Evolution of Mobile Communication from 1(G) to 4G, 5G, 6G, 7G …


The cellular wireless Generation (G) generally refers to a change in the nature of the system, speed, technology and frequency. Each generation have some standards, capacities, techniques and new features which differentiate it from the previous one.

Now 5G is hot technology at the top of the hype cycle. But that’s not the end of story, because when we will see that 5G does not fullfill all the promises, we start looking for to implement next version after it: 6G.


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Quantum tunneling in graphene advances the age of terahertz wireless communications

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G – Explained!

    We’re just starting to see 5G rollout in 2020, but 6G is already in the works – here’s what you need to know!

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G, which is in the works, is expected to succeed today’s 5G networks around 2030. Even at this early stage, some myths are emerging about 6G. IDTechEx listed them here.

    6G Communication Myths, Explored by IDTechEx

    6G Communications will become one of the largest technology investments. It is currently in the healthy first stage of promising everything to widely deploy some in 2030. Meanwhile, 5G to “Beyond 5G” awaits.

    We upgrade telephony to be more useful every ten years. The new IDTechEx report, “6G Communications Market, Devices, Materials 2021-2041″, predicts 6G communications may be more thing-to-thing than human communication. Once again, frequency increases a magnitude. We may mimic 5G in starting at the easy bottom, then go up another magnitude to grab extra benefits. 5G went from GHz level to tens of GHz. 6G may start at a few hundred GHz, then employ 1THz.

    Only 6G can widely serve the exponential growth beyond 500 billion connected machines in 2030, real-time holographic communication, the future of virtual reality and empowerment of the poor in realistic timeframes. Expect cell-less communications and Wireless Information and Energy Transfer. WIET is 26 billion passive-RFID tags yearly (IDTechEx analysis). Some sense at the instant of being interrogated. 6G WIET promises that on steroids, even charging your smartphone.

    6G will serve airliners at 10 km using Free Space Optical FSO links and deep underwater with fiber-optic links. Internet of Things nodes real-time monitoring billions of trees and ocean oil spills in 3D, billions in concrete structures? Hold on. This sits awkwardly with the consensus that local 6G has to be at terahertz frequencies to get magnitude-or-more improvements in data-rate, capacity, and latency. Terahertz is the Wild West of physics and electronics: little understood, even less demonstrated. They call it the Terahertz Gap. However, this we know. Beam spreading and attenuation, combined with feeble transmission technologies, currently limits these sad pencil beams to a few meters on earth. They are stopped dead by almost anything. We may need electronic wallpaper to get them round the house and many electronic billboards boosting and redirecting them outside.

    Even at this early stage, some myths are emerging. They are:

    6G will be everywhere. No. It flies in the face of the megatrend of eliminating infrastructure. THz local investment will never be justified to put 6G local infrastructure “everywhere.”
    Widest-area 6G backhaul/ fronthaul is a done deal with thousands of Low Earth Orbit satellites recently flung up there and maybe 60,000 in prospect due to competition? No. They have a growing number of legal, safety, light-pollution, repair, latency and other issues. Solar fixed-wing and airship drones intended to be aloft at only 20km for a similar time of 5-7 years have huge advantages of holding position, far-lower latency and cost, easy repair and heavier payloads. Add them. Smaller numbers suffice.
    6G should benefit IoT in locations with long-distance optical links. Serving unpowered devices such as 30-year, multi-sensor IoT nodes with fit-and-forget supercapacitors will be excellent. For more, existing energy harvesting is too weak and intermittent to power 99% of envisioned IoT nodes but add 6G WIET. Nonetheless, affordable 6G IoT everywhere in tens of billions yearly? Unlikely.
    6G is essential for autonomous vehicles. No, not even desirable. The Tesla approach is to make a car you can put anywhere and it will navigate safely without being connected to any wireless system. Even the interim stage of LIDAR using ongoing mapping does not need connectivity. Relying on a new form of connectivity that requires exceptionally complex hardware everywhere would be downright dangerous. That is why the telecom operators went quiet about the 6G robot vehicle idea. Vehicles need connectivity and 6G may provide a better form but that is another matter.
    License 6G bands near 10THz for even greater 6G performance? Sadly, in air, there is a nasty jump in attenuation beyond 1THz and active components get really challenging. This is not desirable or achievable.
    Nevertheless, those arguing B5G means no need for 6G are wrong. Basic physics. IDTechEx report, “5G Technology, Market and Forecasts 2020-2030″ explains and the IDTechEx 6G report tracks even more-demanding requirements arriving, making this more of a myth. We need 6G.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A Secure 5G Ecosystem

    5G is opening a world of opportunities for digital business. But it is just the opening salvo. 6G is around the corner, and many of the ways this new functionality will impact organizations haven’t even been invented yet. But none of this will be possible if security is not an integral part of the solution. Organizations need to start transitioning now to a universal security platform that can scale as networks evolve and extend to the furthest reaches of the network. By blending security and networking functionality into a unified, expansive, and adaptable platform, businesses can prepare now to support the next generations of high-performance, hyperconnected networks and devices their users will demand and on which their future depends.


