High power PoE and HDBaseT

Power over Ethernet (PoE) offers convenience, flexibility, and enhanced management capabilities by enabling power to be delivered over the same CAT5 cabling as data. This technology is especially useful for powering IP telephones, wireless LAN access points, cameras with pan tilt and zoom (PTZ), remote Ethernet switches, embedded computers, thin clients and LCDs.

The original IEEE 802.3af-2003 PoE standard provides up to 15.4 W of DC power (minimum 44 V DC and 350 mA) supplied to each device. The IEEE standard for PoE requires Category 5 cable or higher (can operate with category 3 cable for low power levels).

The updated IEEE 802.3at-2009 PoE standard also known as PoE+ or PoE plus, provides up to 25.5 W of power.

Although 2009 standard prohibits a powered device from using all four pairs for power, some vendors have announced products that claim to be compatible with the 802.3at standard and offer up to 51 W of power over a single cable by utilizing all four pairs in the Category 5 cable. The trend for power demands seem to be up.

Compliance to Power-over-Ethernet safety standards is critical when moving beyond 60W (EE Times)and Compliance with POE safety standards is critical when moving beyond 60W (EDN) articles tells that the current generation of standards-based technology enables up to 60 watts of power to be delivered over four pairs of cabling, which also improves efficiency when compared to earlier two-pair solutions. Compliance with POE safety standards is critical when moving beyond 60W.

As the industry moves toward delivering even more power over the CAT5-or-better cabling infrastructure, system designers and network administrators alike, need to understand various emerging technology options. Some new options can bring expensive and cumbersome deployment complications and, potentially, safety risks.

Some manufacturers have touted their own 100W-per-port solutions or even 200W/port solutions that are not safe. The use of a standard Ethernet-cabling infrastructure for a single port delivering greater than 100W is simply not safe under the NEC standard. The only safe approach for powering devices over Ethernet cabling is to follow IEEE802.3at-2009 specifications. Moving beyond the LPS requirement (sub-100W/port LPS requirement of IEC 60950-1:2011) to greater-than-100W/port implementations requires that the cables be protected with special flame-resistant conduit. A metal enclosure is required if the total PD load is greater than 100W for information data equipment, or greater than 15W for TV and audio equipment.

One standardized 100W solution is one used by HDBaseT Alliance. HDBaseT Alliance is develops 100W power specifications for products that transport uncompressed, high-bandwidth multimedia content, 100BaseT Ethernet, power, and various control signals through a single LAN cable. The key differences between the HDBaseT-powering approach and those from other independent manufacturers pursuing higher power levels are that it:

  • Complies with the section 33.7.1 of the IEEE802.3at-2009 standard, which mandates that all PSEs conform to International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) 60950-1:2001 specifications including classification as a Limited Power Source (LPS) carrying no more than 100 volt-ampere (VA) – or 100W – per port without the need for special over-current protection devices, and
  • Performs Powered Device (PD) detection followed by PD classification to determine a PD’s consumed power level prior to its ignition.

In a typical HDBaseT implementation, the PSE is installed and powered by a 50 to 57-volt DC power supply, and all PDs receive power directly over the HDBaseT link across all four pairs of CAT5-or-better cables. Additionally, core PoE technology has been enhanced for HDBaseT to use a 1 amp current for every two cabling pairs, 3-event classification to identify compliant PSEs, and identify the cable length/resistance (draw more power when required not exceeding 100W, rather than assuming a worst-case cabling infrastructure at all times). This enables HDBaseT technology to transfer of up to 100W of continuous DC power, per port, from one side of the HDBaseT link to the other.

HDBaseT is fully backwards-compatible with the IEEE802.3at-2009 PoE specification. HDBaseT also does not infringe on any of the mandated PoE safety requirements.

HDBaseT’s ability to deliver up to 100W of power (over 100m, via a single LAN cable, without any additional power source) is actually very nicely aligned with trends in energy usage and demand. The power level is more than adequate for supporting today’s typical 40-inch LED TV, which requires 70W of power. It is expected that both LCD and LED TV monitors will soon be averaging approximately one watt of power consumption per inch of screen size. Regardless of screen size EnergyStar™ 6.0 is targeting a cap of 85 W for all screen sizes.

PoE continues to evolve and offer an even wider variety of high-value power-delivery and management capabilities.

94 Comments

  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Auto-negotiating PoE switch integrates IP relay function
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2016/11/videogenix-uswitch-poe.html?cmpid=enl_CIM_CablingInstallationMaintenanceDataCenterNewsletter_2016-11-21

    Videogenix has announced the release of its uSwitch PoE, an auto-negotiating Power over Ethernet switch with integrated IP relay capability. From a single power source, the uSwitch PoE will auto-sense and auto-negotiate various power from port to port so users don’t have to worry about sending too much voltage to PoE devices. With no programming required and just one input power source, the uSwitch PoE auto-negotiates voltages from 48 Volts down to 5 Volts, providing 15.4 Watts of power per port. For non-PoE devices, uSwitch PoE provides a constant 12 VDC output, to keep systems online while helping to eliminate bulky and heat-generating power supplies inside of enclosures.

    Reply
  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Twisted-pair connectivity evolves to support latest-generation technologies
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-24/issue-11/features/installation/twisted-pair-connectivity-evolves-to-support-latest-generation-technologies.html?cmpid=enl_CIM_CablingInstallationMaintenanceDataCenterNewsletter_2016-11-28

    Creating an arc

    In a technical paper, Siemon explains, “Unmating a jack-plug connection while transmitting PoE power (i.e. unmating under PoE load) produces an arc within the spark gap as the current transitions from flowing through conductive metal to air before becoming an open circuit. While the level of current associated with the arc poses no risk to humans, the arcing creates an electrical breakdown of gases in the surrounding environment that erodes the plated jack-plug contact surfaces at the arcing location. When spark gap erosion occurs in the area of the fully mated position on an RJ45 connector, the result is an unreliable connection due to the contact surface damage. This can cause degraded network performance and increased bit error rates.”

    In the paper, titled “The effects of spark gap erosion caused by unmating under PoE load,” Siemon continued, “Some connecting hardware manufacturers have succeeded in ensuring that arc location during the unmating cycle is separate from the fully mated position. While this may hold true for jack contacts, their contact geometry does not ensure that erosion on plug contacts is also away from the fully mated position. Erosion on either the jack or plug contacts results in an unreliable connection.”

    Reply
  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The intersection of remote powering technologies and the 2017 National Electrical Code
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-24/issue-11/features/technology/the-intersection-of-remote-powering-technologies-and-the-2017-national-electrical-code.html?cmpid=enl_CIM_CablingInstallationMaintenanceDataCenterNewsletter_2016-11-28

    The 2017 edition of the National Electrical Code includes several new articles that directly relate to the use of twisted-pair communications cables to carry direct current (DC) to power networked devices. An article we published last month (“Data/comm cables and the 2017 National Electrical Code,” October 2017, page 22), authored by Stanley Kaufman, PhD of CableSafe, addressed a number of changes made in the 2017 NEC. Dr. Kaufman is a member of the National Fire Protection Association’s NEC Code-Making Panels 12 and 16 as well as being a member of the NFPA Technical Committee on Electronic Computer Systems.

    Many in the industry use the term “Power over Ethernet” to refer to any type of remote powering-technology that permits the carriage of DC over the conductors of a communications cable. In a vast majority of cases, the products and systems that provide this ability do so in accordance with the IEEE’s 802.3af or 802.3at specifications. Officially this set of specifications is called Data Terminal Equipment Power via Media Dependent Interface, or DTE Power via MDI. Nowhere in the standard’s official title will you find the term Power over Ethernet or PoE. Nonetheless, references to these specifications almost always include the term PoE.

    The IEEE does not “own” the term PoE. And just because a product says “PoE” or “Power over Ethernet” on it, does not indicate that it complies with either the existing or forthcoming specifications that we very frequently refer to as PoE.

    Under the original IEEE standard, 802.3af, the power sourcing equipment (PSE) injects between 44 and 57 volts, with 48 being typical, at 350 to 400 mA. In total the power sourcing equipment emits 15.4 Watts and by the time it reaches its destination of the powered device, 12.95 Watts are available to the PD. 802.3af uses two pairs of a four-pair cable.

    The “at” standard, commonly referred to as Power over Ethernet Plus, injects 50 to 57 volts (50 is typical) at up to 600 milliamps. It’s worthwhile to point out that the IEEE established that 600-milliamp limit for its 802.3at standard based on a 50-degree Celsius ambient temperature. Generally cables are rated to 60 degrees Celsius, meaning they can operate up to that temperature without degradation to their performance characteristics. Through collaboration between a group in the TIA’s TR-42 cabling standards committee, and the IEEE, it was determined that sending power over twisted-pair cables at 600 mA per pair could account for as much as a 10-degree Celsius rise in temperature.

    But as mentioned earlier, the term “PoE” does not necessarily equate to compliance with IEEE 802.3af or 802.3at specifications.

    “Unfortunately, the success of PoE led to products that took shortcuts with the standard, or simply ignored it. Most of the products did not come from mainstream networking vendors who followed the standard. Rather, they frequently came from companies that were not in the networking business, or ‘no-name’ … producers. It’s too bad that the IEEE didn’t trademark ‘Power over Ethernet.’ It might have saved a lot of future trouble.

    It’s possible that sometime in 2017 the IEEE’s next-generation remote powering specification, 802.3bt, will be published. The standard will specify two different remote-powering methods, referred to as Type 3 and Type 4 (802.3af technology is referred to as Type 1 and 802.3at technology is referred to as Type 2). Both powering types specified in 802.3bt will send power down all four pairs in a twisted-pair cable. Based on the standard’s current draft, Type 3 will specify wattage levels up to 60 and Type 4, wattage levels up to 100. Type 3 will employ 600 mA, like 802.3at (Type 2) does. Type 4 will employ 960 mA.

    There is general acknowledgement that for 802.3bt Type 4, heat dissipation-the heat generated by the cable carrying power at the specified current of 960 mA-requires attention. In that vein, the Telecommunications Industry Association’s TR-42.7 subcommittee, which deals with twisted-pair communications cabling systems, initiated work on an “A” revision of its TSB-148 specification. The original TSB-184 document is titled Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling. It was published in 2009-the same year as 802.3at Type 2/PoE Plus remote powering specifications. Work on TSB-184-A began in 2014 and, through collaboration with the IEEE, the document has progressed in parallel with 802.3bt.

    The 2017 NEC

    As previously mentioned, an article in our October issue addressed several revisions made to the 2017 National Electrical Code that relate to remote powering over communications cables. The National Electrical Code is published by the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA). Its document number is NFPA 70. On its website, the NFPA explains the NEC “is the benchmark for safe electrical design, installation and inspection to protect people and property from electrical hazards.” The association also states, “The NEC addresses the installation of electrical conductors, equipment, and raceways; signaling and communications conductors, equipment and raceways; and optical fiber cables and raceways in commercial, residential and industrial occupancies.”

