Electronics design ideas 2019

Innovation is critical in today’s engineering world and it demands technical knowledge and the highest level of creativity. Seeing compact articles that solve design problems or display innovative ways to accomplish design tasks can help to fuel your electronics creativity.

You can find many very circuit ideas at ePanorama.net circuits page.

In addition to this links to interesting electronics design related articles worth to check out can be posted to the comments section.






  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Design a Fault-Detection Solution for Your High-Power System
    June 15, 2022
    Sponsored by Texas Instruments: One way to maximize the capabilities of high-voltage power-conversion systems without damaging their reliability is to develop a smart fault-protection strategy.

    Reliability of the power-conversion system is a critical issue, especially at high power levels. Application areas that fall under this umbrella include solar-powered inverters, motor drives, electric vehicles (EVs), dc-dc converters, traction inverters, and more. Thus, designers must address the ever-growing need for an improved, reliable fault-detection system in high-power systems.

    Redundant components, as well as greatly over-rated power switches, have traditionally been used in designs to improve the reliability of the overall system. However, such solutions greatly increase system complexity and cost.

    Designing fault-detection circuitry may require the use of standard discrete devices such as comparators, a discrete isolation amplifier, and a microcontroller unit (MCU).

    An overcurrent fault detector can be composed of a basic shunt current sensor circuit at the isolation amplifier input, which will trigger a fault-detection alarm via a comparator when the flow of current through the system exceeds a set reference limit. The MCU immediately takes any action necessary to protect the system during a fault by disabling the power gate drivers

    Typically, the worst-case scenario propagation delay for overcurrent detection can be less than 1 µs, depending on the speed of the comparators and digital isolators selected by the designer. In turn, discrete implementations like that illustrated in the figure can be built.

    However, that architecture will take up more printed-circuit-board (PCB) space, and it can become expensive for designs requiring higher accuracy. Using a more integrated solution with a smaller board footprint may be a better option in terms of cost.

    The overall design architecture in the figure raises an alert when the flow of current through the system exceeds a certain limit.

    Other design architectures for fault-detection design may include:

    Standard comparators and digital isolators
    Isolated comparators
    Isolated amplifiers
    Isolated modulators
    Isolated discrete designs

    Most of the devices listed above can be found in integrated form. However, some designers may want to use discrete design architectures for various reasons.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Photodiode: Types, Construction, Operation, Modes, Performance & Applications

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Common mistakes while using the TVS diodes

    There are several sections in the electronics designs which play a crucial role in the functionality of the circuit. Along with functionality there is also a need protect our circuits against external noise. One of the common issue seen is the damage to the electrical circuit with the ESD and Electrical Transients. These enter the circuit at the points like the connectors where the system tries to communicate to the external world. So, protection mechanism employed at the input of the connector is very important. Protection against ESD/Transients can be achieved by TVS diode which is a kind of Zener diode.

    The protection must always be included in such a way that it should not interfere with the normal functionality of the board. The need is to protect when ESD/EFT event occurs, have a least leakage when there is no ESD/EFT. Leakage can be minimized but cannot be avoided.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    NI Software Helps Bridge Gaps in Electronics Design and Test
    June 3, 2022
    DataStudio aims to help engineers harness more of the data stemming from product development.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Essentials for Effective Protection Against Overvoltage Events
    July 20, 2022
    While there’s no one-size-fits-all circuit protection solution, robust overvoltage protection is a necessity in virtually any application that connects to a power line. This article explores how to pinpoint the right solution based on app requirements.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A Guide to Flyback Transformers

    What are Flyback Transformers?

    A flyback transformer is a coupled inductor with a gapped core. During each cycle, when the input voltage is applied to the primary winding, energy is stored in the gap of the core. It is then transferred to the secondary winding to provide energy to the load. Flyback transformers are used to provide voltage transformation and circuit isolation in flyback converters.

    Flyback transformers are the most popular choice for cost-effective, high-efficiency isolated power supply designs up to approximately 120 Watts. They provide circuit isolation, the potential for multiple outputs and the possibility of positive or negative output voltages. They can also be regulated over a wide range of input voltage and load conditions. Because energy is stored in the transformer, the flyback topology does not require a separate output filter inductor like the other isolated topologies. This reduces the component count and simplifies the circuit requirements. This article discusses flyback transformers and applications for which they are best suited.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A Guide to Coupled Inductors

    What is a coupled inductor?

    A coupled inductor has two or more windings on a common core. Coupled inductors function in dc-dc converters by transferring energy from one winding to the other through the common core. They are available in many sizes, inductance values, and current ratings and most are magnetically shielded for low electromagnetic interference (EMI). The windings may have equal (1:1) or unequal turns ratios (1:N). Due to widespread demand in a variety of circuits, many 1:1 and 1:N standard coupled inductors are readily available off-the-shelf.

