That’s the The State of Wifi vs Mobile Network Experience as 5G Arrives.

Energy efficiency: We need to develop more energy efficient networking technologies. Today, information and communication technologies globally consume 8% of electricity and doubles every year.

 

1,184 Comments

  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to Assemble NEUTRIK ETHERCON Connector Carrier
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a9XXHNHNDHo

    Neutrik Ethercon connector carriers are really great to make ethernet cables more rugged and less annoying frankly.

    Navigating Neutrik’s Three etherCON Families – May 29, 2019
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VHNGKRQK3XI

    Reply
  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethercon Neutrik: Teardown
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v8fYVtlULn0

    What an Ethercon Neutrik cable and connector looks like plus how you dismantle and reassemble it. Often used for IP audio and lighting installations.

    Reply
  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    SpaceX Starlink user who took $600 internet dish on Greek sailing vacation says the service was ‘surprisingly good’ despite outages
    https://www.businessinsider.com/spacex-starlink-user-internet-dish-sailing-vacation-surprised-service-2022-9?r=US&IR=T

    A SpaceX Starlink user strapped the internet dish to a yacht on a trip around the Greek islands.
    He was testing Starlink at sea for his company RebelRoam, which provides WiFi for public transport.
    He told Insider that Starlink’s connectivity was “surprisingly good” despite some outages.

    Starlink, SpaceX’s satellite internet service, is becoming increasingly popular across the world — so much so that some users have even taken it on vacation.

    One user told Insider that he strapped the Starlink equipment to a yacht and sailed around the Greek islands for a week to test how the service fared at sea.

    Topolev opted for Starlink’s RV package, costing about $600, because RebelRoam wanted to test its service in different locations.

    They combined Starlink’s service with cellular connectivity and compared the two while using social media, Google maps, and video streaming. The outcome? Starlink and cellular complimented each other, according to Topolev.

    Starlink suffered outages when it was surrounded by other boats’ masts or when the yacht made sharp turns, but worked well at sea, whereas cellular connectivity dropped out when the boat was far from the shore, Topolev said.

    “It was surprisingly good,” he said. “There were some outages and sometimes we had to manually reboot it … but basically it worked … almost all the time.”

    Topolev said cruise ships use a combination of WiFi and cellular to provide internet connection, meaning Starlink would be a useful and much cheaper option.

    “We see it’s a very good solution because big cruise ships are using geostationary satellites, which have a huge latency and it’s ridiculously expensive for the speeds that they’re getting,” Topolev said.

    Reply
  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Miljoonat IoT-anturit lähettävät dataa satelliitin kautta
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/13962-miljoonat-iot-anturit-laehettaevaet-dataa-satelliitin-kautta

    Tutkimuslaitos Berg Insightin uuden raportin mukaan maailmanlaajuiset satelliitti IoT-viestintämarkkinat kasvavat hyvää tasaista vauhtia. COVID-19-pandemian vaikutuksista huolimatta maailmanlaajuinen satelliitti IoT-tilaajamäärä kasvoi yli 3,9 miljoonaan vuonna 2021. Vuonna 2026 määrän ennustetaan olevan jo 21,2 miljoonaa.

    Vain noin 10 prosentilla maapallon pinnasta on pääsy maanpäällisiin verkkoihin, mikä jättää valtavan mahdollisuuden satelliittien IoT-viestintään. Satelliittiyhteys täydentää maanpäällisiä matkapuhelinverkkoja ja ei-solukkoverkkoja syrjäisissä paikoissa, ja se on erityisen hyödyllinen maataloudessa, logistiikan seurannassa, merikuljetuksissa, öljy- ja kaasuteollisuuden etsinnässä, laitoksissa, rakentamisessa ja hallinnossa.

    Sekä vakiintuneet satelliittioperaattorit että yli kaksi tusinaa uutta yrittäjää yrittävät kaupata omia yhteyksiään IoT-datansiirtoon. Berg Insightin raportissa tällaisia operaattoreita oli 44.

