Evolution of Mobile Communication from 1(G) to 4G, 5G, 6G, 7G …


The cellular wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology and frequency. Each generation have some standards, capacities, techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one.

Now 5G is hot technology at the top of the hype cycle. But that’s not the end of story, because when we will see that 5G does not fullfill all the promises, we start looking for to implement next version after it: 6G.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    ATIS issues ‘Call to Action’ for U.S. 6G leadership

    The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), a global technology and solutions development organization, advocates proactive collaboration across government, academia and industry.

    The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), a global technology and solutions development organization, on May 20 issued a “Call to Action” document sharing the group’s vision for collaboration across government, academia and industry to promote U.S. leadership on the path to 6G technologies.

    The document begins: “The journey to the next decade begins now. While the world is exploring opportunities that will light the path to 6G, the U.S. must take timely and critical action to ensure unquestioned leadership in 6G innovation and development. This is a ‘Call to Action’ from the leading companies in the information and communications technology (ICT) industry to join with government in a shared commitment that will put the U.S. at the forefront of technology leadership for the next decade.”

    In the document, ATIS explains that the timeline for 6G development has already begun, as today’s investments in 5G networks, devices and applications already point toward the future opportunities for 6G.

    Therefore, ATIS contends that the journey to the next decade must start now, with deliberate, collaborative steps and an aligned commitment between government and industry to ensure the U.S. maintains a competitive technology position in 5G networks today and 6G networks in the future.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The aspects of 6G that will matter to wireless design engineers

    6G will bring new, exciting use cases above and beyond 5G. In addition to the next-level evolution in automated driving and smart manufacturing, 6G will enable innovative applications by combining sensing, imaging, and precise timing with mobility and truly leveraging artificial intelligence (AI) and intelligent networks. Further integrating communications technologies into society, 6G technology will bring mixed reality experiences and telepresence to life, while playing a pivotal role in achieving global sustainability, improving society, and increasing productivity across industries.

    However, ubiquitous wireless intelligence requires engineering 6G technology to deliver much higher performance than 5G with capabilities measured in updates to existing key performance indicators (KPIs) as well as new KPIs driven by the uniqueness of the 6G vision. Early 6G targets represent a 10-100× increase over 5G for KPIs like peak data rates, latency, and density. 6G also increases the importance of KPIs related to jitter, link budget, and other technology aspects.

    The need for wider bandwidths will require the use of frequencies above 100 GHz to enable ultra-high data-rate short-range networks. Precise timing requirements will bring time-engineered networks and new applications, but require changing the way networks operate. Delivering on 6G targets will demand significant advances in computing architectures, chipset designs, and materials.

    6G design and test challenges for higher frequencies

    Sub-THz and THz frequencies involve extreme information bandwidths. Optimizing sub-THz systems performance operating over wide or extreme bandwidths requires consideration to the following key parameters:

    Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)
    Phase noise
    Linear and nonlinear impairments
    Waveform selection

    Optimizing SNR is an important consideration to achieve the best error vector magnitude (EVM) performance. However, while maximizing signal power can achieve the highest SNR, reducing the signal power is necessary to avoid compressing components along the signal chain because of the statistical peak-to-average signal characteristics of complex waveforms. The noise contributions for SNR can also be problematic for wideband applications because the noise power is integrated over wider signal bandwidths.


  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ubiquitous #wireless intelligence requires engineering 6G #technology to deliver much higher performance than #5G Keysight #simulation

    The aspects of 6G that will matter to wireless design engineers

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G will bring ‘digital twins’, Samsung says – and it’s two years ahead of schedule

    ‘It will be possible to replicate people, devices, objects, systems, and even places in a virtual world,’ a research paper states

    Samsung has revealed its plans for 6G technology, outlining its vision for “digital twins” of our physical selves.

    “With the help of advanced sensors, AI, and communication technologies, it will be possible to replicate physical entities, including people, devices, objects, systems, and even places, in a virtual world,” the white paper states.

    “In a 6G environment, through digital twins, users will be able to explore and monitor the reality in a virtual world, without temporal or spatial constraints. Users will be able to observe changes or detect problems remotely through the representation offered by digital twins.”

    Samsung states that people will not only be able to observe, but also interact with the digital twins. For example, a user could work in an environment on the other side of the world through their digital twin, “which could be a representation of a remotely controlled set of sensors and actuators.”