    Document 1009-C Revised 01/25/21Considerations for selecting a common mode choke
    Common Mode Filter
    Chokes for High Speed
    Data Interfaces

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Document 1710 Revised 01/19/22How to Choose the Right Coilcraft Inductor Models for Your SPICE Simulation
    Simulation Model
    Considerations: Part I

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Curb Potential High-Voltage Issues with Galvanic Isolation
    July 21, 2022
    Sponsored by Texas Instruments: Many of latest designs in markets spanning from automotive to medical incorporate more high-voltage components, increasing the need for a smart isolation solution.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to Measure Op-Amp Input Capacitance to Minimize Noise
    July 26, 2022
    The input capacitance of an op amp often lies in the picofarad range, making it difficult to measure because parasitic effects in the test setup distort the result. But, with a small test setup and the right measuring equipment, it becomes an easy task.

    Figure 2 shows a possible test setup, using a network analyzer and a power splitter.


    The input capacitance of an op amp can be difficult to measure. It often lies in the picofarad range and parasitic effects in the test setup distort the result. But with a small test setup and the appropriate measuring equipment consisting of a network analyzer and a power splitter, it’s easy to determine the input capacitance.

    First determine the stray capacitance (error capacitors in the test setup) and then determine the combined capacitance (error capacitors and input capacitance) of the op-amp circuit via the frequency response. With the equations shown earlier, the actual input capacitance of the operational amplifier can be calculated.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    High density, modular testing for CPUs, GPUs, and SoCs

    Semiconductor manufacturers rely on high-density test systems to support their growing portfolios of increasingly complex products. AI processors, CPUs, GPUs, SoCs and mobile processors are adding greater functionality including RF connectivity, power management and mixed-signal processing. To support these varied IC functions, ATE systems require advanced PDNs to handle the many different power and voltage levels.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Golden Rule of Board Layout for SMPS
    Aug. 4, 2022
    One factor tops all others in optimizing board layout for switched-mode power supplies, and it has to do with designing traces, especially in terms of their length.

    What you’ll learn:

    Achieving an optimized board layout by successfully implementing the golden rule regarding traces.
    Looking at typical buck and boost regulator circuits.

    This article explains the basis for achieving an optimized board layout, a critical aspect in the design of switch-mode power supplies (SMPS). A good layout ensures stable functioning of the switching regulator and minimizes radiated interference as well as conducted interference (EMI)—widely known by electronics developers. However, what’s not generally known is how an optimized board layout for a switch-mode power supply should look.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Does a DC-DC Converter Have to be Synchronous for Low Emissions?
    July 12, 2022
    This article seeks to show how nonsynchronous converters with discrete catch diodes can still achieve low emissions. It introduces different types of converters, layouts, and packages, and explains why controlled switching is effective.

    What you’ll learn:

    How nonsynchronous converters can offer low emissions by implementing catch diodes.
    Layout considerations for nonsynchronous converters.
    The highly beneficial aspect of controlled switching.

    Synchronous Silent Switcher converters have set the standard for powerful, compact, and quiet dc-dc conversion. We’ve been introduced to a plethora of these low-electromagnetic-interference (EMI) synchronous buck and boost converters in the past 5+ years.

    Such dc-dc converters have simplified the system-level electromagnetic-compatibility (EMC) design in high-power, noise-sensitive environments such as cold-crank preboosts, driving high-current LED strings, and high-voltage power-amplifier sound systems. Monolithic (integrated power switch) boost regulators provide an efficient and more compact solution compared to a controller-based design and are commonly used from source voltages of 5, 12, and 24 V.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Testing Requirements Evolve for Energy-Efficient Power Electronics
    July 6, 2022
    Wide-bandgap semiconductors such as SiC and GaN are driving the power electronics market, pushing the demand for testing and validation tools and techniques that match the technology advances.


  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    PCB Technology in Software-Defined Radio
    July 5, 2022
    SDR requires a complex web of circuity on PCBs that not only defines the device’s functionality, but also the performance of these microwave and RF systems. Various factors come into play when designing PCBs for SDRs that must maintain signal integrity.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Listening to Breaking Glass with MEMS Microphones
    July 11, 2022
    David Jones talks about Infineon’s XENSIV MEMS microphones that could be used in a security system to detect glass breaking.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to Design a Good Vibration Sensor Enclosure (Part 2)
    July 28, 2022
    Part 2 delves into whether to use a rectangular or cylindrical enclosure, its maximum recommended height, the effect of wall thickness, and the impact of orientation on performance.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Analogiasignaalit haltuun digitaalisesti
    Maailman jakautuu digitaaliseen ja analogiseen, mutta elektroniikkasuunnittelujen näkökulmasta se on näiden fuusio. 85 prosenttia suunnitteluista on sekasignaalisuunnitteluja, joissa analogisia signaaleja muunnetaan digitaalisiksi. Siemensin EDA-osasto on esitellyt työkalun, jolla sekasignaalisuunnittelun tehokkuus nousee 10-kertaiseksi.

    Jos maailma olisikin vain digitaalinen, ongelmia ei juuri olisi. Ikävä kyllä maailma on analoginen, mikä näkyy monenlaisina ongelmina suunnitteluissa. Piirien pitää käsitellä esimerkiksi ääntä, valoa, painetta ja lämpötilaa, ja jotenkin suunnittelut pitäisi pystyä verifioimaan eli varmentamaan. Nykyiset työkalut tekevät tämän varsin huonosti: SPICE-mallit ovat epätarkkoja, testausta on vaikea asettaa ja käyttää, virheiden löytyminen ja tarkistuksen kattavuuden kanssa on vähän niin ja näin, eikä valmiita verifiointiratkaisuja oikein voida käyttää uudelleen.