    Näistä suurimmat ovat tällä hetkellä Iridium, Orbcomm, Inmarsat ja Globalstar. Iridium kasvatti IoT-tilaajakuntaansa 21 prosenttia viime vuonna ja on nyt yhdistänyt 1,3 miljoonaa IoT-laitetta. Orbcomin verkossa oli viime vuonna 1,1 miljoonaa IoT-laitetta.

    Vakiintuneiden satelliittioperaattoreiden lisäksi markkinoille on viime aikoina ilmestynyt useita uusia aloitteita. Esimerkkejä korkean profiilin projekteista ovat Astrocast, AST SpaceMobile, CASC/CASIC, E-Space, Fleet Space Technologies, Hubble Network, Kepler Communications, Kineis, Ligado Networks, Lynk, Myriota, Omnispace, Skylo, Swarm Technologies (SpaceX) ja Totum. Monet niistä perustuvat matalan kiertoradan nanosatelliittikonsepteihin.

    Reply
  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    SpaceX Reveals Expected Speeds for ‘Best Effort’ Starlink Tier
    The Best Effort tier is arriving for select Starlink customers stuck in the pre-order backlog.
    https://uk.pcmag.com/networking/142338/spacex-reveals-expected-speeds-for-best-effort-starlink-tier

    Reply
  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    MIT Discovers Why There’s an Uneven Distribution of Bandwidth
    https://www.allaboutcircuits.com/news/mit-discovers-why-theres-an-uneven-distribution-of-bandwidth/

    Network congestion algorithms are supposed to fairly distribute internet bandwidth. But that’s not always the case, MIT researchers say.
    In 2020, Britannica estimated that over 4.5 billion people had access to the internet. As that number continues to grow, it is essential that internet bandwidth be distributed fairly across multiple users.

    Bandwidth is defined as the maximum amount of data that can be sent over an internet connection in a given amount of time. For any given internet connection, there are likely many users sharing its bandwidth. Consider, for example, the case of a household internet connection with several users with some using streaming services and others using basic services like email. The internet connection must be allocated to each device in a way that is fair while also ensuring sufficient speed. This is achieved through congestion control algorithms.

    Recently, however, a team of researchers at MIT found that flaws in network congestion algorithms may be unevenly distributing bandwidth to internet users.

    How Congestion Control Algorithms Can Cause Network “Starvation”
    Since congestion control algorithms are critical to sharing the modern internet, researchers have invested heavily in optimizing and streamlining them. In 2017, Google engineers developed the BBR (bottleneck bandwidth and round-trip propagation time) congestion control algorithm (CCA), which was later deployed in 2019 by Amazon Cloudfront.

    However, MIT researchers have recently published a study that asserts that BBR and similar “delay-bounding” congestion control algorithms cannot always avoid a scenario known as bandwidth starvation. Starvation in this context refers to one connected device hogging available bandwidth and consequently blocking another connected device from accessing minimal or any bandwidth at all.

    Delay-bounding congestion control algorithms work by adjusting their congestion window, typically defined as the number of packets a device is allowed to send out into the network at a given time, by measuring the round-trip time (RTT) of the network. RTT is defined as the duration between when a packet is sent out from a device to when an acknowledgment is received by a remote server.

    MIT Discovers Roadblock in Network Distribution
    Recently, MIT proved that delay-bounded CCAs can result in starvation. In a published study, the researchers pointed out that delay-bounded congestion control algorithms are also “delay-convergent,” meaning they converge to an RTT that oscillates between two values over time.

    Using formal mathematics, the MIT researchers showed that if a delay-bounded (convergent) algorithm operates on two different real-world links (for instance, two different devices sharing a connection), they can converge to vastly different sending rates. In other words, one of the links can be starved of bandwidth.

    This occurs because of network “jitter”—delays in the network not caused by congestion but by other random events. When the jitter for two different links deviates, delay-convergent algorithms converge to an RTT, which may not reflect the actual congestion present on the link.