    In order to achieve this, 6G will need to have exceptionally fast data transfer rates and ultra low latency when controlling devices remotely. 6G performance will support a data rate of 1,000 Gbps, which is 50-times the peak data rate of 5G.

    But the main user of 6G technology, according to Samsung, will actually be machines. The firm cites estimations that there will be 500 billion connected devices in the world by 2030 – 59-times larger than the expected world population by that time.

    “As the number of connected machines grows exponentially, those machines will become dominant users of 6G communications,” the paper states.

    “Looking back at the history of wireless communications, technologies have been developed assuming services for humans as the major driving applications… We expect new 6G technologies have to be developed specifically to connect hundreds of billions of machines taking into account what is required for machines.”

    Other use cases for 6G include personal radar and indoor maps generated by smartphones, according to researchers at the University of Bologna and the French Alternative Energies and Atomic Energy Commission.

    The institutes announced in May that they are working on several 6G-related projects with the help of funding from the ATTRACT consortium led by CERN.

    “Outdoors you have Google Maps. The challenge is to achieve what we are currently doing today with the outdoor scenario,” Davide Dadari, an associate professor of electrical engineering at Bologna, told The Independent.

    New generations of wireless telecommunications technology are generally released every 10 years, with the arrival of 5G’s successor pegged for 2030. But Samsung claims the earliest commercialisation of 6G could occur as early as 2028.

    “While 5G commercialisation is still in its initial stage, it’s never too early to start preparing for 6G,” said Sunghyun Choi, who heads Samsung’s 6G research centre.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Rise and Fall of Nokia: A cautionary tale for innovation programmes

    How did a company with a thriving innovation culture that invented one of the most important items of the past 50 years deflate into a shadow of if its former self?
    The BBC Four documentary, The Rise and Fall of Nokia, tells this story from the inside. Founded in 1865 as a pulp mill, Nokia moved into mobile phones in the 1970s and became the market leader. By 2013 Nokia had sold the mobile phone business. So what happened?

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Researchers around the globe are not waiting around for 5G to take root before working on the next generation in wireless tech.

    With 5G Rollout Lagging, Research Looks Ahead to 6G

    Amid a 5G rollout that has faced its fair share of challenges, it might seem somewhat premature to start looking ahead at 6G, the next generation of mobile communications. But 6G development is happening now, and it’s being pursued in earnest by both industry and academia.

    Much of the future landscape for 6G was mapped out in an article published in March of this year in an article published by IEEE Communications titled “Toward 6G Networks: Use Cases and Technologies.” The article presents the requirements, the enabling technologies and the use cases for adopting a systematic approach to overcoming the research challenges for 6G.

    “6G research activities are envisioning radically new communication technologies, network architectures, and deployment models,”


  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Even without realizing 5G completely, researchers are making push towards 6G….
    Scientists from Nanyang Technological University in Singapore and Osaka University in Japan have recently announced new work that may overcome these aforementioned issues. The researchers utilized a technology called photonic topological insulators (PTIs) in order to lessen the effects of attenuation in terahertz waveguides. PTIs are said to be “’insulating’ in bulk but ‘conducting’ at the edges” which shows “robust edge transport with strongly suppressed backscattering caused by disorder and sharp bends.”
    learn more: https://shrinkme.io/GYs4UTON

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Newer 5G/6G mobile devices and base stations, as well as WiFi 6, will need to use beamforming to provide high power transfer. Learn more about different types of beamforming here:


  9. Tomi Engdahl says:


    The mobile phone has a longer history than many might think. 30 years ago, on 10 November 1981, NMT – Nordic Mobile Telephone – the world’s first fully automatic mobile phone system, was launched in Oslo. This was the set-off for a remarkable mobile phone adventure.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    NMT – first generation of mobile telephony

    The first generation of mobile telephony
    Mobile phones mounted in cars have been around for a long time, ever since 1956. These had fully automatic calls and thus did not require any physical operator to direct the call properly. But there was a geographical restriction on these phones because they were tied to a so-called base station, a specific mast to which that particular phone belonged. If the mobile phone was too far from the station, it you could not make a call.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What’s After 5G
    The path to 6G will require some radical changes to both infrastructure and use models.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G Symposium launches

    The 6G Symposium is organized by InterDigital and the WIOT Institute at Northeastern University and will feature a diverse group of individuals and organizations presenting on and discussing the potential of, and policies driving, 6G technology.