    As is often the case, the 2017 edition of the Code includes cross-references that span multiple articles and sections of the publication. To some extent that is the case with cable temperature ratings.

    Most communications cables are rated to 60 degrees Celsius. As of the 2017 Code, temperature rating requirements are consistent for all communications and data cables. All cables have to be rated to at least 60 degrees C. Any cable with a rating that exceeds 60 degrees C must have that rating marked on the cable.

    And speaking of conductors, the conductor sizes in twisted-pair cables represented new territory for the NEC. The ampacity tables that have existed in the Code over many revisions consider conductors that are 18 AWG or larger. (The smaller the AWG number, the larger the size of the conductor.) With twisted-pair cables, 22 AWG represents the large end of the spectrum, down to pairs as small as 26 AWG. So the code-making panels were in new territory here. To determine ampacity tables for conductors in this size range, they turned to information that came from a fact-finding investigation carried out by Underwriters Laboratories and commissioned by SPI, the Plastics Industry Association. The ampacity table developed as a result of the investigation, and included in Section 725.144, is included in this article, on the opposite page.

    The table is a matrix of conductor sizes, bundle sizes, and temperature ratings. Based on those three variables, the table dictates the cable’s ampacity-the maximum current that a conductor can carry continuously under conditions of use without exceeding its temperature rating.

    After the 2017 NEC was finalized at the NFPA annual meeting, an appeal was filed to the NFPA Standards Board specifically related to Section 840.160. The appeal said there was insufficient specificity in that section’s reference to more than 60 watts. The basis for the appeal was that Section 840.160 did not specify an ampere limit. By not specifying an amp limit, the appeal contended, it does not prohibit the types of rogue and potentially unsafe powering devices that have existed in the market for years

    These changes to the NEC have been a topic of great interest and much conversation among professionals in the structured cabling industry.

    As stated by the NFPA and quoted earlier in this article, the NEC concerns itself with safety and installation. Sections 725.144 and 840.160 of the 2017 NEC came into being because of safety concerns about the heating of communications cables that carry power.

    As a benchmark for safety, the NEC does not consider whether or not a power source complies with any IEEE specification, Power over HDBase-T, UPOE, or any other similar specifications. Hand in hand with that, the NEC does not consider whether or not a twisted-pair communications cable is going to be able to successfully carry a signal from a transmitter to a receiver.

    Despite that fact, professionals in the structured cabling industry must consider all those possibilities. Network end-users count on their internal IT departments and/or their cabling contractors to ensure that a physical layer cabling infrastructure will successfully support the travel of a signal from its transmitter to its receiver.

    Reply
  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The year that cable changed forever?
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-24/issue-12/departments/editorial/the-year-that-cable-changed-forever.html?cmpid=enl_CIM_CablingInstallationMaintenanceDataCenterNewsletter_2016-12-15

    Twisted-pair cable has become a building system. I’m talking mostly about the cabling’s ability to deliver direct current power. Sure, it has been doing so for more than a decade. But 2016 has been the year in which this capability took on critical importance. With Type 3 and Type 4 powering soon to be finalized via the IEEE’s 802.3bt spec, combined with other standardized and some proprietary powering technologies, twisted-pair cabling can do a lot more for building owners and tenants.

    The ability to send more and more wattage over twisted-pair cabling brought with it significant scrutiny over what happens to the cable, in the way of heat rise, under numerous conditions. Table 725.144 in the 2017 National Electrical Code has become the embodiment of this scrutiny.

    Reply
  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EtherCAT P | The new one cable solution – One step closer to automation without control cabinets
    https://www.beckhoff.com/english/ethercat/ethercat-p.htm

    With EtherCAT P, Beckhoff combines communication and power in a single 4-wire standard Ethernet cable. With this ground-breaking solution, the direct supply of both the EtherCAT P slaves and the connected sensors and actuators with two voltages is possible. The voltages US (system and sensor supply) and UP (peripheral voltage for actuators) are electrically isolated from each other and can each supply a current of up to 3 A to the connected components.

    With EtherCAT P technology, the currents are coupled directly into the wires of the 100 Mbit line, enabling the realisation of a highly cost-effective and compact connection. In order to rule out the possibility of incorrect connections to standard EtherCAT slaves and, thus possible defects, a new plug family has been specially developed for EtherCAT P. The plug family covers all applications from the 24 V I/O level up to drives with 400 V AC or 600 V DC and a current of up to 64 A.

    Unlike the traditional Power over Ethernet (PoE), devices can also be cascaded using EtherCAT P and supplied with power from one power supply unit.

    https://www.beckhoff.com/english/press/pr1915.htm

    EtherCAT P highlights:

    EtherCAT plus 2 x 24 V DC (UP, US) in one 4-wire Ethernet cable
    daisy-chained power supply through EtherCAT P devices
    reduced material and assembly costs
    minimised installation space for drag chains, control cabinets and machine footprint
    scalable connector family from 24 V to 600 V, 64 A
    lower connection costs with outstanding EtherCAT performance
    flexible EtherCAT network topology is retained

    EtherCAT P: Ultra-fast communication and power in one cable
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QPrBb6cIjtA

    EtherCAT P integrates the EtherCAT Industrial Ethernet protocol and peripheral voltage into one cable. In addition, EtherCAT P enables the direct forwarding of a power supply via the devices.

    Reply
  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EtherCAT P
    https://www.pc-control.net/pdf/012016/technology/pcc_0116_ethercatp_e.pdf

    EtherCAT P combines the 24 V DC power supply for EtherCAT P slaves and
    connected sensors and actuators in a single 4-wire standard Ethernet cable. US
    (system and sensor supply voltage) and UP
    (peripheral voltage for actuators) are
    electrically isolated from each other and can supply current of up to 3 A to the
    connected components.

    Beckhoff developed for
    EtherCAT P a special M8 connector whose mechanical encoding prevents it from
    being confused with connectors for standard EtherCAT slaves.

    To be able to connect components with higher voltage and/or current needs, a
    complete EtherCAT P connector family has been designed that covers all appli-
    cations up to drives with 400 V AC or 600 V DC and up to 64 A ratings.

    For 24 V applications,
    a standard Ethernet cable can be used. For higher voltages and currents,
    EtherCAT P is integrated into the respective power supply line.

    Eliminating separate power lines reduces the cost of materials and assembly as
    well as the risk of installation errors.

    To build custom EtherCAT P topologies, many infrastructure and I/O components
    with IP 20 and IP 67 ratings are already available. Since with EtherCAT P dis-
    tances of 50 meters and more can be bridged, even widely distributed machine
    modules can be easily linked. A seamless transition from an EtherCAT to an
    EtherCAT P network is also possible. Reversely, system and peripherals voltage
    on an EtherCAT P network can be blocked with a simple adapter to run EtherCAT
    devices with their own power supply.

    As EtherCAT P connectors for various power requirements become established
    as a standard, the idea of industrial connector strips for 24 V and higher
    power classes is not farfetched, but a viable solution.

    EtherCAT P: Highlights and benefits

    – EtherCAT + 2 × 24 V DC/3 A over only one 4-wire cable
    – Power supply forwarding to connected devices
    – Scalable connector family from 24 V DC to 600 V DC and 64 A
    – Freedom and flexibility in topology selection through cascadability
    – Outstanding EtherCAT performance with low connection costs
    – Reduced hardware and installation costs
    – Fewer sources of errors and minimized wiring cost
    – Optimized space utilization for cable tracks, control cabinets and machines
    – Elimination of separate power supply lines makes smaller sensors and
    actuators possible

    Reply
  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A practical approach to implementing power delivery over structured cabling
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-25/issue-1/features/standards/a-practical-approach-to-implementing-power-delivery-over-structured-cabling.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-01-23

    This article will provide a “rough guide” for an IT administrator who is implementing a Power over Ethernet (PoE), PoE+ and/or four-pair PoE++ power over an existing cabling plant, and some implied guidance for new installations. The primary focus will be on “rule-of-thumb” considerations for how to distribute power over existing cabling plants, simple measurements and calculations to determine whether temperatures of cabling may exceed their ratings, and considerations for connector performance and overall reach reduction.

    Reply
  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Cisco stokes PoE lighting push with dedicated Ethernet switch, signs up Marriott (UPDATED)
    http://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/2017/02/cisco-stokes-poe-lighting-push-with-dedicated-ethernet-switch-signs-up-marriott.html?cmpid=enl_leds_ledsmagazine_2017-02-01

    The IT company’s Digital Building Ethernet box will support lighting, heating, security, and other building operations without the electricity losses associated with some PoE schemes.

    Hoping to solve some of the shortcomings of Power-over-Ethernet technology, Cisco Systems today introduced a new Ethernet data switch optimized for building operations including lighting, and said that a Marriott Hotel and a Swiss commercial office headquarters are pioneering its use.

    Cisco designed the new Catalyst Digital Building Switch to sit inside the ceiling close to lighting fixtures, rather than on a rack of data switches that are typically further away. The proximity reduces the loss of Ethernet-borne electricity that occurs when cable travels longer distances within a facility. Such transmission inefficiencies have deterred some potential users from deploying Power-over-Ethernet (PoE) lighting, an Internet of Things (IoT) technology that transmits not only data but also electricity via standard Ethernet cable to LED lights.

    Like Cisco’s general line of Ethernet switches, the new box knocks voltage down from the 120V and 240V electrical lines that feed it, transforming it into a lower voltage that is sufficient to power LED lights — renowned for low energy needs — and that can travel safely over standard Ethernet cable, commonly referred to as Cat5 and Cat6.

    “One of the things that has been missing has been the purpose-built switch — this is the industry’s first,”

    The data rate of the new switch is much slower than on conventional switches — 100 Mbits/s to the lighting fixtures, and 1 Gbit/s back to the network, compared to Cisco’s 10-times faster general IT switches. But the pokier pace suffices because the switch is dedicated primarily to carrying information to and from lighting and other building operations, rather than supporting enterprise information networks.

    Each switch has 8 ports and can thus deliver data and electricity to 8 different fixtures. An $895 version of the switch supports 30W per port, and a $1395 model supports 60W.

    Neither version requires a cooling a fan, which Cisco said will be key to quiet operation in hospitality, retail, office, hospital, and other settings.

    Digital SSL’s mega disruptor will be Power over Ethernet (MAGAZINE)
    http://www.ledsmagazine.com/articles/print/volume-12/issue-11/features/networks-power/digital-ssl-s-mega-disruptor-will-be-power-over-ethernet-magazine.html

    Reply
  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Guide helps designers of cabling systems for 60W PoE lighting applications
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/02/siemon-60w-poe-lighting-cabling-guide.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-02-06

    Siemon recently made available the document “Zone Cabling and Coverage Area Planning Guide: 60W PoE Lighting Applications.” The company says it produced the document “to provide guidance to infrastructure designers on the selection, design and deployment of a structured cabling system optimized to support a wide range of Power over Ethernet (PoE) lighting applications.”