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  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Pentagon warns of GPS interference from Ligado broadband network
    https://www.reuters.com/world/us/pentagon-warns-gps-interference-ligado-broadband-network-2022-09-09/

    WASHINGTON, Sept 9 (Reuters) – The U.S. Defense Department said a study released Friday shows Ligado Networks’ (MOSAV.UL) planned nationwide mobile broadband network will interfere with military global positioning system receivers (GPS) receivers.

    Reporting by David Shepardson; editing by Jonathan Oatis

    Reply
  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Demo osoitti: seuraava WiFi kiihdyttää 5 gigabittiin
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/13986-demo-osoitti-seuraava-wifi-kiihdyttaeae-5-gigabittiin

    Intel ja Broadcom ovat esitelleet ensimmäisen yritysten välisen WiFi 7 -yhteistyön tuloksia. Esittelyssä esiteltiin tulevan standardin potentiaalia, mukaan lukien yli 5 gigabitin sekunnissa olevat siirtonopeudet. Tekninen esittely suoritettiin Intel Core -pohjaisella kannettavalla tietokoneella, joka oli yhdistetty WiFi 7 -linkin kautta Broadcomin tukiasemaan.

    Seuraavan polven WiFi on IEEE:n standardiluokituksessa nimeltään 802.11be. Sen myötä wifi-verkon nopeus kasvaa reititintä kohti jopa 30 gigabittiin sekunnissa. WiFi 7:n aikataulu on osin vielä avoin. 802.11be-työryhmä perustettiin toukokuussa 2019. Marraskuussa 2022 IEEEn roadmapissa lukee Draft 3.0 ja marraskuussa 2023 Draft 4.0. Täysin valmiina standardin pitäisi olla keväällä 2024.

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  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Rise of the Splice Machines
    New and old technology combine to drive pigtailed cassette-based termination
    https://www.corning.com/in-building-networks/worldwide/en/home/applications/local-area-networks/knowledge-center/traditional-lan-knowledge-center/rise-of-the-splice-machines.html

    In the early days of optical fiber termination, direct termination using a factory-polished mechanical splice connector or field polished connector was not possible. Field termination required the use of a factory-polished connector with an optical fiber “tail” that was stripped, cleaned and cleaved, inserted into a fusion splicer and fused onto the field fiber, creating a “pigtailed” termination. This was a tedious process that required great precision and, until recently, hasn’t changed very much in 50 years. During that time, factory-polished mechanical and fusion splice connectors became available. While there are still optical fiber termination methods that rely on field polish of the optical fiber at the point of installation, the dominant technology today is the polish of optical fiber connectors in the controlled manufacturing environment. Even connectors that are field installable often have their fiber endface prepared in the controlled and repeatable environment of the factory. From the no-epoxy/no-polish connectors like the Corning UniCam, Panduit OptiCam or CommScope Qwik Connectors to the newer splice-on connectors such as the Corning Fuselite, AFL FUSEConnect or Belden FiberExpress Fusion, all these connectors share the distinction that their endfaces are factory prepared. Furthermore, all these methods share this distinction with one of the newest and most reliable termination methods—the cassette-based pigtail splice. This is a technology less than a decade old that combines the splice tray, adapter panel, pre-stripped and routed pigtails and splicing consumables required for optical fiber termination in a single compact cassette. In this article, we will examine the factors that have put this exciting new termination method at the forefront of optical termination methods.

    Drivers for fusion spliced termination methods

    With the move to higher and higher bandwidth, there is an industry emphasis on performance of optical fiber terminations. This performance is measured in both insertion loss as well as reflectance. Standards organizations, such as the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA), both have recognized the need for both improved connector performance and consistency in the way connector performance is measured across multiple vendors. Both IEC 61753-1 and TIA-568, apply grading systems to optical fiber terminations. This standards-based industry focus on performance has led to the increase in factory-polished and fusion-spliced technologies because fusion splicing has been, and remains, the gold standard when it comes to a dependable low-loss and low-reflectance connector.