    InterDigital, Inc. (NASDAQ: IDCC), a mobile and video technology research and development company, and the Institute for the Wireless Internet of Things (WIOT) at Northeastern University, have announced a partnership to launch first annual 6G Symposium, designed to engage leaders and decision makers dedicated to exploring 6G research.

    The two-day virtual conference will be held from October 20 – 21, 2020 and will feature keynote speeches, a panel series, and VIP conversations around the promise and path to 6G wireless technology. Agenda and registration details can be found at the 6G Symposium website.   

    The 6G Symposium is organized by InterDigital and the WIOT Institute at Northeastern University and will feature a diverse group of individuals and organizations presenting on and discussing the potential of, and policies driving, 6G technology. The virtual conference

    “After observing the evolution of 5G technology as a national infrastructure priority, we decided that now was the right time to develop a new 6G platform, which will be the focal point for national and global information exchange among technologists, policy makers and futurists,” added Tommaso Melodia, Director of the WIOT Institute at Northeastern University.

    The 6G Symposium Organizing Committee, led by InterDigital and Northeastern University, will announce the event’s agenda, updates, and registration details at the 6G Symposium website at https://www.6GSymposium.com/

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Huawei Connect: Seuraavaksi tulee 5,5G

    Huawei aloitti tänään nelipäiväisen Huawei Connct -teknologiatapahtuman. Nykytyyliin verkossa järjestettävässä tapahtumassa Huawein langattomien verkkoratkaisujen johtaja Yang Chaobin kertoi, että 5G:n kehityksessä ollaan vasta alkuvaiheessa.

    Chaobin muistutti, että 5G on yleistynyt valtavalla nopeudella. Käyttäjiä on jo 1,3 miljardia, kun on vasta kulunut vuosi ensimmäisten verkkojen käyttöönoton jälkeen.

    Samalla mobiiliyhteydet ovat parantuneet merkittävästi. 4G-tukiasemaan verrattuna 5g-tukiaseman kapasiteetti on kasvanut 30-kertaiseksi ja käyttäjän käytössä oleva datanopeus 10-kertaiseksi, Chaobin muistutti.

    Silti 5G on vasta alkuvaiheessaan. – Kolmen tai viiden vuoden päästä kyse on aivan eri tekniikasta, josta voidaan puhua esimerkiksi 5.5G:nä, Chaobin sanoi.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    University of California, Santa Barbara researchers have developed a new kind of transistor based on an exotic form of gallium nitride that could be critical to efficiently pushing 6G’s terahertz-frequency signals out of the antennas of future smartphones and other connected devices.

    Breakthrough Could Lead to Amplifiers for 6G Signals

    With 5G just rolling out and destined to take years to mature, it might seem odd to worry about 6G. But some engineers say that this is the perfect time to worry about it. One group, based at the University of California, Santa Barbara, has been developing a device that could be critical to efficiently pushing 6G’s terahertz-frequency signals out of the antennas of future smartphones and other connected devices. They reported key aspects of the device—including an “n-polar” gallium nitride high-electron mobility transistor—in two papers that recently appeared in IEEE Electron Device Letters.

    Testing so far has focused on 94 gigahertz frequencies, which are at the edge of terahertz. “We have just broken through records of millimeter-wave operation by factors which are just stunning,”

    The key power amplifier technology is called a high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT). It is formed around a junction between two materials having different bandgaps: in this case, gallium nitride and aluminum gallium nitride.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G – Explained!

    We’re just starting to see 5G rollout in 2020, but 6G is already in the works – here’s what you need to know!

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G Evolution Supports a New Wave of Wireless Services

    The Third Wave of Wireless Communications

    5G and future systems will close the gap between the physical and cyber worlds. Today, mobile consumers use wireless connectivity to access the web from almost any location. In the future, high-speed coverage will be more widespread and faster, with greater emphasis on uplinking information from real-world events, either human and/or IoT, to the internet.

    Once this information is in the cloud, AI could reproduce the real world in cyberspace and emulate it beyond physical, economical, and time constraints, so that “future prediction” and “new knowledge” can be discovered and shared. The role of wireless communications in this cyber-physical fusion is assumed to include high-capacity and low-latency transmission of real-world images and sensing information, and feedback to the real world through high-reliability and low-latency control signaling.