    Further, Siemon explained: “PoE lighting systems are becoming increasingly popular due to the ease and benefits of using Ethernet communication for control and balanced twisted-pair cabling to deliver reliable and cost-effective DC power. PoE lighting solutions already illuminate over one billion square feet of commercial space globally, and it is estimated the number of smart lighting deployments will grow from 46 million units in 2015 to 2.54 billion in 2020. PoE lighting luminaires typically use light-emitting diode (LED) technology, which offers the benefits of lower power consumption and less heat generation than other luminaire design alternatives, while lowering capital investment, improving safety and comfort, and integrating with building automation systems.

    “PoE lighting systems rely on a well-designed infrastructure of high-performance balanced twisted-pair cabling, network electronics, and software connecting and communication with Internet Protocol (IP) addressable luminaires, dimmers, sensors, and controllers to deliver maximum performance, comfort, and energy savings benefits.

    Zone Cabling and Coverage Area Planning Guide: 60W PoE Lighting Applications
    http://www.siemon.com/poelighting/

    Considered an integral component of the Internet of Things (IoT), smart or intelligent lighting solutions consist of a system of lighting fixtures, commonly called luminaires (surfaced mounted or recessed) or troffers (designed to fit into a modular dropped ceiling grid), which can be controlled, monitored, and powered over one centralized network.

    Reply
  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    123 watts of power an Ethernet cable

    Linear Technology has introduced the control circuit, which can be transferred to 123-watt power CAT-5e-class Ethernet cable

    using LTC4279 controller can be electrifying multiple devices. The driver supports, for example, less than a 13-watt power supply, the IEEE 802.3at Type 1 -määriteltyä 13-watt PoE-transfer, as well as type 2 assists (25.5 watts).

    Source: http://www.etn.fi/index.php/13-news/5796-123-wattia-tehoa-ethernet-kaapelista

    More:
    LTC4279 – Single Port PoE/PoE+/ LTPoE++ PSE Controller
    http://www.linear.com/product/LTC4279

    Reply
  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    UL launches cable certification program for Power over HDBaseT cables
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/02/power-over-hdbase-t-certification-program-ul-4299.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-02-13

    The HDBaseT Alliance and Underwriters Laboratories (UL) jointly announced the Certification Program for Power over HDBaseT (PoH) Cables. In a statement, the organizations said, “This program, targeted at cable manufacturers, addresses the increased performance and safety requirements related to heating due to current levels being carried under PoH of audiovisual installations. With increasingly complex installations and the proliferation of Power over HDBaseT equipment, AV vendors, manufacturers and professionals have indicated the need for standardization and consistency for high performance, regardless of the size of cable bundles. The new certification program evaluates the cable’s ability to carry DC [direct current] power of up to 100 watts over the four pairs of the cable and to maintain HDBaseT data transmission performance.”

    The certification program is based on the soon-to-be-published standard UL 4299, Outline of Investigation for Power over HDBaseT (POH) Cables. The program will evaluate the cables in accordance with the specifications of UL 4299.

    Ariel Sobelman, the alliance’s president, observed, “Until now, the HDBaseT Allliance had a Cable Recommendation Program in which it only tested cables for HDBaseT transmission. The new cable certification program goes one step further”

    Reply
  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What effect will 100W 4-pair PoE have on RJ45 connectivity?
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/pt/2017/02/what-effect-will-100w-4-pair-poe-have-on-rj45-connectivity.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-02-13

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is currently writing the 802.3bt standard, which will double the amount of power delivered to end devices.

    With 802.3bt, the current 25.5W will increase to approximately 71W, which is an increase of a factor of approximately 3. This new type of Power over Ethernet (PoE) is commonly referred to as PoE++ or 4 Pair PoE (4PPoE), and allows devices such as next generation wireless access points, security cameras with pan, tilt, zoom, and heating elements, and larger displays to operate under the new PoE standard.

    There has been significant work by the industry to understand the effect of the next generation PoE systems on cabling. For example, the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) document, TSB-184, Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling provides guidance for installing cables that run PoE with currents up to 600 mA on two pairs. This TSB document will soon be upgraded to TSB-184-A to provide guidance specific to PoE++ which is up to 960 mA on four pairs. These documents recommend that a bundle of cables should not exceed a 15 deg. C temperature rise within the center of the bundle. This temperature rise depends on the size of the bundle; the current running through the wire pairs and number of energized pairs; and cable wire gauge and construction.

    Heat rise and cable arcing could have harmful effects on cabling system performance when those cables are carrying 100W PoE.

    Effect of Next Generation 100 W Power over Ethernet on RJ45 Connectivity
    http://electricalindustry.ca/latest-news/2812-effect-of-next-generation-100-w-power-over-ethernet-on-rj45-connectivity

    Regarding PoE and PoE Plus, Category 5e, 6, and 6A cables all comply with TSB-184’s 15-degree maximum temperature rise when tested in bundles of 100 cables. However, during testing of 802.3bt pre-standard technology, only Category 6A cables stayed within the 15-degree recommendation for these large bundles. A couple recommendations to take away from these test findings are that Category 5e and 6 runs should be assembled in bundles of fewer than 100 cables; and Category 6A cabling is recommended for running PoE++.

    The purpose of this paper is to explain the effect the new 802.3bt standard running the highest Type 4 power will have on connectivity, specifically the Panduit TG style jacks.

    Connectors in PoE++ system

    Heat rise and cable arcing could have harmful effects on cabling system performance when those cables are carrying 100 W PoE. Significant temperature rise will increase cable insertion loss and may create bit errors, however, an extreme temperature increase above the cable operating range can damage the cable. There are two concerns with connectivity supporting PoE systems: arcing (sparks) and heat.

    For information on engaging and separating connectors under electrical load, refer to Standard IEC 60512-99-001. Panduit jack and plug connectors are verified and rated to 2500 cycles of plugging and unplugging with live PoE++ Type 4 running, well beyond the industry standard of 750 cycles.

    Heat

    The second effect of PoE++ is heat. Heat to a connector can come from two sources:

    1) heat from the cable transferring to the jack

    2) heat due to the current from PoE running through the jack

    Running 100 W per wire over twisted-pair structured technology makes infrastructure choice critical. Therefore, to adequately manage the effects of 802.3bt, Panduit recommends there should be a clear understanding of the following power considerations:

    ensure ambient temperature plus cable bundle temperature rise does not exceed cable operating temperature
    all cable gauge sizes still work, but bundle sizes are more limited for smaller gauges
    ensure connectivity can meet applicable standards to prevent arcing damage to critical mating area
    choose cable with higher operating temperature, if needed
    limit bundle sizes to ensure temperature rise is 15° or lower
    category 6A cabling is recommended for new installations for future proofing

    Reply
  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Everything You Need to Know About the New PoE Standard
    Due to the increased number of Ethernet-connected devices demanding more power, a new IEEE 802.3bt standard is on the way.
    http://electronicdesign.com/power/everything-you-need-know-about-new-poe-standard?NL=ED-003&Issue=ED-003_20170222_ED-003_247&sfvc4enews=42&cl=article_2_b&utm_rid=CPG05000002750211&utm_campaign=9794&utm_medium=email&elq2=be5c9b203c9e41a0aae7011ebd855ef3

    As Power over Ethernet (PoE) continues to grow in popularity, so does the demand for applications with higher power. The current standard, IEEE 802.3at, allows for maximum power at the powered device (PD) of 25.5 W, while the upcoming standard will allow maximum power of up to 90 W.

    The new standard will increase the maximum PoE power by using all four pairs of the wires being useful for applications where more power is required, such as pan-tilt-zoom (PTZ) cameras, VoIP phones, security-card readers, LED lighting, and point of sale

    “This not only enables the new higher power level, but also provides better efficiency for the current PoE power levels,”

    For example, a IEEE 802.3at PSE (power sourcing equipment) is required to supply a minimum of 30 W to ensure that the PD will receive 25.5 W. In the IEEE 802.3at standard, as much as 4.5 W is lost in the CAT5 cable.

    “Powering the same 25.5 W with the IEEE 802.3bt standard will cut the loss to less than 2.25 W,” he continues. “This increases the power-delivery efficiency from ~85% to ~92%.

    The new standard will define two more types of PSEs and PDs—Types 3 and 4.

    A new physical-layer classification, autoclass, will help the PSE determine the actual maximum power drawn by the connected PD. Type 3 and 4 PSEs will identify the PD and set the power accordingly to the maximum PD power, resulting in a better power-delivery system.

    To maintain a PSE power, a PD must generate a power signature while the lights are off and data communication remains active.

    “The IEEE 802.3at standard required ~0.13 W to be consumed by a PD,” explains Heath. “If the PD fell below this power level, the PSE would turn off power completely. The new IEEE 802.3bt standard allows a much lower power for the standby level. Only ~0.02 W is required to maintain a power connection. This allows PoE to power ‘green’ applications with agency requirements for low standby power.”

    Even though IEEE802.3bt has yet to be ratified, high-powered PoE products are already available on the market today

    Linear Technology already offers the first IEEE 802.3bt-compliant (Draft 2.0) PD interface controller, the LT4295 (Fig. 2). The new device eases migration of LTPoE ++ PDs to IEEE 803.3bt PDs, and supports up to 71 W (input) at PDs.

    Microsemi offers a single-port Gigabit Midspan solution, the PD-9601G (Fig. 4), for remote powering of current transmitting up to 95 W of power over 4-pairs

    The MAX5965A (Fig. 5) is a monolithic PSE controller for PoE that has been designed to meet IEEE 802.3at, delivering up to 45 W per port for high-power PSE applications. It also provides high-capacitance detection for legacy PDs.

    The Future of PoE

    According to a research report by MarketsandMarkets, the PoE market is expected to grow and reach more than $1 billion by 2022. The PoE market will expand with the new standard, giving way to higher-power solutions.

    Players in the semiconductor, lighting, and IT industries will continue working on better, higher-power solutions to use with the new standard, IEEE 802.3bt.

    Reply
  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Is 100W 4PPoE just a subtle blowtorch for RJ45 panels?: This week’s top stories
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/02/top5-blowtorch.html

    1.) What effect will 100W 4-pair PoE have on RJ45 connectivity?

    As put forth by a recent technology white paper from Panduit: “The Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) document, TSB-184, Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling provides guidance for installing cables that run PoE with currents up to 600 mA on two pairs. This TSB document will soon be upgraded to TSB-184-A to provide guidance specific to PoE++ which is up to 960 mA on four pairs. These documents recommend that a bundle of cables should not exceed a 15 deg. C temperature rise within the center of the bundle. This temperature rise depends on the size of the bundle; the current running through the wire pairs and number of energized pairs; and cable wire gauge and construction. However, little work has been performed to illustrate the effect of this new standard on the connectivity. Heat rise and cable arcing could have harmful effects on cabling system performance when those cables are carrying 100W PoE.”