    Another driver of the use of fusion splice termination technologies is in the increased use of singlemode fiber in applications such as in-building networks that have traditionally deployed multimode fiber. This has occurred because of the gradual reduction in price of singlemode optics vs. multimode optical transceivers (e.g., small-form-factor pluggable [SFP]) as well as the extended reach and simplicity of specifying singlemode fiber for network links. Simply put, singlemode fiber has remained the steady performer. Even with new generations of singlemode fiber with reduced attenuation and better bend performance, these newer fibers have remained backwards compatible.

    In contrast, multimode fiber has progressed through OM1, OM2, OM3, OM4, and now OM5 with the latest generations promising increased reach and bandwidth. However, these fibers have not surpassed the performance of singlemode fiber in these respects. Many in-building and campus network owners and end-users have chosen to get off this multimode fiber generation treadmill by simply adopting singlemode fiber throughout the optical network. There has historically been an emphasis on using fusion splicing for singlemode fiber to minimize insertion loss and reflectance. So, as more and more networks use singlemode fiber, demand for fusion spliced termination options increases in kind.

    Another key factor driving fusion splicing is the innovation and cost reductions that have resulted from competition between fusion splicer manufacturers.

    Today a very capable splicer can be purchased for a few thousand dollars. This paradoxical shift has resulted in a reduction of barriers for contractors and end-users in using the highest performing field-termination method, which is the pigtailed splice cassette.

    Why pigtailed cassette based splicing wins

    While pigtail splicing is not new, how this termination method manifests itself has changed markedly due to innovations within the optical fiber hardware market. Corning introduced its first pigtailed splice cassettes some seven years ago. The voice of the optical fiber termination market was clear. At the time, pigtail splicing was complicated and labor intensive, requiring separate hardware for splicing, an extensive bill of materials, and time-consuming routing between splice and termination housings. The pigtailed cassette changed all of that and created a market shift. A recent survey revealed that cassette-based splicing is leading the charge among fusion splice termination processes.

    Reduced installation time

    In addition to complexity reduction, pigtailed splice cassettes require less labor to install. This is due in part to the “kitting” described earlier. However, another aspect of this labor reduction comes in the simplified routing enabled by the cassettes. In noncassette-based splicing, the fibers being terminated and the optical fiber pigtails are routed to splice trays that reside in a separate splice accessory in the same optical fiber enclosure or to a separate optical fiber splice enclosure mounted adjacent to the optical fiber patch panel. This requires the prerouting of both pigtails and field fibers to these separate splice areas before splicing can begin. With splice cassettes, the optical fibers being terminated are simply routed to the cassette and then splicing can begin. This can reduce installation time by up to 40%. Simplified routing and preparation not only save time but also avoid the possibility of damaged cable components due to improper routing or handling.
    Zero scrap

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  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Calculators Can Assist You with Your Network Designs.
    https://www.corning.com/optical-communications/worldwide/en/home/Resources/system-design-calculators.html

    10G Tray Fill Rate Calculator
    10G Electronics and Cooling Power Calculator
    CO2 Emission Model

    Reply
  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Google spinoff Aalyria salvages Project Loon technology for the US military
    Loon’s laser communications and networking software get new life as Aalyria.
    https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2022/09/google-spinoff-aalyria-salvages-project-loon-technology-for-the-us-military/

    Reply
  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This might be over performance with the specs i7 CPU and 32gb ram for installation with firewall.

    Two Intel Core i7 Fanless 6x 2.5GbE Firewalls Surprisingly Different
    https://www.servethehome.com/intel-core-i7-1165g7-fanless-6x-2-5gbe-firewalls-i225-pfsense-opnsense-proxmox/

    Today we are going to have an unusual piece for STH; we are going to have a double century of a review. We will look at not one but two Intel Core i7-1165G7 fanless firewalls as part of our recent series. Normally we like to do reviews of single products, but this time we have a review of two units at once because they are largely similar, yet with a few important features different between them.

    We purchased these two Topton units at different points this summer. The first one was $539, the second was $525. The prices for both were as barebones units.