    Radio communications in this cyber-physical fusion scenario correspond to the role of the nervous system transmitting information between the brain and the body. Communications convert real-world events to the cyber world through enhanced uplink capabilities and provide feedback information to humans and devices through low-latency downlink functionality.

    The next wave of communications focuses on three areas of service (Fig. 2) including:

    Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB), which extends the current mobile experience with high data throughput on the order of more than 10 Gb/s, high system capacity on the order of more than 1000X that of LTE, and a much better spectral efficiency (3-4X) than LTE. Its use cases are high-speed mobile broadband, virtual reality, augmented reality, gaming, and more.
    Ultra-reliable, low-latency communications (URLLC), which focuses on achieving low latency, high reliability, and high availability. The expectation is for latencies of less than 1 ms. This is basically for mission-critical use cases and applications.
    Massive machine-type communications (mMTC), which provides connectivity to a huge number of devices whose traffic profile is typically a small amount of data (spread) sporadically. Consequently, latency and throughput aren’t a big concern. The main concern is the optimal power utilization of those devices because they’re battery-powered and the expectation of battery life is around 10 years or so.
    Current activity in mmWave front-end design, including antenna-in-package (AiP) phased arrays (Fig. 3), large-scale beamforming RF integrated circuits (RFICs), multi-technology integration, and system-level electromagnetic (EM) analysis will all contribute to realizing New Radio (NR) access technology that can be cost effective and easy to install. This will support the small-cell networks that achieve 5G/6G performance.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Simple terahertz receiver makes 6G mobile networks affordable

    Future mobile phone networks of the sixth generation (6G) will consist of many small radio cells. To connect them wirelessly, frequencies in the terahertz range (THz) are an obvious choice. Researchers at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have developed a novel concept for simple and cost-effective terahertz receivers consisting of a single diode and combining it with a special signal processing method. In the experiment, a data transmission rate of 115 Gbit/s on a carrier frequency of 0.3THz can thus be achieved over a distance of 110 meters.

    While the roll-out of 5G networks is in full swing, scientists are already thinking about the next generation of mobile communications. This, the sixth generation, once again promises significantly higher data transmission rates, shorter delay times and a greater density of terminals. It will also integrate artificial intelligence, for example to coordinate devices in the Internet of Things or autonomous vehicles.

    Terahertz receiver for 6G wireless communications

    Highest Data Rate Demonstrated So Far for Wireless THz Communications over More Than 100 Meters

    “At its core, the receiver consists a single diode, which rectifies the terahertz signal,” says Dr. Tobias Harter, who carried out the demonstration together with his colleague Christoph Füllner in the framework of his doctoral thesis. The diode is a so-called Schottky barrier diode, that offers large bandwidth and that is used as an envelope detector to recover the amplitude of the terahertz signal. Correct decoding of the data, however, additionally requires the time-dependent phase of the terahertz wave that is usually lost during rectification. To overcome this problem, researchers use digital signal processing techniques in combination with a special class of data signals, for which the phase can be reconstructed from the amplitude via the so-called Kramers-Kronig relations. The Kramers-Kronig relation describe a mathematical relationship between the real part and the imaginary part of an analytic signal. Using their receiver concept, the scientists achieved a transmission rate of 115 Gbit/s at a carrier frequency of 0.3 THz over a distance of 110 m. “This is the highest data rate so far demonstrated for wireless terahertz transmission over more than 100 m,” Füllner says. The terahertz receiver developed by KIT stands out due to its technical simplicity and lends itself to cost-efficient mass production.

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Design and verify 5G systems, part 1

    Starting in the 1980s, the mobile industry has been upgrading the wireless technology at the rate of one new standard every decade. The first-generation (1G) cell phones launched in the ’80s, although they were not referred to as 1G at the time, were based on an analog technology that supported only voice communication with poor quality.

    The second generation (2G) mobile phones introduced in the ‘90s upgraded analog voice transmission to digital voice communication, added support for short message service/multimedia messaging service (SMS/SMM), and dramatically expanded network capacity. At the turn of the century, 3G mobile phones introduced internet access for web browsing, email communication, video downloading, and picture sharing. In the 2010s, 4G smartphones permitted wireless internet access at high speeds to execute desktop applications.

    All four wireless standards have addressed only one market with one goal: the creation of super-smart phones to provide an increasingly enriching user experience from simple mobile voice calls to all-encompassing internet enjoyment.