  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    5G has emerged. What’s next? NYU’s Tom Marzetta thinks 6G will be deeply transformative, including replacing Zoom meetings with AR hangs.

    Here’s What 6G Will Be, According to the Creator of Massive MIMO

    Massive MIMO is becoming an integral part of 5G, as is an independent development that came out of NYU Wireless by the center’s founding director Ted Rappaport: Millimeter waves. And now the professors and students at NYU Wireless are already looking ahead to 6G and beyond.

    Marzetta spoke with IEEE Spectrum about the work happening at NYU Wireless, as well as what we all might expect from 6G when it arrives in the next decade.

    I wanted to try to do research to do something ten times better than massive MIMO. So far, massive MIMO is the most spectrally efficient wireless scheme yet devised.

    How many competent engineers are there out in industry? I mean, Nokia, for instance, must have on the order of 30,000 very good engineers, and so does its competitors. So it would be a waste if we just added, we’ll say, a one percent increment to the very competent development that’s already going on in industry. Now that said, with 5G, there are lingering problems that need the attention of NYU Wireless.

    What sorts of lingering problems?

    One problem is the blockage problem with millimeter waves. Foliage, glass, the human body can all essentially completely attenuate a millimeter wave signal. If my hand or my body can block the signal, and I’m moving around, sometimes I’m going to block the signal. People aren’t going to want to use millimeter wave if that happens. One remedy is a larger number of base stations. And now that itself is a problem because there’s a handover problem. If you lose connection with one base station, it takes a while to connect with another one. That’s an unacceptable delay.

    So your next thought is, let’s connect to two or more base stations at once. In one sense, that’s a waste of resources. But on the other hand, we’re operating at 10 times the cellular frequencies, so there’s 10 times as much spectrum available. You can afford to be a little bit profligate with spectrum then.

    Well, we’re doing both experimental and theoretical 6G research. Let’s talk about the experimental first. Ted Rappaport and Sundeep Rangan are looking at the terahertz band now. Ted, of course, became world-famous for his advocacy of millimeter waves, which go roughly from 28 gigahertz to 98 gigahertz.

    They’re doing experiments up to, I believe, 280 gigahertz and getting positive results so far.

    Ted and Sundeep have in mind other potential applications beyond cellular communication. The wavelength is one-tenth what millimeter wave is, so, in principle, you can locate a cell phone with 10 times greater precision. You can also start to do very interesting things such as terahertz imaging, for example. These frequencies just bounce off of skin. For instance, you can actually detect heartbeats, so there are medical sensing applications as well.

    And what about the theoretical side of 6G?

    I want to invent something that’s 10 times better than massive MIMO. And my focus, where I think this is going to be applied is not at millimeter wave or terahertz bands, but in the sub-6 GHz bands. In my opinion, these bands will always be, hertz per hertz, the most valuable spectrum. That is where some of these advanced concepts—if they can be made to work—would pay off, economically. It’s worth noting the results of FCC spectrum auctions over the last year. They had a very large spectrum auction for millimeter wave spectrum. I don’t have the numbers at the moment, but millimeter wave spectrum sold at about US $2 or $3 per hertz. In January, the FCC sold some a block of spectrum in the 3.7 to 3.8 gigahertz band—prime stuff—and that sold for about $290 per hertz.

    Insomuch as anyone talks about what 6G “will be,” it oftentimes treated as synonymous with terahertz waves. But even just given your own work, it’s clear 6G is more than just making terahertz waves work. So what will 6G be?

    What we’re really after is, what is the next level of human-to-human communication going to be? In one sense, 5G didn’t deliver any new level of human-to-human communication, because 4G, and then the early parts of 5G, enabled ubiquitous streaming video. When I started to work at NYU, I started to commute from New Jersey into Brooklyn, every day. And everybody on the subway was streaming video. It’s now commonplace, and I happen to know that 15 or 20 years ago, this was absolutely rejected even at Bell Labs.

    But what have we had since then? In other words, 5G comes along, it says, “we’ll give you this sort of service faster and more reliably. And we’ll do things like Internet of Things, and this, that and the other.” But much of this has not, and will not, directly affect the average consumer.

    What will the next level of human-to-human communication look like?