    Reply
  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    USB-A adapter adds instant Wi-Fi 6E support to Windows 11 PCs
    $90 adapter makes Wi-Fi 6E adoption slightly easier
    https://arstechnica.com/gadgets/2022/09/netgear-adapter-adds-wi-fi-6e-support-to-pcs-via-usb-a/

    Wi-Fi 6E products are available to consumers today, but you probably wouldn’t know if you looked around the average household. Although supporting gear rolled out over the past couple of years, component shortages, satisfaction with Wi-Fi 6, and the impending arrival of Wi-Fi 7 have led many to overlook the latest wireless standard. Netgear is looking to make adoption easier by announcing a USB adapter that brings Wi-Fi 6E to supporting systems via a USB 3.x Type-A connection.

    Netgear’s Nighthawk AXE3000 WiFi 6E USB 3.0 Adapter (A8000) announced Wednesday works with laptops and desktops. According to the San Jose, California-based company’s announcement, it supports the 2.4 GHz band at up to 600 Mbps, the 5 GHz band at up to 1,200 Mbps, and the 6 GHz band at up to 1,200 Mbps.

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  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Elon Musk activates Starlink for Iranian citizens after US Sec of State issued a General License https://www.teslarati.com/elon-musk-starlink-iran-us-sec-of-state/
    Elon Musk announced that he was activating Starlink in response to U.S. Secretary of State Antony Blinken’s tweet announcing the issuing of a General License to provide the Iranian people with access to digital communications.

    Reply
  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nokian tutkijat mukana kehittämässä mullistavaa 100G-vahvistinta
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/14045-nokian-tutkijat-mukana-kehittaemaessae-mullistavaa-100g-vahvistinta

    Runkoverkoissa ollaan siirtymässä yhä nopeampia datanopeuksia, pian jopa 100G-vauhtiin. Tätä silmällä pitäen Nokia Bell Labsin tutkijat ovat olleet mukana projektissa, jossa on kehitetty maailman ensimmäinen vahvistin, joka syöttää dataa ylävirtaan sekä NRZ- että PAM4-signaloinnilla.

    Transimpedanssivahvistin esiteltiin optisen viestinnän ECOC-konferenssissa belgilaisen Imec-tutkimuslaitoksen alaisen IDLab-tutkimusryhmän ja Nokia Bell Labsin tutkijoiden toimesta. TIA-siru mahdollistaa optisten linjapäätteiden (OLT) selviytymisen ylävirran pakettien vaihtelevasta signaalinvoimakkuudesta ja laadun heikkenemisestä. Näitä vaikutuksia pahentavat erittäin suuret nopeudet, joilla seuraavan sukupolven passiiviset optiset verkot (PON) toimivat.

    10G PON -myynnin kasvaessa pilviin ja ensimmäisiä 25G PON -ratkaisuja kaupalliseen käyttöön otettaessa PON-tekniikka kehittyi nopeasti. Silti varsinkin alkupään suunnassa on vielä ratkaistava useita haasteita, ennen kuin seuraavan sukupolven (50G ja 100G) PON-laitteet voidaan ottaa käyttöön.

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  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Clothilde Goujard / Politico:
    The US’ candidate to lead the UN’s International Telecommunication Union, which sets global tech and telecom standards, beat Russia’s by 139 to 25 votes

    US defeats Russia to head UN telecoms agency in fight for internet’s future
    Doreen Bogdan-Martin received 139 of the 172 votes.
    https://www.politico.eu/article/us-defeats-russia-to-head-un-telecoms-agency-in-fight-for-internets-future/

    BUCHAREST — A top U.S. official won a massive majority to lead the United Nations agency that sets global standards for telecoms and tech infrastructure.

    139 countries voted for U.S.’s Doreen Bogdan-Martin against 25 casting their ballots for Russia’s Rashid Ismailov, choosing the American to lead the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) for the next four years. Organizers won’t disclose which country voted for which candidate in the election on Thursday in Bucharest.

    The election pitted Western democracies’ vision of a more open version of the internet against authoritarian countries’ government-controlled approach. Russia, China, Saudi Arabia and Iran have already shown how the internet can be turned into a powerful tool for censorship and to crack down on dissent.