    Why 5G?

    In recent years, a confluence of factors commanded a new wireless standard to replace the aging 4G specifications. They include dramatic growth of mobile users demanding more and faster delivery of data, proliferation of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices, increasing deployment of drones, popularity of mobile augmented reality, and tough requirements imposed by autonomous driving cars.

    In response to the pressure of these demands, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) crafted the IMT2020 standard, commonly referred to as 5G, to address three mobile markets each with unique requirementsIn response to the pressure of these demands, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) crafted the IMT2020 standard, commonly referred to as 5G, to address three mobile markets each with unique requirements

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Overcoming a flaw of terahertz radiation

    A chip that uses terahertz radiation to transfer data so fast that it can stream 4K high-definition videos in real time has been demonstrated.

    This year has seen 5G wireless communication systems being implemented in many places, allowing mobile device users to stream data faster than ever before. But researchers are already looking for technologies to realize 6G systems, which will transmit terabits of data per second.

    Extending the range of wavelengths used into the terahertz region is an attractive way to realize these data rates, but terahertz radiation is sensitive to small defects in the waveguides used to guide them.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    ATIS launches ‘Next G Alliance’ targeting 6G prospects in North America

    The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS) on Oct. 13 announced the launch of the Next G Alliance, an industry initiative that aims to advance North American mobile technology leadership in 6G and beyond over the next decade.

    ATIS says the Next G Alliance will encompass the full lifecycle of technology research and development, manufacturing, standardization and market readiness.

    According to a press statement, Next G Alliance Founding Members include: AT&T, Bell Canada, Ciena, Ericsson, Facebook, InterDigital, JMA Wireless, Microsoft, Nokia, Qualcomm Technologies Inc., Samsung, TELUS, Telnyx, T-Mobile, UScellular and Verizon. Announcement of additional Founding Members will be forthcoming, says ATIS.

    ATIS issues ‘Call to Action’ for U.S. 6G leadership

    The Alliance for Telecommunications Industry Solutions (ATIS), a global technology and solutions development organization, advocates proactive collaboration across government, academia and industry.
    New industry initiative focuses on establishing leadership in 6G technology from research to market readiness.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Wi-Fi 6/6E enabled 10G fiber gateways and routers

    Celeno and Cortina to offer a joint platform for designing high-performance 10G GPON gateways and routers.

    Wi-Fi technology expert Celeno Communications and Cortina Access, Inc., a provider of fiber access and carrier-grade gateway platforms, have announced a joint partnership to design high-performance 10G GPON gateways and routers. The joint solution will leverage Celeno’s latest Wi-Fi 6 and Wi-Fi 6E (6 GHz band) single chip architecture and Cortina’s CA8289 SoC to deliver a complete, pre-integrated reference platform for high-end Wi-Fi 10 Gbps gateways and routers.

    The Celeno CL8000 family offers highly integrated Wi-Fi 6/6E (802.11ax R2) PCIe chip solutions to enable 10Gbps speeds in next generation gateways and routers. The CL8000 chips are based on advanced 14nm foundry geometry for a low power architecture. The company says its CL8000 delivers the best Wi-Fi performance for its size by combining two complete Wi-Fi 6 access point radios into a single 11×11 BGA package and utilizing only one PCIe gen 3.0 interface. The CL8080 can deliver up to 6 Gbps of speed and 8 radio chains of 4×4 2.4GHz and 4×4 5GHz over a dual lane PCIe interface.

    The company notes that a complete tri-band solution, supporting 4×4 MIMO on each band (2.4, 5, 6 GHz) plus a dedicated 4th listening radio, can also be implemented with only CL8080 and CL8066 chips while employing only two PCIe interfaces. The dedicated 4th listening radio enables spectrum analysis, Zero-Wait-DFS, Zero-Wait-CAC, beacon analysis and packet sniffing capabilities for fast and efficient spectrum scanning and channel characterization. Service providers can improve their management capabilities and respond better to their customer needs with this unique quad band solution, adds Celeno.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    China leapfrogs world with first 6G experimental satellite

    The technology is expected to be over 100 times faster than 5G, enabling lossless transmission in space

    The space race is on!

    And China has leap-frogged the world in satellite communication.

    Not only did China send 13 more satellites into orbit today, it also successfully completed a world’s first, sending up a sixth-generation communications test satellite, Yicai Global reported.