    Tätä Siemensin uusi Symphony Pro yrittää ratkaista. Analogiasignaaleja yritetään simuloisa ikään kuin ne olisivat digitaalisia. Mutta sen sijaan, että signaali kuvattaisiin vain binäärisesti (ykkösinä tai nollina), Symphony Pro käyttää todellisia numeroita. Siemens EDA:n tuotepäällikkö Sumit Vishwakarman mukaan kyse on paradigmamuutoksesta.

    - Todelliset numerot esittävät analogiasignaalin hyvin tarkasti, vaikkakaan eivät täsmällisen tai sataprosenttisen tarkasti. Ero on iso binäärikuvaukseen, joka ei ole koskaan tarkka häviöiden takia. Tarkkuuden lisäksi pääetu on se, että signaalista tulee ajassa erillinen ja sitä voidaan simuloida digitaalilla työkaluilla, Vishwakarma selventää.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Essentials for Effective Protection Against Overvoltage Events
    July 20, 2022
    While there’s no one-size-fits-all circuit protection solution, robust overvoltage protection is a necessity in virtually any application that connects to a power line. This article explores how to pinpoint the right solution based on app requirements

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    FTM / Embedded Processing and Software / Littelfuse — Xtreme Varistor Series
    Littelfuse — Xtreme Varistor Series

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    MAX40263 Dual Op Amp
    Maxim’s MAX40263 is a 1.8 V, 15 MHz, low-offset, low-power, dual op amp


  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Engineers Ignore EMI, EMC, and Noise at Their Own Risk
    Aug. 6, 2021
    Failure to address electronic interference in the early stages of a device’s development can lead to prolonged delays down the road that cost both time and money—or create safety risks in the case of electronics in cars or on factory floors.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Measuring ACIR of Lithium-Ion Cells
    July 18, 2022
    Internal resistance is a key parameter to consider when selecting lithium-ions for your application. This article brings to light the specifics of ac internal resistance (ACIR) and best practices for making ACIR measurements.

    The internal resistance of lithium-ion cells is an important measurement to make because the cell’s internal resistance can determine the suitability of the cell for a particular application. It can be used as a quality gate in manufacturing, as well as determine the aging or wear out of the cell.

    Internal resistance can be measured as ac internal resistance (ACIR) or dc internal resistance (DCIR). Internal resistance also may be extracted from measurement of the cell’s impedance spectrum as captured by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) instrumentation.

    While ACIR measurements are quite common and somewhat standardized when measuring lithium-ion cells, DCIR measurements are nonstandard and generally misunderstood. DCIR is also sometimes interchangeably called pulse testing, which can lead to further confusion.

    To measure ACIR, an ac signal, typically an ac current (Iac), is passed through the cell and the voltage response (Vac) of the cell is measured. The ac current is usually around 100 mA and the frequency is 1000 Hz.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Higher-Voltage Dual Op Amp Targets Automotive, Industrial Apps
    July 20, 2022
    This 36-V dual op amp developed by STMicroelectronics features 1.7-MHz gain-bandwidth and rail-to-rail outputs.
    Bill Schweber

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Automotive High-Side Switch Controller Integrates Fuse Protection
    Aug. 2, 2022
    STMicroelectronics’ new controller for a power MOSFET is designed to implement an intelligent high-side switch for 12-, 24-, and 48-V automotive applications.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How Does Radiated EMI Impact Medical Devices?
    Aug. 2, 2022
    Standards have been created for electromagnetic interference to meet the electromagnetic-compatibility requirements of implanted and wearable medical devices.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Mechanical Switches are Obsolete?! Switch to a Latch Circuit! EB#53

    In this episode of electronics basics we will be having a closer look at latch circuits. As the name suggests, a latch circuit activates/deactivates a switching element through one Set/Reset voltage input pulse and keeps it in that state. Because of that latch circuit are everywhere. They are part of other circuits or come in the form of power switches or latching relays. Let’s learn all about them and build one!

    0:00 What/Why Latch circuit?
    1:33 Intro
    2:33 Logic Gate Latch
    5:31 Latching Relay
    6:22 Toggle On/Off Power Latch circuit
    8:57 Set/Reset Latch circuit
    10:01 Verdict

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Improving the Stacked Load Architecture
    Aug. 8, 2022
    This article presents a stacked load prototype that achieves >95% efficiency at a full load of 450 W, and discusses a critical enhancement in the Energy Exchanger.

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Connector, Gland, and Grip Options for Industrial-Automation Cabling

    The first IP-rating digit specifies the level of protection from solid objects such as dust — ranging from 0 for no protection to 6 for dust-tight sealing.

    The second IP-rating digit specifies the level of protection against fluids — ranging from 0 for no protection to 8 for continuous protection from water at a depth of 1 m.


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