    “The world is facing significant challenges – escalating conflicts, a climate crisis, food security, gender inequalities, and 2.7 billion people with no access to the Internet,” said Bogdan-Martin after her victory. “I believe we, the ITU and our members, have an opportunity to make a transformational contribution.”

    Russia’s brutal war in Ukraine also overshadowed the diplomatic election. I

    Bogdan-Martin will replace China’s Houlin Zhao, who had been at the helm of the agency since 2014 amid growing fears in the West about Beijing’s growing efforts to rewrite global standards.

    An experienced telecoms diplomat, Bogdan-Martin will also become the first woman to lead the 157-year-old U.N. agency. She will set the direction for several major telecoms and technology issues including the severe lack of internet connectivity across the world. Only 40 percent of Africans have access to the Internet compared to Europe, the most connected region, where 89 percent of the population has a connection.

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  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    It is sometimes said that people “surf” the web. Well, it turns out that that the technology we use for this surfing is based on the work of a surfer from Hawaii! Seriously, Ethernet and Wi-Fi are developments of ALOHAnet developed by Norman Abramson and his team at the University of Hawai’i.

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/ALOHAnet

    Reply
  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Wi-Fi 7 tulee kahden vuoden päästä
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/14072-wi-fi-7-tulee-kahden-vuoden-paeaestae

    Langattomien lähiverkkojen eli Wi-Fin uusin polvi kulkee nimellä 6E. Seuraavaksi vuorossa on Wi-Fi 7. IEEE on näillä näkymillä saamassa 802.11be-standardin valmiiksi alkuvuodesta 2024 ja nyt arvioidaan, että ensimmäiset laitteet – älypuhelimet, läppärit ja tabletit – tulevat kuluttajien ostettaviksi vuoden 2024 jälkimmäisellä puoliskolla.

    Wi-Fi 7 kaksinkertaistaa yhteyksien kaistanleveyden ottamalla käyttöön 320 MHz:n kanavat, joten se täydentää täydellisesti laajennettua maailmanlaajuista wifi-spektriä 6 GHz:n kaistalla. Yhdessä tulevan automaattisen taajuuskoordinoinnin (AFC) kanssa Wi-Fi 7 käyttää optimaalista taajuuksien allokointia mahdollistaakseen suuritehoiset tukiasemat ja laajentaa 6 GHz:n lähetysaluetta sekä sisä- että ulkoympäristöissä.

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  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This device lets you build your own private cell service
    The Ukama will allow you to create a cellular network anywhere there’s power and internet access.
    https://www.androidauthority.com/ukama-cell-service-3216235/

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  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Wi-Fi 7 rynnii markkinoille jo ensi vuonna
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/14136-wi-fi-7-rynnii-markkinoille-jo-ensi-vuonna

    Langattomien lähiverkkojen eli Wi-Fin uusin polvi kulkee nimellä 6E. Seuraavaksi vuorossa on Wi-Fi 7. IEEE on näillä näkymillä saamassa 802.11be-standardin valmiiksi alkuvuodesta 2024. Operaattorit, piirien- ja laitteidenvalmistajat eivät tuoreen tutkimuksen mukaan aio odottaa valmista standardia.

    Wireless Broadband Alliancen eli WBA:n tuoreessa operaattorikyselyssä yli kolmanneksella (33 %) palveluntarjoajista, teknologiatoimittajista ja yrityksistä on jo suunnitelmia ottaa Wi-Fi 7 käyttöön vuoden 2023 loppuun mennessä. Raportti paljasti myös, että Wi-Fi 6E:stä on nyt tullut de facto alan standardi: 53 % on jo ottanut teknologian käyttöön ja 44 % jo valmistelee suunnitelmia ottaa käyttöön Wi-Fi 6E seuraavien 12–18 kuukauden aikana.