    Reply
  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    PoE simplifies and reduces installation costs as only one cable needs to be installed, supplying both data and power. This can be useful in older buildings where it’s not easy to install additional power for powering devices that may be ceiling or wall mounted, such as cameras and wireless access points. Devices that typically use PoE are security cameras, access points, and VoIP phones.

    Source: https://event.webcasts.com/starthere.jsp?ei=1136974&sti=source

    Reply
  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TIA approves TSB-184-A cabling standard for support of four-pair remote powering
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/03/tia-tsb-184-a-approved.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-03-16

    The set of specifications that will provide guidance for enterprises deploying direct-current (DC) power to network devices over all four pairs of a twisted-pair copper cable will soon be available for purchase as a completed document. In February, the Telecommunications Industry Association’s (TIA) TR-42.7 Telecommunications Copper Cabling Systems Subcommittee resolved all outstanding comments related to, and approved for publication, Telecommunications System Bulletin TSB-184-A Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling.

    The TSB-184-A document is the culmination of years of study and effort by the TR-42.7 subcommittee in cooperation with other standards-development organizations—particularly including the IEEE as it has developed the forthcoming 802.3bt, which is commonly referred to as “four-pair Power over Ethernet.”

    Reply
  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What effect will 100W 4-pair PoE have on RJ45 connectivity?
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/pt/2017/02/what-effect-will-100w-4-pair-poe-have-on-rj45-connectivity.html

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is currently writing the 802.3bt standard, which will double the amount of power delivered to end devices.

    With 802.3bt, the current 25.5W will increase to approximately 71W, which is an increase of a factor of approximately 3. This new type of Power over Ethernet (PoE) is commonly referred to as PoE++ or 4 Pair PoE (4PPoE), and allows devices such as next generation wireless access points, security cameras with pan, tilt, zoom, and heating elements, and larger displays to operate under the new PoE standard.

    There has been significant work by the industry to understand the effect of the next generation PoE systems on cabling. For example, the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA) document, TSB-184, Guidelines for Supporting Power Delivery Over Balanced Twisted-Pair Cabling provides guidance for installing cables that run PoE with currents up to 600 mA on two pairs. This TSB document will soon be upgraded to TSB-184-A to provide guidance specific to PoE++ which is up to 960 mA on four pairs.

    Effect of Next Generation 100 W Power over Ethernet on RJ45 Connectivity
    http://electricalindustry.ca/latest-news/2812-effect-of-next-generation-100-w-power-over-ethernet-on-rj45-connectivity

    The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) is currently writing the 802.3bt standard, which will double the amount of power delivered to end devices. The current 25.5 W will increase to approximately 71 W, which is an increase of a factor of approximately 3. This new type of Power over Ethernet (PoE) is commonly referred to as PoE++ or 4 Pair PoE (4PPoE), and allows devices such as next generation wireless access points, security cameras with pan, tilt, zoom, and heating elements, and larger displays to operate under the new PoE standard.

    This TSB document will soon be upgraded to TSB-184-A to provide guidance specific to PoE++ which is up to 960 mA on four pairs. These documents recommend that a bundle of cables should not exceed a 15oC temperature rise within the center of the bundle.

    Cable manufacturers will provide users with information about the maximum bundle size that can meet the 15-degree temperature rise limit recommended in the TIA TSB-184 document. When planning for higher-power PoE, the proper equation to use is: cable temperature rating is less than or equal to the ambient temperature plus 15.

    Regarding PoE and PoE Plus, Category 5e, 6, and 6A cables all comply with TSB-184’s 15-degree maximum temperature rise when tested in bundles of 100 cables. However, during testing of 802.3bt pre-standard technology, only Category 6A cables stayed within the 15-degree recommendation for these large bundles. A couple recommendations to take away from these test findings are that Category 5e and 6 runs should be assembled in bundles of fewer than 100 cables; and Category 6A cabling is recommended for running PoE++.

    Connectors in PoE++ system

    Heat rise and cable arcing could have harmful effects on cabling system performance when those cables are carrying 100 W PoE. Significant temperature rise will increase cable insertion loss and may create bit errors, however, an extreme temperature increase above the cable operating range can damage the cable. There are two concerns with connectivity supporting PoE systems: arcing (sparks) and heat.

    Carbon scoring can interfere with the connection between the plug and jack, causing the link to not function if there is too much carbon build up.

    A Panduit jack is rated to 100g normal force. This ensures that as the plug is inserted, there is sufficient abrasion of the plug to remove any carbon scoring on it.

    Panduit jacks have been validated to meet the new PoE++ Type 4 power and current levels with respect to carbon scoring. For information on engaging and separating connectors under electrical load, refer to Standard IEC 60512-99-001.

    Running 100 W per wire over twisted-pair structured technology makes infrastructure choice critical.

    Reply
  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A practical approach to implementing power delivery over structured cabling
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-25/issue-1/features/standards/a-practical-approach-to-implementing-power-delivery-over-structured-cabling.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-03-16

    This article will provide a “rough guide” for an IT administrator who is implementing a Power over Ethernet (PoE), PoE+ and/or four-pair PoE++ power over an existing cabling plant, and some implied guidance for new installations. The primary focus will be on “rule-of-thumb” considerations for how to distribute power over existing cabling plants, simple measurements and calculations to determine whether temperatures of cabling may exceed their ratings, and considerations for connector performance and overall reach reduction.

    The guides in this article will focus on deployment of high power PoE++ where all four pairs are used and higher currents are employed. This standard is still under development by the IEEE 802.3bt DTE Power via MDI over 4-Pair Task Force, so four pair powering is primarily for future installation.

    Note that the maximum power provided by the PSE (power sourcing equipment) is 15.4W for PoE and 30W for PoE+. This level of power will not heat the cable significantly. Notice that for PoE+ the maximum operating temperature is de-rated by 5 degrees C.

    The maximum ambient temperature for most installations is 45 degrees C. Because the maximum operating temperature of standard communications cables is 60 degrees C, there are no temperature concerns for cabling providing PoE or PoE+ power levels.

    Four-pair powering

    Now for the more interesting stuff. For four-pair power with at least 60W supplied, and up to 100W per port, we are going to have to take into consideration the temperature rise in bundled cabling when a high percentage of cables are powered.

    Some conventions that we should understand: Smaller wire gauge (26 AWG) heats up more than larger wire gauge (23 AWG). Easy. For most applications, UTP category rated cabling is installed. Patch cords can have wire gauge as small as 26 AWG stranded. Category 5e cables are 24 AWG; Category 6 and Category 6A cables are 23 AWG.

    Category 7A, Category 8, and other shielded cables are peripheral to the scope of this discussion due to their relatively small market share in the U.S. In Europe, of course, you will have a much greater installed base of shielded cable types. The good news is that they will have a lower temperature rise than the equivalent UTP cable types. Shielded cables dissipate heat better than UTP cables.

    We don’t expect 26 AWG patch and equipment cords to be installed in conduit. A 5-degree temperature rise is not reached until you get to about 61 Category 5e cables in air, or 37 in conduit, with all cables powered. That means you need roughly 4kW to power 61 PDs with less than 60W each, all from the same bundle.

    One could easily substitute 24 AWG patch cables, which are the norm for Category 5e.

    There is also an increase in copper resistance with an increase in temperature. The TIA length de-ratings for example, are based mostly on this increase in resistance.

    Ampacity tables, for example, are great help to power-supply designers, but are not very much help to someone installing IEEE-compliant PoE++ into a new or existing cabling plant because the current is already determined by the application.

    A single cable powered (again) – For one cable, in air or conduit, the temperature rise for horizontal cables will be less than 2 degrees. Further, it also turns out that if you surround that cable with six or more cables that are not powered, or even 18 cables or more, the temperature rise will still be less than 2 degrees, even with 100W four-pair power. In fact, you can surround that one powered cable with insulation and it still will not overheat.

    For any given bundle size the temperature rise is determined by the power and the thermal resistance profile of the bundle. We don’t care how the heat is generated or how it is dissipated; we only care about the temperature.

    Connectors

    Steady state connector performance is not discussed much because for IEEE-style PoE applications, the current capacity of connectors easily exceeds the current capacity of the cables.

    Key features of the graph are that all conductors are carrying current simultaneously, the capacity diminishes with higher ambient temperatures, and goes to zero at 90 C ambient. At 20 C ambient, the current capacity per conductor is 1.552A. At 45 degrees C, the current capacity is reduced to 1.245A. One can conceivably flip this into a maximum temperature rise chart for connectors.

    From Figure 9 we can see that 1.5A current per conductor would raise the connector temperature a little more than 8 degrees

    The other issue with connectors is plugging and unplugging under load. The IEEE PoE application does not turn on power until it recognizes a powered device, so plugging under load is not really a problem. But there is no way to anticipate unplugging under load. This means that with two-pair power, PoE+ with potentially 1A per pair, the entire 1A current may try to flow through one connector contact at that last instant as the plug is being removed. This is a known issue, and there are connector designs that improve the mating conditions even after an arc has been experienced across the connector contacts.

    With four-pair power, that current doubles to nearly 2A, all potentially on a single conductor while disconnecting. This can create quite an arc, depending on the inductive load characteristics of the cabling.

    Reply
  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    IEEE publishes IEEE 802.3bu for provisioning Power over Data Lines (PoDL) of single balanced twisted-pair Ethernet
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/03/ieee-podl-std.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-03-27

    EEE and the IEEE Standards Association (IEEE-SA) have announced the availability of IEEE 802.3bu-2016—Standard for Physical Layer and Management Parameters for Power over Data Lines (PoDL) of Single Balanced Twisted-Pair Ethernet.

    According to IEEE, “single pair Ethernet was initially developed to support automotive manufacturer’s increasing demand for Ethernet connectivity in vehicles. IEEE 802.3bu-2016 defines specifications and parameters for adding standardized power to that cabling. The standard supports the latest single balanced twisted-pair Ethernet physical layers, 100BASE-T1 and 1000BASE-T1, using unshielded twisted-pair cable—a relatively low-cost cabling solution for the automotive industry resulting in reduced weight and cost, and increased reliability due to the need for fewer cables and connectors in automotive applications.”

    “The IEEE 802.3bu project was initiated due to the increased utilization of Ethernet in automobiles in a single pair configuration. It also holds a good deal of promise for further applicability across a wide range of industries and within a rapidly growing Internet of Things ecosystem,” said Dan Dove, chair, IEEE P802.3bu Task Force.

    IEEE 802.3bu-2016 is available for purchase at the IEEE Standards Store.

    Reply
  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Israeli’s Valens Semi Snags $60 Million in Funding
    http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1331568&

    Israel’s Valens Semiconductor, inventor of HDBaseT connectivity technology for transmitting content, said Thursday (April 6) it secured $60 million in venture funding from new and existing investors.

    Last year, Valens introduced its HDBaseT Automotive technology for the connected car. Among other things, the technology increases the amount of bandwidth and wiring necessary to cater to infotainment and Advanced Driver Assistance Systems.

    Last year, Daimler selected HDBaseT Automotive for its infotainment and telematics systems.