    Named after the University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, the satellite was jointly developed by Chengdu Guoxing Aerospace Technology, UESTC, and Beijing MinoSpace Technology.

    It will be used to verify the performance of 6G technology in space as the 6G frequency band will expand from the 5G millimeter wave frequency to the terahertz frequency, Yicai reported.

    The technology is expected to be over 100 times faster than 5G, enabling lossless transmission in space to achieve long-distance communications with a smaller power output, Yicai reported.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    China sends ‘world’s first 6G’ test satellite into orbit

    China has successfully launched what has been described as “the world’s first 6G satellite” into space to test the technology.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G Antennas – Stay Out of the Way

    The 5G era is well underway, though the rollout is still relatively new, and with only a few handsets capable of all the available spectrum, there are still questions that consume column space.

    The upper portion of the spectrum offers opportunities to investigate since the mmWave band at 28 GHz currently available is new to the consumer market. Higher frequencies are coming later. Extra high frequency, or EHF, is the moniker for 30 to 300 GHz which may provide a clue as to why there are people who want to understand potential health impacts before they embrace this new technology.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Lightning Fast: China’s 6G Network Could Be 100 Times Faster Than Current American TechnologyPublished 11 hours ago on November 12, 2020By Younis Dar

    While more than half of the world is yet to get fourth-generation networks, China is breezing past the competition and has already started testing 6G technology.

    The country on November 6 successfully launched the world’s first 6G communication test satellite from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center in Shanxi to verify the performance of the sixth generation networks in space. The 6G frequency band will expand from the 5G millimeter wave frequency to the terahertz frequency.

    The Asia Times quoted an academician at the Chinese Academy of Engineering, Xu Yangsheng, saying the satellite is the first technical test of terahertz communication’s application in space.

    The technology is expected to be over 100 times faster than 5G, enabling lossless transmission in space to achieve long-distance communications with smaller power output, according to China’s Yicai news service.

    According to the Chinese telecom experts, the launch of the 6G test satellite marks a breakthrough in the exploration of terahertz space communication technologies in China’s space field.

    While the global mobile operators are engaged in deploying 5G networks, China has leapfrogged into the future with the testing of 6G communication. Globally, only 38 countries are so far using even the 5G networks.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    China Has Launched the World’s First 6G Satellite. We Don’t Even Know What 6G Is Yet.
    This could be huge. It also could be nothing.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    China pushes for 6G as the US still struggles with 5G networking

    China has been at the forefront of 5G networking, with the country already adopting the newer and faster bandwidth into its infrastructure. Now, the Asian nation is moving forward with 6G networking, while other developed nations like the US are still struggling to roll out 5G networking.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What Is 6G?
    You may not even have 5G, and yet people are already talking about 6G. But what is 6G network technology? At this point, it’s more about what isn’t 6G. Here’s what we know so far.

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Forget 5G, record-breaking laser signal from satellite could be key to faster smartphones, technology

    With all the controversy surrounding the new, faster 5G networks launched around the globe, could there be another way to get a faster wireless internet connection? According to Australian scientists, there just may be. A new study shows that smartphones could speed up thanks to a record breaking laser signal sent from satellites — without any disturbance from the atmosphere.

    The researchers from Western Australia University say their work opens the door to using optical systems via satellites, making communication faster, safer and cheaper. The breakthrough offers hope of streaming videos, such as Netflix or Hulu, in even the most remote regions on the planet.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6g tekee verkosta yleisalustan data nousee avainasemaan
    Tulevien 6g-verkkojen odotetaan olevan merkittävästi
    yleiskäyttöisempiä kuin nykyisten mobiiliverkkojen, arvioi
    työelämäprofessori Seppo Yrjölä Oulun yliopiston 6g Flagship
    - -ohjelmasta. 5g:n ja 6g:n myötä myös vanha teleoperaattoreihin
    perustuva järjestelmä hajautuu. Mitä enemmän verkot liikuttavat
    vaikkapa liiketoimintakriittistä dataa, sitä suurempia ovat
    toimivuuden ja yksityisyyden vaateet. Verkoista tulee myös
    yhteiskunnalle entistä kriittisempää infrastruktuuria, joten valtion
    intressin voi olettaa kasvavan, paitsi regulaation, myös julkisten ja
    yksityisten toimijoiden yhteistyössä tehtävien verkkoinvestointien

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G: Fantastic, Yes. Fantasy? Not So Much.