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  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/14123-nokia-vie-nopeamman-kuidun-aasiaan

    Nokia kertoo testaavansa AIS Fibren kanssa Thaimaassa Aasian ensimmäistä 25G PON -kuituverkkoa. AIS Fibre on Thaimaan ensimmäinen laajakaistaoperaattori, jonka runkoverkko perustuu täysin optiseen verkkoon.

    Testissä verkon linjapäätteet yhdistettiin samanaikaisesti kolmeen loppukäyttäjälaitteeseen, joiden yhdistetty nopeus oli 37,5 Gb/s. 25G PON -päätteessä päästiin nopeuteen 25 Gb/s, XGS-PON -päätteellä 10 gigabittiin ja G PON -päätteessä 2,5 gigabittiin sekunnissa. Kaikki palvelut voidaan yhdellä ja samalla fyysisellä kuitulinkillä.

    Tästä seuraa operaattorille paljon etuja. Koska AIS Fiber pystyy ajamaan GPON-, XGS-PON- ja 25G PON -palveluita samalla kuitulinjalla, se voi tarjota asiakkaille täyden valikoiman nopeuksia jopa 25 Gb/s:een asti nykyisellä alustalla ilman tarvetta asentaa katujen alla uusia kuitulinjoja.

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  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    https://yle.fi/uutiset/74-20000693

    Merenalaista it-liikenteen kaapeliverkostoa kartoittavan TeleGeography -yhtiön (siirryt toiseen palveluun) laatimista maailmankartoista voi katsoa, missä päin (siirryt toiseen palveluun) kulkevat ne 475 valokuitukaapelia, jotka muodostavat mannertenvälisen internetin keskushermoston. Suurimmat kaapelikeskittymät sijaitsevat Pohjoisella Tyynellämerellä, Pohjois-Atlantilla sekä Afrikan ja Aasian rannikoilla.

    https://blog.telegeography.com/2020-submarine-cable-map

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  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Datansiirron maailmanennätys perustui ihmesiruun, joka tuotti 223 optista kanavaa
    https://etn.fi/index.php/13-news/14201-datansiirron-maailmanennaetys-perustui-ihmesiruun-joka-tuotti-223-optista-kanavaa

    Tanskan teknisen yliopiston (DTU) ja göteborgilaisen Chalmersin teknisen yliopiston tutkijat julkistivat vähän aikaa sitten optisen piirin, jonka avulla rikottiin tiedonsiirron maailmannennätys. Kokeessa sirulla onnistuttiin siirtämään dataa 1,8 petabitin sekuntinopeudella. Yksi siru tuottaa yhdestä valonlähteestä 223 kanavaa.

    Tuloksen tasosta kertoo se, että 1,8 petabittiä sekunnissa on noin kaksi kertaa globaalin internetin dataliikenteen määrä. Kyse on räätälöidystä piiristä, joka voi yhdestä infrapunasäteestä luoda koko sateenkaaren värikirjon eli käytännössä satoja taajuuksia.

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  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Kyocera’s prototype On-Board Optics Module achieves what the company calls a record bandwidth of 512 Gbps for high-speed network applications….

    Optical communication module boasts 512-Gpbs bandwidth
    https://www.edn.com/optical-communication-module-boasts-512-gpbs-bandwidth/

    Kyocera’s prototype On-Board Optics Module achieves what the company calls a record bandwidth of 512 Gbps for high-speed network applications. By converting electrical signals into optical signals, the module requires less power than conventional alternatives and helps decrease power consumption and promote sustainability.

    The miniaturized prototype module, which is 43.5×30×8.1 mm, is intended for installation on a pc board near the processor, allowing electronic data to be converted into optical signals instantaneously. It also offers improvements in signal-to-noise ratio, virtually eliminating the signal loss caused by conventional electrical conductors.

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  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This Chip Could Replace a Thousand Lasers Frequency combs are key to optical chips that could cut Internet power consumption
    https://spectrum.ieee.org/frequency-comb

    Reply
  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Japan breaks world record for fastest internet speed
    It’s about 7.6 million times faster than what you probably have at home.
    https://www.freethink.com/technology/fastest-internet-speed#Echobox=1667920158

    Engineers in Japan have set a new world record for fastest internet speed — and it’s so fast, you’d be able to download nearly 80,000 movies in just one second.