    Reply
  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    HDBase-T applications, news and tips
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-25/issue-4/features/design/hdbase-t-applications-news-and-tips.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-04-20

    In the years since the HDBase-T Alliance’s founding in 2011, the group has produced several specifications, certification programs and member services. Recently the alliance also produced a series of case-study success stories profiling installations of HDBase-T technology in different environments. Among those environments are residential and commercial properties. We’ll summarize a few of them here.

    Property developer Luxlo outfitted a luxury apartment in Mayfair, London with HDBase-T gear featuring audio-video equipment from HDanywhere. According to the alliance, the custom install, performed by EasyComp “comprises a total of eight sources, including SKY HD boxes, Apple TV, Blu-ray, CCTV, DVR and AV receivers, and seven displays – both high-definition and 4K – distributed in the living rooms, bedrooms, master bathroom, staff room and kitchen.”

    The fact that the residential property has a “staff room” suggests that budget was not a primary concern. The entire installation connected through Category 6 cabling for up to 35 meters. All sources are housed within an out-of-sight equipment rack.

    As it does with several of these profiles, the alliance asks and answers the question “Why HDBase-T?” In this case the answer is: “Ease of installation, including running Cat cable; ease of use and management; clean and elegant look, without cable clutter.”

    Hospitality applications

    HDBase-T technology is also deployed in a number of commercial and retail environments. Among the many other case studies in the alliance’s portfolio are two dining establishments.

    Another installation took place at the Wash Park Sports Alley Bar and Grill in Denver, CO. Tech Dwellings installed the system, which featured Key Digital equipment. “Multi-zone video is accompanied by audio and lighting control,” Key Digital and the HDBase-T Alliance explained. “All displays are able to select and view any video source at any time in any combination while also able to view any desired source on all displays.” Key Digital’s Compass Control system “utilizes HDBase-T to send control signals for audio and video over the same wire,” they added. “The HDBase-T KD-HD8x8Lite Matrix Switcher was specified, delivering out uncompressed content for the patrons and enabling the bar and server staff to have complete control of each display with a touch of a button.”

    Answering “Why HDBase-T?” they note, “Simplicity and flexibility in installation. High performance and quality with distribution of uncompressed content. Easy control and monitoring. One-cable connectivity for displays around all video zones in the bar.”

    Four tips

    A document from Leviton titled “Installing HDBase-T in AV Projects: What You Need to Know” addresses the cabling infrastructure chosen for these applications. Within that document the company says, “Large displays are driving the need for higher resolution, moving beyond today’s high of 1080p. Ultra high-definition TV with 4K resolution is regarded as the next standard delivering 2160p format at 3840×2160 pixel density. Digital signals for these displays are increasingly sensitive and consume greater bandwidth; that’s why having the optimal cabling infrastructure in place is paramount.”

    Leviton offers four pieces of advice for these installations. First, the company advises us to consider the application and installation environment. Specifically, one should ask and answer the following questions: 1) Should I use HDBase-T Class A or Class B equipment? 2) Are there any power considerations? 3) Where will the AV link go?

    Next, Leviton urges, understand the signal characteristics. The company explains, “AV signals over HDBase-T look much like the data signals you encounter every day – they are just a little less forgiving. HDBase-T is packet-based like Ethernet, but it doesn’t have a retransmission mechanism. So there is no recovery from packet errors. You can avoid pixilation or complete video dropout due to packet errors by using the right cabling.”

    The third piece of advice from Leviton is to recognize the capabilities of twisted-pair cabling. Category 5e, 6, and 6A UTP cabling – the alliance’s specified media types – “will deliver varying performance results, depending on the type of installation, video resolution, and distance” Leviton explains. “While Cat 5e channels can carry HDBase-T signals in an isolated point-to-point link, they do not support HDBase-T in real-world high-density installations with adjacent data or HDBase-T channels.”

    Leviton added that its own testing “finds use of Cat 5e in these applications can lead to high packet error rates and total link loss, as the channels are not designed for resistance to alien crosstalk. Even Cat 6 cables can be limited in carrying HDBase-T signals when adjacent to other cables carrying HDBase-T. We recommend Cat 6A with alien crosstalk prevention technology … to support HDBase-T signals that are in the presence of multiple disturbers, including other HDBase-T signals and 10 GbE.”

    “To ensure the best HDBase-T installation, use only HDBase-T-certified components,” Leviton says.

    Reply
  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Merging power and data: good, bad, or both?
    http://www.edn.com/electronics-blogs/power-points/4458323/Merging-power-and-data–good–bad–or-both-?utm_content=buffer8c7d6&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer

    Putting power on a copper cable originally or primarily designed for signals is not a new concept, nor is the reverse situation. Doing so makes sense: that cable is a valuable conduit and if it can serve another purpose at the same time—that seems like a good idea. It’s a technique that has been used for many years

    USB started out as a power path of modest capacity (about 10W) while Ethernet was never really a power path. Now, both USB via USB C and Type 3 standards, and power over Ethernet (PoE) via the almost-ready IEEE 802.3bt (often called PoE++) standard, raise the power level to about 100W while also supporting MBps and Gbps data rates.

    Supporting both power and data isn’t an easy task. To merge them onto that single tempting copper cable requires a lot of circuitry at both ends.

    coupling both the data and power to the copper is a non-trivial exercise

    So, is it worth the effort, cost, and design complexity? As with most engineering tradeoffs, the answer is “it depends.” It’s a function of user priorities in terms of ease of use, potential simplification, acceptable confusion, troubleshooting effort, cost, consistency of operation, and many other factors.

    It will be interesting to see where and for whom these data + power, single cable approaches work well, and if they cause more headaches than the problems they were intended to solve.

    Reply
  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Watch a demo of PoE-enabled ceiling fans
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/04/nuleds-poe-enabled-ceiling-fans.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-05-01

    All the ceiling fans are powered and controlled by the NuLEDs SPICEbox, which the company explains is a PoE control module that delivers power and management capabilities to LED fixtures. “Each SPICEbox is a network device with a unique MAC address and IP address,” NuLEDs says on its website. “SPICEboxes have multi-channel control for separate lighting loads, including color mixing. A SPICEbox can serve as a sensor host for wall switches, PIR [passive infrared] sensors, ambient light sensors, or other sensors.” In addition to the LED lights and ceiling fans, Lisa explains, PoE enables the building’s window actuators, skylight actuators, and exit lights.

    SPICEbox communicates with the ceiling fans’ control modules, directing the speed (in rotations per minute) at which the fans should operate. The narrator points out that all the fans are spinning in unison.

    Reply
  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    General Cable among first to receive UL’S Power over HDBaseT (PoH) certification for thin-profile Cat 6A plenum line
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/040/genspeed-cat6a-ul-poh.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-05-22

    General Cable (NYSE: BGC) announced its acquisition of what the company cites as the first Underwriters Laboratories’ (UL) Power over HDBaseT (PoH) cable certification and compliance ranking with HDBaseT electrical performance standards, as granted for General Cable’s GenSPEED 10 MTP Thin-Profile Category 6A (Plenum) Cable product.

    As noted by the company, “HDBaseT technology provides the capability of simplifying audio visual deployment in commercial and residential applications by combining full ultra-HD digital video, audio, 100BaseT Ethernet, various control signals and up to 100 Watts of power onto a single 100 meter 4-pair communications cable. UL tests the cables in accordance with a new UL Outline of Investigation for PoH Cables (UL4299) ensuring the compliance of cabling to the standards while simplifying and streamlining the deployment of this technology.

    Reply
  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    IEEE 802.3bt PD Interface Controller
    https://www.eeweb.com/news/ieee-802.3bt-pd-interface-controller

    Analog Devices, Inc., which recently acquired Linear Technology Corporation, announced the LT4294 IEEE 802.3bt Powered Device (PD) interface controller for applications requiring up to 71W of delivered power. This new Power over Ethernet (PoE) standard – IEEE 802.3bt – increases the power budget to enable new applications and features, while supporting 10 Gigabit Ethernet (10GBASE-T) and maintaining backward compatibility with older IEEE 802.3af and 802.3at PoE equipment. When combined with the LT4321 PoE ideal diode bridge controller, the IEEE 802.3bt Draft 2.3 compliant LT4294 PD controller provides up to 99% of power available from the RJ-45 connector to the hot swap output while supporting newly introduced features, including additional PD classes (5, 6, 7 and 8), PD types (Type 3 and Type 4) and 5-event classification.

    The LT4294 is a single-signature 802.3bt PD controller that can be married to any high efficiency switching regulator.

    The LT4294 is offered in industrial and automotive grades, supporting operating temperature ranges from –40°C to 85°C and –40°C to 125°C, respectively.

    ummary of Features: LT4294

    IEEE 802.3af/at/bt (Draft 2.3) Powered Device (PD) Controller
    External Hot Swap N-Channel MOSFET for Lowest Power Dissipation & Highest System Efficiency
    Supports up to 71W PDs
    5-Event Classification Sensing
    Superior Surge Protection (100 V Absolute Maximum)
    Wide Junction Temperature Range (–40°C to 125°C)
    Configurable Auxiliary Power Support as Low as 9 V
    Available in 10-Lead MSOP & 3mm x 3mm DFN Packages

    LT4294 – IEEE 802.3bt PD Interface Controller
    http://www.linear.com/product/LT4294

    Reply
  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Alliance launches Power over Ethernet certification program
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/pt/2017/05/ethernet-alliance-power-over-ethernet-certification-program.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-05-30

    The Ethernet Alliance today launched its Power over Ethernet (PoE) certification program. “Enabling swift and easy recognition of interoperable products designed to available IEEE 802.3 PoE standards, the program will elevate the user experience by minimizing market confusion between standards-based and proprietary PoE solutions,” the Ethernet Alliance said.

    With analysts projecting PoE-enabled port and device shipments to reach close to 1 billion by 2021, the alliance says its PoE certification program is expected to attract strong interest from Ethernet ecosystem stakeholders. John D’Ambrosia, Ethernet Alliance chair and senior principal engineer with Huawei, said, “The impact of PoE technologies cuts across multiple markets, from enterprise IT, to network operations, to home automation, and this trend looks to continue.

    To gain Ethernet Alliance PoE certification, a device will have to comply with the specifications in IEEE 802.3af or IEEE 802.3at. Among those specifications are the following.

    802.3af: The PSE injects between 44 and 57 volts with a nominal current of up to 175 mA per conductor using 2 pairs. The PSE emits 15.4 watts, with 13 watts available at the PD.
    802.3at: The PSE injects between 50 and 57 volts with a nominal current of up to 300 mA per conductor using 2 pairs. The PSE emits 30 watts, with 25.5 watts available at the PD.

    Reply
  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    LP-certified cables available from Belden
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/040/belden-lp-ceritfied-cables.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-06-05

    Belden recently announced that several of its cables, including its 10GXS and 2183 product lines, are Limited Power (LP) certified. “Belden LP-listed cables are designed to maintain safe operation and not exceed temperature ratings,” the company said when announcing the availability of these LP-certified cables.