    As a viable technology, 6G is quite a way off. But some of the doubts about its feasibility may be overblown. Here’s a look at what 6G is, what it might bring to the table, and what it’ll take to get there.

    What you’ll learn:

    A glimpse of the potential that 6G offers—such as data rates up to 1 Tb/s.
    Millimeter- and terahertz-band may not be the black hole for RF that some foresee.
    Some significant technical hurdles bar the way to 6G’s fruition, but solutions are in the works.

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EuMC Microwave Prize to 6G researchers from the University of Oulu

    The European Microwave Conference is Europe’s premier conference on microwave, millimetre-wave and terahertz devices, systems and technologies. The conference recently celebrated its fiftieth edition.

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nokia to lead the EU’s 6G project Hexa-X

    Nokia to lead the EU’s 6G project Hexa-X

    Nokia is the project leader for Hexa-X, the European Commission’s 6G flagship initiative for research into the next generation of wireless networks
    The Hexa-X vision is to connect human, physical and digital worlds with a fabric of 6G technology enablers
    Hexa-X is the first official research initiative across the industry ecosystem to accelerate and foster 6G research and drive European leadership in the 6G era

  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G: Fantastic, Yes. Fantasy? Not So Much.
    As a viable technology, 6G is quite a way off. But some of the doubts about its feasibility may be overblown. Here’s a look at what 6G is, what it might bring to the table, and what it’ll take to get there.

  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G NR Design eMBB
    Design challenges for eMBB products and how to overcome them.

    Next-generation 5G/6G communication systems will provide massive connectivity to the internet with extreme capacity, coverage, reliability, and ultra-low latency, enabling a wide range of new services made possible through innovative technologies. Enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) extends the current mobile experience with high data throughput on the order of more than 10Gbps, high system capacity on the order of more than 1000X that of LTE, and a much better spectral efficiency (3–4X) than LTE.

  36. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Reconfigurable Intelligent Surfaces for On-Demand 6G Radios

    A three-year pan-European 6G research project aims to develop and test technology that will allow on-demand, dynamically programmable radio wave propagation through everyday surfaces like walls, ceilings, mirrors and appliances.

    Led by CEA-Leti along with 12 industrial and academic partners, the project, called RISE-6G, will design, prototype and test smart and energy-sustainable technological advances based on reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) that will enable programmable control and shaping of the wireless propagation environment.

    These surfaces may be diode-based antennas or metamaterials for coating objects in the environment, such as walls, ceilings, mirrors and appliances, and they will operate as reconfigurable reflectors or transceivers for massive access when equipped with active radio-frequency (RF) elements.

    The project co-ordinator, Emilio Calvanese Strinati, who is also 6G future wireless research director at CEA-Leti, said, “Our mission is to enable this disruptive new concept as a service for the wireless environment by dynamically controlling wireless communication for local, brief and energy-efficient, high-capacity communications. The system also will ensure energy efficiency, localization accuracy and privacy guarantees against eavesdroppers, while accommodating specific regulations on spectrum use and restrained electromagnetic field (EMF) emissions.”

  37. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Mark Gurman / Bloomberg:
    Job listings show Apple is looking to hire engineers to start work on 6G, which industry watchers don’t expect will be rolled out broadly until about 2030

    Apple Hiring Engineers to Develop 6G Wireless

    Apple Inc. launched its first iPhones with 5G wireless speeds a few months ago. Now it’s looking to start work on sixth-generation cellular connectivity, or 6G, indicating it wants to be a leader in the technology rather than relying on other companies.

    The Cupertino, California-based company this week posted job ads seeking wireless system research engineers for current and next-generation networks. The listings are for positions at Apple’s offices in Silicon Valley and San Diego, where the company works on wireless technology development and chip design.

    “You will have the unique and rewarding opportunity to craft next generation wireless technology that will have deep impact on future Apple products,“ according to the job announcement. “In this role you will be at the center of a cutting-edge research group responsible for creating next generation disruptive radio access technologies over the next decade.”

    People hired for the positions will “research and design next generation (6G) wireless communication systems for radio access networks” and “participate in industry/academic forums passionate about 6G technology.” Industry watchers don’t expect 6G to roll out until about 2030, but the job listings indicate Apple wants to be involved at the earliest stages in the development of the new technology. A company spokeswoman declined to comment.


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