    The new record is 319 terabits per second (Tb/s). That’s double the previous world record for fastest internet speed and about 7.6 million times faster than the average home internet speed in the U.S. (42 megabits per second).

    To break the record for fastest internet speed, researchers at Japan’s National Institute of Information and Communications Technology developed an experimental optical fiber with four cores, instead of just one.

    They then combined their fiber with a laser that fired pulses at different wavelengths and multiple signal amplification techniques. This enabled them to transmit data over a distance of more than 1,800 miles at 319 Tb/s.

    Perfect fit: The laser and amplifiers used to break the fastest internet speed record are not cheap, so don’t expect 300 Tb/s home internet any time soon.

    Reply
  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Teardown of Cisco / Atlanta Scientific Cable TV optical node and drop amplifier. These are modern versions running on fiber networks. These small amplifiers are used in houses where it is not practical to use a receiving antenna to get the signal from the broadcast headend transmitter. They are also called a “service drop”. Historically CATV is short for Community Antenna TV. A large receiving antenna was used and a cable connection ran out to every house in the neighborhood. Each house had one of these amplifiers. The return path amplifier can also send some of the signal back into the line to keep the signal good enough for the next house. In Denmark, the large receiving antennas has mostly been substituted with fiber connections.

    Cisco Cable TV Optical Node and RF Amplifier Teardown
    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCtVXMXenHM

    Reply
  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    If IPv4 is a thing, where is IPv3, IPv2, and IPv1?
    https://www.quora.com/What-happened-to-IPv1-IPv2-IPv3-and-IPv5

    IP version 5 was assigned to Internet Stream Protocol.

    But IP versions actually start at 0, not 1. IPv0 was described in IEN 2. What might be called IPv1 was described in IEN 26. It called for a one-bit version field, which seems shortsighted today. IPv2 was described in IEN 28. These IP versions were experimental and never gained wide use.

    What may also surprise you is that IP versions 7 through 9 have also already been defined. These were three other competing protocols, TP/IX, PIP and TUBA, respectively, which were invented around the same time as what became IPv6 and also intended to replace IPv4. If IPv6 ever needs to be replaced, we’ll start at IPv10

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  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Starlink signals can be reverse-engineered to work like GPS—whether SpaceX likes it or not
    Elon said no thanks to using his mega-constellation for navigation. Researchers went ahead anyway
    https://www.technologyreview.com/2022/10/21/1062001/spacex-starlink-signals-reverse-engineered-gps/

    Reply
  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The University of Texas Hacked Starlink’s Signal So It Can Be Used as a GPS Alternative
    SpaceX didn’t want to cooperate, so the researchers had to figure things out the hard way.
    https://gizmodo.com/texas-hack-starlink-s-signal-so-it-can-be-used-for-gps-1849687034

    Reply
  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    11 Myths About Wi-Fi 6 and 6E
    Nov. 8, 2022
    Laird Connectivity’s Andrew Ross dispels common misconceptions about the features and impact that Wi-Fi 6 and 6E will have on IoT design.
    https://www.electronicdesign.com/technologies/communications/article/21253719/laird-connectivity-11-myths-about-wifi-6-and-6e?utm_source=EG+ED+Connected+Solutions&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=CPS221103039&o_eid=7211D2691390C9R&rdx.identpull=omeda|7211D2691390C9R&oly_enc_id=7211D2691390C9R

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  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Russell Brandom / The Verge:
    Analysis of 22K US broadband bills highlights issues: far higher average cost than in Europe at $75/month, little carrier choice, bogus charges, and more

    What’s wrong with US broadband?
    https://www.theverge.com/2022/11/17/23460070/internet-bill-broadband-survey-data-consumer-reports-cost

    The Verge and Consumer Reports collected 22,000 internet bills to find out how Americans are getting online. They paint an ugly picture.

    Reply

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