    “As digital building applications continue to converge over the same IP networks, demands for increased bandwidth and Power over Ethernet are placed on the cabling infrastructure,” Belden further explained. “This leads to additional heat generation inside cables, which can cause declines in performance and reliability.

    “LP-listed cable simplifies cable selection and usage when power delivery is higher than 60W or PoE Type 4 is being used, and when cable bundle sizes exceed the 2017 NEC limits,” the company continued. “Today, the vast majority of PoE applications involve power delivery below 60W and use PoE Type 3 or lower, and may not require the benefits of LP-listed cable.”

    While pointing out that LP-listed cable is not part of any current or future PoE standard, Belden said it “pursued LP certification to help installers, consultants and enterprises prepare for future applications where devices may exceed 60W or use PoE Type 4, and where it is unclear what the cable bundle sizes are. Belden LP-listed cables maintain safe operation to the identified current amperage without exceeding cable temperature ratings.”

    The intersection of remote powering technologies and the 2017 National Electrical Code
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-24/issue-11/features/technology/the-intersection-of-remote-powering-technologies-and-the-2017-national-electrical-code.html

    Remote powering

    Many in the industry use the term “Power over Ethernet” to refer to any type of remote powering-technology that permits the carriage of DC over the conductors of a communications cable. In a vast majority of cases, the products and systems that provide this ability do so in accordance with the IEEE’s 802.3af or 802.3at specifications. Officially this set of specifications is called Data Terminal Equipment Power via Media Dependent Interface, or DTE Power via MDI. Nowhere in the standard’s official title will you find the term Power over Ethernet or PoE. Nonetheless, references to these specifications almost always include the term PoE.

    The IEEE does not “own” the term PoE. And just because a product says “PoE” or “Power over Ethernet” on it, does not indicate that it complies with either the existing or forthcoming specifications that we very frequently refer to as PoE.

    Under the original IEEE standard, 802.3af, the power sourcing equipment (PSE) injects between 44 and 57 volts, with 48 being typical, at 350 to 400 mA. In total the power sourcing equipment emits 15.4 Watts and by the time it reaches its destination of the powered device, 12.95 Watts are available to the PD. 802.3af uses two pairs of a four-pair cable.

    The “at” standard, commonly referred to as Power over Ethernet Plus, injects 50 to 57 volts (50 is typical) at up to 600 milliamps. It’s worthwhile to point out that the IEEE established that 600-milliamp limit for its 802.3at standard based on a 50-degree Celsius ambient temperature. Generally cables are rated to 60 degrees Celsius, meaning they can operate up to that temperature without degradation to their performance characteristics. Through collaboration between a group in the TIA’s TR-42 cabling standards committee, and the IEEE, it was determined that sending power over twisted-pair cables at 600 mA per pair could account for as much as a 10-degree Celsius rise in temperature.

    “Unfortunately, the success of PoE led to products that took shortcuts with the standard, or simply ignored it. Most of the products did not come from mainstream networking vendors who followed the standard. Rather, they frequently came from companies that were not in the networking business, or ‘no-name’ … producers. It’s too bad that the IEEE didn’t trademark ‘Power over Ethernet.’

    Carlson authored that article in 2014-11 years after the IEEE 802.3af standard was published and 5 years after 802.3at was. That long after the completion of the IEEE’s standards, rogue devices continue to exist in the market.

    While justification exists to use caution when considering deploying power injectors that do not comply with 802.3af or 802.3at, some non-IEEE powering technologies can be deployed safely, without concern about harming network electronics or cabling. One example is the Power over HDBase-T (PoH) specification, developed by the HDBase-T Alliance. The PoH specification is backward-compatible with IEEE specifications. PoH calls for 95 to 100 watts of power over twisted-pair cabling. In a technical paper titled “Introduction to Power over HDBase-T,” the HDBase-T Alliance notes, “PoH enables the PD [powered device] to identify the cable length/resistance and draw more power, as long as the overall power consumption does not exceed 100W. PoH is fully backwards-compatible with the IEEE 802.3at-2009 specification, including the section 33.7.1 mandate that all power sourcing equipment (PSE) conform to IEC 60950-1:2001 and be classified as a Limited Power Source (LPS) carrying no more than 100 volt-ampere (VA) per port without the need for special over-current protection devices. PoH also does not infringe on any of the mandated PoE safety requirements.”

    Reply
  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What nobody tells you about Power over Ethernet
    http://luxreview.com/article/2016/08/what-nobody-tells-you-about-power-over-ethernet

    Most of us are already using our computers to deliver power to do some of the basic stuff, as we charge our mobile devices using USB ports on desktop and laptop. But the move towards using Power over Ethernet to power and control lighting fixtures is something else altogether.

    Will your computer always talk to your lighting installation

    We have to forget the idea of a light fitting at the other end of a light switch. The entire issue of PoE is that the lighting installation is now another part of the computer network. The first issue that needs to be considered is the security of the lighting. Does the computer know that the lighting installation is there?

    The first thing to ensure is that the computer system is sufficiently robust to guarantee the presence of the lighting installation.

    Power outages may mean a re-boot for your lighting installation

    Loss of power to a computer network may be rare and very brief, but they do happen. Interruptions to computer power and inappropriate shut-downs can result in glitches in the software.

    Effort needs to be put into ensuring the reliability of the power supply to ensure that system failures don’t happen and, if they do, that the lighting power is recognised and restored.

    The lighting technology must match the operating parameters of the broader network.

    This is a critical issue that comes under the heading of ‘that’s the way things are in this world’. Voltage drop cannot be mitigated for, it can only be designed out of the system.

    There will always a be a need for an electrical contractor

    An argument is being made that PoE wiring will do away with the need for qualified electricians. The argument goes that, because the voltage is so low and the system is a ‘plug-and-play’ system, there is no need for a competent person. But this argument forgets that every cable termination needs to be made into an ethernet plug, and that’s more complex than a standard mains connection into a lighting fixture.

    Rather than questioning the use of a qualified electrician, the actual question should be about how competent the qualified electrician is in making off cable terminations of this type.

    Reply
  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New Cree LED light fixtures are PoE, or Powered over the Ethernet
    https://www.treehugger.com/interior-design/led-light-fixtures-are-poe-or-powered-over-ethernet.html

    This isn’t the kind of office interior we usually show on TreeHugger, It’s kind of ordinary looking. But the new offices of IT services company mindSHIFT are actually not ordinary at all; the light fixtures in this data center are Cree SmartCast LED luminaires and they are not connected to the usual 120 volt wiring. In fact, they are plugged into the bog standard CAT 5 ethernet cable that you plug into your computer, which is connected to a CISCO Power over Ethernet or PoE network. These are all connected to Smartcast manager tools that can set them up in second

    In a traditional office there are layers and layers of different wiring hierarchies; you will have your power wiring, in either 120 or 227 or even 600 volts.

    Then there might be HVAC control wiring to valves and control boxes and thermostats. Then telephone and finally computer wiring.

    PoE changes all that. Everything, from the light fixtures to the HVAC to the window blinds are connected via CAT5. Every single light fixture becomes part of the Internet of Things.

    Cree writes that “A common misconception is that the IoT enables smart lighting, but, unlike many other ‘things’ of the IoT, it’s the converse – LED lighting enables the IoT.” This is absolutely true; those CAT 5 cables can only carry 25 watts of power. A fluorescent fixture only turned on or off, most couldn’t even dim. The SmartCast luminaires and can be adjusted for color temperature and light levels and can run under PoE limits.

    Each fixture has an occupancy sensor right on it and can talk to every other internet connected device, which lets it do some very smart things. In an interview, Gary Trott, Vice President, Marketing, Intelligent Lighting, gave an example;

    Reply
  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Alliance launches Power over Ethernet certification program
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/pt/2017/05/ethernet-alliance-power-over-ethernet-certification-program.html

    The Ethernet Alliance today launched its Power over Ethernet (PoE) certification program. “Enabling swift and easy recognition of interoperable products designed to available IEEE 802.3 PoE standards, the program will elevate the user experience by minimizing market confusion between standards-based and proprietary PoE solutions,” the Ethernet Alliance said.

    With analysts projecting PoE-enabled port and device shipments to reach close to 1 billion by 2021, the alliance says its PoE certification program is expected to attract strong interest from Ethernet ecosystem stakeholders. John D’Ambrosia, Ethernet Alliance chair and senior principal engineer with Huawei, said, “The impact of PoE technologies cuts across multiple markets, from enterprise IT, to network operations, to home automation, and this trend looks to continue. IEEE 802.3 standards-based PoE solutions offer predictable power delivery and greater network safety, along with the robust connectivity and interoperability the market has come to expect from Ethernet. The presence of the Ethernet Alliance logo will clearly identify products that are IEEE 802.3 standards-based and that provide the performance and interoperability assurance end users want from their PoE investments.”

    Reply
  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Handheld test solution for HDBase-T cabling and systems
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/06/mstestpro-hdbaset-cabling-tester.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-06-29

    MS-TestPro is a handheld tool that provides in-field testing of HDBase-T cabling and systems. Manufactured by Media Solutions Ltd., the MS-TestPro is designed specifically for AV installers, integrators and technicians. A newly added feature enables users of the solution to generate a certification report on the quality of each cable installed, thereby simplifying the installation of HDBase-T networks, explains Media Solutions.

    Reply
  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    HDBaseT Alliance recounts successful InfoComm 2017
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/06/hdbt-infocomm.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-06-29

    The HDBaseT Alliance, the cross-industry group tasked with promoting and advancing HDBaseT technology, welcomed AV professionals during the annual InfoComm International 2017 (June 14-16) in Orlando, FL, and showcased a host of new products, demos and solutions.

    As stated by the Alliance, “HDBaseT technology, powered by Valens [semiconductors], enables all-in-one connectivity between high-definition video sources and remote displays, through a single cable for up to 100 meters with category cable, or kilometers with fiber, including the transmission of ultra-high-definition video and audio, Ethernet, USB, control signals, and up to 100W of power.”

    The HDBaseT Alliance advances and promotes the adoption of HDBaseT technology as the global standard for ultra-high-definition, digital connectivity. Since its founding in 2010 by LG Electronics, Samsung Electronics, Sony Pictures Entertainment, and Valens, the Alliance has brought together the leading names in the consumer electronics, professional AV, industrial and automotive manufacturers, and it counts today with more than 180 members and thousands of products.

    Reply
  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    PoE-related amendments proposed to the 2017 NEC
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/06/2017-nec-proposed-amendments-poe.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cimdatacenternewsletter_2017-06-29

    In early June the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA), which produces specifications including NFPA 70, the National Electrical Code, held its annual Conference and Exposition. Among the technical conference’s sessions was a panel discussion covering Power over Ethernet. (For more detail on the treatment of cabling for Power over Ethernet in the 2017 NEC, see “The intersection of remote powering technologies and the 2017 National Electrical Code” in the November 2016 issue of Cabling Installation & Maintenance magazine.)

    In our November issue we reported the task group’s formation was prompted by an appeal made to the NFPA Standards Board specifically related to Section 840.160 of the 2017 NEC. The appeal’s basis was that Section 840.160 did not specify an ampere limit when citing 60-watt remote-powering circuits. The appeal pointed out that 60 watts can be arrived at as a product of an unsafely high amperage and some voltage. Presumably, the proposed TIAs will address this current-and-voltage issue as it exists in Sections 840.160, 725.144, and 725.121.

    Lofland pointed out that in preparation for his participation in the conference, he called several active electrical inspectors to gather their concerns about PoE—an inquiry to which he got little if any response. Lofland suggested, however, that his inquiry about PoE opened the eyes of two inspectors who later called him to report that PoE infrastructure was widespread within their jurisdictions.

    The clear indication was that some inspectors have been seeing PoE infrastructure for some time but not realizing it. Lofland opined there is a need to educate inspectors about what PoE is, and how to identify cabling infrastructure that will support PoE.

    For example, UL’s fact-finding investigation tested twisted-pair cables with conductor sizes as small as 26 AWG, and did not include patch cords. But 28-AWG cables and patch cords are available in the market today, and the Telecommunications Industry Association’s TR-42.7 committee currently is exploring the possibility of specifying 28-AWG cabling. As Ivans stated during the NFPA panel discussion, in PoE applications cable heating can be affected by, and managed via, AWG size among other characteristics—including cable design variations, material composition, and installation practices. The larger gauge the cable’s conductor, the less heat buildup a cable will experience, all other factors being equal. So 28-AWG cabling is presumed to be more prone to heat buildup than 26-, 24-, or 23-AWG cabling. Yet, as Ivans points out, empirical data is needed.

    Reply
  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Global Power Over Ethernet (POE) Lighting Market 2017 Industry Key Players – Philips Lighting, Molex, NuLEDs, Igor, Cisco Systems
    http://www.openpr.com/news/641685/Global-Power-Over-Ethernet-POE-Lighting-Market-2017-Industry-Key-Players-Philips-Lighting-Molex-NuLEDs-Igor-Cisco-Systems.html

    The Power Over Ethernet (POE) Lighting report is offers a clear picture of the current and future trends, developments and opportunities. The report, prepared by a highly seasoned team of analysts and data experts, carries an array of tables and graphs besides qualitative analyses. Starting with a discussion on the current state of the Power Over Ethernet (POE) Lighting market, the report goes on to discuss the dynamics affecting each segment within it.

    Reply
  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    PoE Lighting System
    Energy Reporting Study
    Part 1
    https://energy.gov/sites/prod/files/2017/03/f34/ssl-poe-part1_feb2017_0.pdf

    The replacement of today’s lighting infrastructure with LED products offers the potential for
    future
    connected lighting systems (CLS) that could become a data
    -
    collection platform that enables greater
    energy savings in buildings and cities. Such connected lighting systems can not only drastically
    improve the energy performance of lighting and other
    building systems, but also enable a wide array
    of services, benefits, and revenue streams that would enhance the value of lighting systems.

    Whereas wireless solutions offer reduced control system installation cost relative to traditional
    low
    -
    voltage alternatives, PoE technology can offer additional
    cost
    savings by transmitting power and
    communications over the same low
    -
    voltage cable, while also reducing demand for wireless
    bandwidth. Although PoE technology was introduced at the start of t
    his century, it was initially of
    limited applicability to lighting systems
    due
    to power transmission limits for available Ethernet
    cabling. However, PoE has become increasingly viable for lighting applications in recent years as
    Ethernet cabling technology
    has evolved and relevant standards and specifications have adapted.
    These gains have been compounded by ongoing improvements to the luminous efficacy of LED
    technologies, increasing the number of LED luminaires suitable for use with Ethernet switches
    capa
    ble of sourcing PoE. As a result, a growing number of manufacturers have
    introduced
    PoE
    lighting systems in recent years.

    Reply
  36. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Global Power over Ethernet (POE) Lighting Market 2017 :Nuleds, Cree, Prolojik, Philips Lighting, Igor-Tech
    Read more: http://www.digitaljournal.com/pr/3292213#ixzz4oiFcWbe8

    Reply
  37. Tomi Engdahl says:

    NEMA Releases Standard for PoE Systems
    The standard ensures minimal energy loss for Power over Ethernet (PoE) lighting systems.
    http://www.archlighting.com/industry/nema-releases-standard-for-poe-systems_o

    The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA), through its ANSI Accredited Standards Committee on Lighting Systems, has released a new installation standard titled, ANSI C137.3 American National Standard for Lighting Systems—Minimum Requirements for Installation of Energy Efficient Power Over Ethernet (PoE) Lighting Systems. It has been “…designed to ensure minimal energy loss for Power over Ethernet (PoE) lighting systems.”

    ANSI C137.3-2017 is available for purchase in hard copy format, or as an electronic download on the NEMA website.

    ANSI C137.3 Installation Standard Unveiled
    New standard minimizes cable energy loss for Power over Ethernet (PoE) lighting systems.
    http://www.ecmweb.com/lighting-control/ansi-c1373-installation-standard-unveiled

    The energy efficiency of a PoE lighting system depends on three elements: power source equipment (PSE) efficiency, powered device (PD) efficiency, and cable energy losses. This standard specifies cable and installation practices to limit the electrical energy losses of the cable between the PSE and the PD.

    Reply
  38. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Relighting West Baden Springs Hotel: Where modernization meets preservation
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-25/issue-8/features/technology/relighting-west-baden-springs-hotel-where-modernization-meets-preservation.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cim_data_center_newsletter_2017-08-21

    Retrofitting for the past and future

    When the Cook Group took over the West Baden Springs Hotel in 1996, it sought to continue the resort’s long tradition of enhancing its guest experience with modern, innovative technologies. “I think being on the leading edge of technology is what guests expect of our resort, both historically and now,” says Brent Conner, director of architecture and engineering for Cook Group. “Our philosophy, in general, has been staying on the front edge of that technology. In the past, the spa and the steam baths were cutting edge in their day. Today, I think that still carries through. Today’s guests expect top quality. They expect a friendly atmosphere. Cook Group has tried to make sure that happens.”

    Seeking to boost operational efficiencies and improve its guest experience, the Cook Group sought the expertise of Superior Essex and Platformatics in retrofitting the atrium with the latest intelligent LED lighting technologies. Together, they provided a connected lighting solution that offered West Baden Springs Hotel significant increases in energy efficiency and customizability, while also establishing a foundation for future converged network applications that will continue to add value as the hotel expands its in-building network. “Platformatics came to us and gave us a really great presentation of what abilities and capabilities are out there with regard to PoE lighting,” says Conner. “We felt like this was the perfect application for what we needed and what they were trying to do.”

    Relighting the West Baden Springs atrium came with a number of criteria defined explicitly by the end-users’ needs. Because of the size of the space and the number of lights therein, energy efficiency was paramount. Previously, the hotel had used 192, 1000-watt bulbs to light the atrium, equating to approximately 190,000 watts of power when operating at full capacity. These incandescent bulbs also generated a significant amount of heat, and as a result there was a substantial heat load that had to be managed via ventilation and cooling, which added to overall energy requirements.

    Finally, several unique challenges had to be overcome in terms of designing and deploying the physical infrastructure. The project required around 30,000 feet of Ethernet cable, hundreds of light fixtures and PoE nodes, and several cabinets filled with Power over Ethernet switches and network hardware. However, due to the historic nature of the building, it would not readily accommodate the robust network infrastructure required for this application. Adding to the complexity of the installation, none of the original lighting infrastructure was accessible without a lift.

    Superior Essex PowerWise 1 Gigabit 4-pair Power over Ethernet (4PPoE) cabling was run from the server room down through the atrium directly to the lights. By using PowerWise 1G 4PPoE cabling to transmit power and data to each light, the need for AC wiring systems at each fixture was eliminated. This not only simplified the installation process, but also greatly reduced associated materials and labor costs. Because the system operates at a low voltage, the safety of the installers and system managers was also improved. Compared to traditional incandescent or fluorescent lighting, which requires an electrician to move or change a light fixture, this PoE-enabled lighting system easily facilitates adds, moves, and changes. Like moving your computer, the user can simply unplug Ethernet cable to deactivate a light, move the light, plug the Ethernet cable back in, and the light is once again active.

    In total, more than 500 lights were installed throughout the atrium. At the top of each of the 24 columns that ring the atrium, 2 tunable white LED spotlights replaced 2 incandescent 1000-watt light bulbs. Seventy-two white LED spotlights also were installed in the pinwheel at the dome’s apex to fill in the white balance. Above the columns, 144 RGB color strips and 144 white strips outline the atrium’s perimeter ring. The same RGB strips, along with reflectors, also are installed in the pinwheel so they shine through the ornately designed petal overlay.

    Each of these lights requires approximately 50 watts of power or less, and runs at approximately 2700 Kelvin—significantly less than that of the incandescent fixtures they replaced.

    In terms of energy use, the PoE lighting system requires just 4000 watts and produces almost no heat. These cool, low-power PoE lights work in tandem with the PowerWise 1G 4PPoE cabling, which operates at approximately 97 percent power efficiency, to provide West Baden an overall energy savings of 98.5 percent for its lighting system. Because of the LEDs’ low-power requirements and the ability to manage their associated thermals and energy use, West Baden can expect to see these benefits continue over the course of the system’s lifecycle.

    These lights are connected to 220 control nodes. Each of these nodes is a PoE endpoint, accepting and transmitting both power and communications from the lights and the Cisco Catalyst Series 3850 switches in the telecommunications room. The system here again relies on PowerWise 1G 4PPoE cabling to communicate control information between the lights, nodes and switches.

    In addition to control information, PowerWise 1G 4PPoE cabling also handles the environmental data collected by sensors, and relays all of that data back to a centralized server, or Platformatics Area Controller (PAC), in the server room.

    Reply
  39. Tomi Engdahl says:

    OneReach
    PoE EXTENDER SYSTE
    http://www.berktek.us/eservice/US-en_US/fileLibrary/Download_540194252/US/files/OneReachBro_2017_REV_FINAL.pdf

    You can rely on OneReach to transmit
    both power and gigabit data to distances
    previously unreachable with conventional
    Power over Ethernet (PoE)/PoE+/High
    PoE (HPoE) solutions.

    The OneReach System is an integrated
    power and data cable system with three
    distinct segments; Head End Power
    Injection (PI), OneReach Cable Assembly
    (OCA), and Remote PoE Port (RPP).

    The OneReach PoE Extender System can
    provide both the power and data required
    for IP devices at distances up to 3,600
    ft*/1,097 m from the equipment room.

    ditional PoE approach would require mid-span
    equipment to be located within 100 m (328 ft)
    of the phones and cameras

    OneReach simply needs one length
    of composite fiber/copper cable to
    be run to each remote powered device,
    and includes everything needed for
    data transmission and device power.
    Plus, with all power coming from the
    equipment room, having UPS back-up
    for power redundancy is easy and
    requires only one centrally located
    UPS to protect all remote sites.

    ower and data transmission are
    supported within a single jacket through
    the use of Berk-Tek CL3P-OF or CL3R-OF
    rated PLTC-OF composite copper/fiber cable.
    These cables combine 12 AWG conductors
    with either tight-buffered or loose tube
    optical fiber cable designs to support
    1- or 4-port remote devices.

    Reply
  40. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Alliance opens PoE certification program to the public
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/09/poe-certification-program-ethernet-alliance-public.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cim_data_center_newsletter_2017-09-21

    The Ethernet Alliance recently made its Power over Ethernet certification program available to the public. Launched for alliance members in May 2017, the PoE certification program “serves as not only a clear identifier for today’s interoperable, standardized PoE products, but also a solid foundation for the next generation of IEEE 802.3 PoE standards,” the alliance said. It added, “With rising numbers of both standards- and non-standards-based PoE solutions entering the market, introducing a simple method for determining products capable of seamless interoperability is essential.”

    The program is backed by a resource library that is designed to help streamline the path to certification. “It aims to minimize market confusion and elevate the end-user experience,” the Ethernet Alliance added. “Within the program, power sourcing equipment and powered device manufacturers can submit PoE-enabled products for testing and validation against the Ethernet Alliance’s industry-defined test plan. Tests may be performed at the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL), or vendors can self-test using approved equipment. Upon successful test completion, vendors will be authorized to use the Ethernet Alliance’s official certification logo and be added to a first-of-its-kind public registry of certified PoE products.”

    Test Event for the EA PoE Certification Program
    https://www.iol.unh.edu/event/2017/10/unh-iol-test-event-ea-poe-certification-program

    Reply
  41. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New UL safety certification program addresses ICT power cables
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/09/ul-safety-ict.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cim_data_center_newsletter_2017-10-02

    To benefit end-product and cable manufacturers, brand owners, retailers, and end users, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) has launched a new safety certification program for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) power cables. These cables are used to power or charge IT and communication devices such as laptops, tablet computers, smart phones, power banks and more.

    While the power capabilities of ICT cables are growing to meet the demand for faster charging and to power higher wattage devices, so are the potential risks of overheating and fire due to the use of poorly constructed cables. This program addresses the potential safety hazards of cable assemblies that provide power or charging for connected equipment in a circuit that does not exceed 60 V dc, 8.0 A and 100 W.

    Cables tested and certified to UL 9990 are covered under UL’s surveillance program.

    “The ICT power cable certification program provides increased transparency for vendors and end users by making it simpler to identify those cables that can carry the appropriate current with reduced likelihood of overheating and the risk of fire.”

    Reply
  42. Tomi Engdahl says:

    PoE-enabled computing: The next step in the digital building
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/print/volume-25/issue-9/features/design/poe-enabled-computing-the-next-step-in-the-digital-building.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cim_data_center_newsletter_2017-10-02

    Digital buildings are here to stay. Driven by intelligent systems that integrate and control all elements of an office digitally, smart building solutions can allocate work areas and conference rooms, control lighting, cool or heat occupied workspace, operate digital security systems, and provide wireless access to employees and guests. The result is an environment that is measurable, controllable and green.

    IP convergence is the mantra of the digital building. The concept of using a single IP network to replace as many as eight or nine different systems, each having proprietary wiring, connectors, pathways, and “service experts,” is a no-brainer. Not only is the approach more cost effective, but it is safer because these solutions can integrate low-voltage remote powering technology, such as Power over Ethernet or PoE. Further, PoE technology consumes less power and features greater efficiency due to fewer AC-to-DC conversion losses, which makes it an attractive proposition for businesses and offices.

    The next generation of computing devices

    The digital building now has a new (old) component – the computer. Offices are built around the computer; it’s the most important item on your desk. Additionally, if most of the IP-enabled devices in the building are interconnected and powered by Ethernet cabling, installing unneeded electrical mains cabling outlets at floor level (or desk level) seems antiquated.

    PoE computing is the next step in the digital building. The advantages of being able to power thin client, desktop, and larger mobile devices has repeatedly been used as rationale to justify development of higher-power delivery applications such as emerging IEEE 802.3bt Type 3 60W and Type 4 90W PoE. However, until just recently, the benefits of 60W and higher power have been primarily discussed in the context of PoE lighting and digital signage. The PoE ecosystem is about to change drastically with the emergence of cost-effective PoE-enabled desktop computers.

    PoE computing, as the name suggests, is the powering of computers with a standard Ethernet cable and the traditional RJ45 connector – no 120 V/60 Hz electrical mains connection is required. This technology represents the next generation of Power over Ethernet convergence, and these critical devices are just starting to become incorporated into the digital building envelope. There have been many versions of PoE computers that have been introduced over the years, particularly after IEEE 802.3at Type 2 PoE was ratified, but these have been limited to devices with very small screens, with restricted processing power, and used only for specific applications such as signage displays.

    Moore’s Law of computing means that processors become more powerful while using less energy.

    Today’s PoE-enabled computers use 30W Type 2 PoE and 60W Type 3 PoE (e.g. Cisco UPOE) remote powering technology.

    Where do we go from here?

    The number of PoE-enabled switching solutions will continue to grow and equipment costs will continue to decrease. Ratification of the IEEE 802.3bt 60W Type 3 PoE and 90W Type 4 PoE remote power delivery standards is expected next year, and the ability to use 60W and higher PoE technology will continue to facilitate rapid changes to the computing industry. Among these and many other advancements, it is expected that the following will be true.

    Faster and more powerful computers will be developed to run on PoE; the cost savings are too good to ignore and the benefits are compelling.
    Higher power availability will enable multiscreen systems that can simultaneously power two or more screens and a computer using one PoE port.
    Based on the current component power usage, it is likely that devices with 42-inch, and possibly even 46-inch screens, will become commercially viable. Emerging and more-efficient screen technology could support even larger displays.
    PoE screens and computing solutions will play an important role in digital signage applications.

    Recommended cabling for PoE computer connections

    PoE computers are high-speed, high-performance devices, and optimum performance can only be realized if care and consideration are given to how these systems are connected to the IT network. The cabling infrastructure to which these devices are connected must be capable of supporting both 10GBase-T and up to 100W remote powering applications in the dense pathway and bundled configurations commonly found in enterprise deployments. While there are some instances in which the installed base of cabling can support 10GBase-T, TIA and ISO/IEC are very clear in their position that Category 6A (or higher) balanced twisted-pair cabling should be used for all new installations intended to support the 10GBase-T application. Additionally, connecting hardware must be properly designed and qualified (compliance to IEC 60512-99-001 is recommended by TIA and ISO/IEC standards) to prevent contact damage when unmating under PoE load to ensure reliable support of PoE computing devices.

    Reply
  43. Tomi Engdahl says:

    2 simple ways to comply with the 2017 NEC via the LP cabling designation: CCCA
    http://www.cablinginstall.com/articles/2017/09/ccca-lp-cablingbrief.html?cmpid=enl_cim_cim_data_center_newsletter_2017-10-02

    2 Simple Ways to Comply with the 2017 National Electrical Code

    Changes to the 2017 National Electrical Code and its Impact on the ICT Industry

    As recently as 2015, it’s likely that a network cable installer’s only concern was system performance – installing a compliant system that would meet the bandwidth and transmission requirements requested by the customer. Now, as the number of applications utilizing Power over Ethernet (PoE) technologies continues to grow, 4-pair cables are increasingly being used to transmit both data and power. This convergence of previously separate cabling systems is adding new dimensions to cabling performance and safety requirements, as is evidenced by the 2017 revisions to the National Electrical Code (NEC).

    Predictably, a 4-pair cable carrying up to 100W of power is prone to generating heat. Heat generation in a single cable is not generally a problem on its own, as most compliant category cables are rated to withstand above-ambient conditions. However, when these cables are bundled together, that heat rise can become a very significant safety issue. Depending on variables like wire gauge, the amount of current being carried, and the number of cables in a bundle, it’s very easy to see how certain bundles could be prone to overheating, exceeding the max temperature rating of the cable. In fact, a 2015 Underwriters Laboratories (UL) fact finding study confirmed the reality of this issue and developed a roadmap to ensure safety in use.

    This is where the NFPA got involved and the 2017 revisions to the NEC come into play. The 2017 revision of the NEC (Article 725) features an “Ampacity Table” for Class 2 & 3 data cabling in applications involving power over 4-pair cables

    http://www.cccassoc.org/files/4515/0609/8701/CCCA_2017NEC_ImpactOnICT_Final_091817.pdf

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  44. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Mushrooming PoE use cries out for true standardization
    https://www.edn.com/5G/4458917/Mushrooming-PoE-use-cries-out-for-true-standardization

    More and more devices, such as Wi-Fi access points, Internet Protocol (IP) phones, security cameras, and LED lighting, are leveraging Power over Ethernet (PoE) for low-voltage DC power. And PoE’s application space is poised to explode beyond the information technology (IT) domain with the proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT).

    Indeed, there is already considerable confusion about what exactly the term “PoE” means. It isn’t so much that the technological concept itself—enabling delivery of power via the same cables that provide Ethernet—is especially complex to grasp. “PoE” has organically emerged as the generic term for equipment that is designed to comply with the IEEE Ethernet Standard, 802.3-2015, Clause 33,“Data Terminal Equipment (DTE) Power via Media Dependent Interface (MDI),” even though the term does not show up in the standard document other than as a searchable keyword. Because nobody owns the term, and because a range of standardized, non-standardized, and somewhat-standardized implementations are available in the market, “PoE” means a lot of different things to a lot of different people.

    The Ethernet Alliance, as a global, non-profit industry consortium dedicated to the continued success and advancement of Ethernet technologies, is seeking to minimize that confusion. Their PoE Certification Program is intended to enable users to easily differentiate between standards-based and proprietary PoE solutions by validating interoperability among IEEE 802.3-based ones. By helping users easily identify interoperable products via a credible registry list of providers, the Ethernet Alliance program is intended to improve the PoE user experience.

    Confusion

    Take a look at the online comments forums, and you will quickly understand the confusion and guilt by association that non-standardized PoE products are introducing into the entire Ethernet ecosystem.

    There are manufacturers offering products designed to portions of IEEE 802.3 PoE, but which do not fully implement the standard. In these cases, the product might appear to interoperate sufficiently to function—but perhaps not fully, or at lesser performance quality than advertised.

    Then there are products available that deliver power over cabling used for Ethernet but not designed to IEEE 802.3. These products might be labeled as “PoE” and/or “compatible” with standards. As such, they might bypass detection or current limiting or other important protections in IEEE 802.3, they may use different voltages, or exhibit other basic differences.

    As a result, the PoE market is already confused, just as IoT proliferation is illuminating PoE’s phenomenal application potential.

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