    I, and many people, think the next level of human-to-human communication is going to be ubiquitous augmented reality. How could most of us have done our jobs over the last year without high-quality telecommunications and so on? But people are sick of the zoom experience. The next level is obviously augmented reality, and making it good enough so that the other person is effectively in the same room as you. That would be a transformative thing. From a wireless communications perspective, this imposes simply staggering requirements. People talk about sustained AR requiring throughputs per user of 2 gigabits per second, how are you going to do that? Suppose you have 50,000 people in Time Square all wanting AR at the same time? How are you going to give 2 Gbps each to 50,000 people crammed into a quarter square mile? We don’t know how to do that yet.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TeraHertz is hoped to revolutionze many fields but it could possibly be only evolutionize.
    If you look back development history from 3G to 5G, what was promised in hype and how they under-delivered compared to promises but still evolved wireless landscape a lot. For 99% of users every new generation was just faster Internet pipe (and voice calls) that was still slower and inferior compated to proper fixed home internet connection, but what you can take on the road with you.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Oulu mukaan japanilaisten 6G-kehitykseen

    Oulun yliopiston koordinoima 6G Flagship -tutkimusohjelma ja Japanin sisä- ja viestintäministeriön Beyond 5G -konsortio ovat sopineet 6G-teknologiayhteistyöstä. Asiasta kerrottiin tänään Tokiossa järjestetyssä Global Digital Summit -tapahtumassa.

    Tutkimus- ja kehitysyhteistyön lisäksi tavoitteena on vaikuttaa myös keskeisesti 6G-teknologiaa koskevaan globaaliin standardointi- ja regulaatiokehitykseen.

    Oulun yliopiston akatemiaprofessori ja 6G Flagshipin johtaja Matti Latva-aho on tyytyväinen yhteistyön aloittamisesta. Sopimuksen merkittävyyttä korostaa Japanin aikaisemmin keväällä tekemä päätös investoida kaksi miljardia dollaria uusien 6G-teknologioiden kehittämiseen.

    Japanin Beyond 5G Promotion Consortiumin keskeisiä jäsenorganisaatioita ovat Tokion yliopiston ja Japanin kansallisen ICT-instituutin lisäksi useat japanilaiset tietoliikenneyhtiöt kuten SoftBank.

    ’’Japani on maailmanlaajuisesti merkittävä toimija langattomien mobiiliteknologioiden kehittämisessä ja on koko Suomen etu päästä laajentamaan yhteistyötä teemoihin, joissa on saavutettavissa molemminpuolista kilpailuetua 6G-kehitykseen’’, 6G Flagshipin johtaja Matti Latva-aho arvioi.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G/5G/Massive MIMO Channel

    This channel features 6G and 5G technologies such as massive MIMO, SDR, high orders of carrier aggregation, mmWaves, network slicing, network virtualization, etc.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Suomi ja Singapore 6g-yhteistyöhön “Voimme saavuttaa molemminpuolista etua”
    Oulun yliopiston koordinoima 6g-teknologian tutkimus- ja kehitysohjelma 6g Flagship ja Singapore ovat sopineet tekevänsä yhteistyötä 6g:n kehityksessä. Kumppanuus julkaistiin tiistaina 13.
    heinäkuuta Asia Tech x Singapore -teknologiatapahtumassa Singaporessa.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    From 1G to 5G: A Brief Evolution of Telephony and Wireless Networks

    It All Started in 1973…

    5G is made possible because of the world’s first, successful mobile phone call in 1973 made by Martin Cooper on the Motorola DynaTAC prototype. Although it would take another decade for the first 1G cellular network to launch in the United States, it quickly became apparent in the 1970s that a worldwide telecommunications revolution had begun.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    LG Records 6G THz Band Milestone

    Successfully Transfers Data Over 100 Meters on 6G THz Band,
    Leads Development of 6G Communication Technology

    LG Electronics (LG) successfully demonstrated the transmission and reception of wireless 6G terahertz (THz) data over 100 meters in an outdoor setting. This milestone was achieved in collaboration with Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, Europe’s largest applied research lab, on August 13 with the data traveling between Fraunhofer Heinrich Hertz Institute (HHI) and the Berlin Institute of Technology in Germany.

    As 6G THz has short range and experiences power loss during transmission and reception between antennas, one of the biggest challenges in the evolution of wireless 6G has been the need of power amplification to generate a stable signal across ultra-wideband frequencies. The power amplifier developed by LG, Fraunhofer HHI and Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Solid State Physics (IAF) was crucial to the success of this latest test.

    The power amplifier is capable of generating stable signal output up to 15 dBm in the frequency range between 155 to 175 GHz.

    With global standardization targeted for 2025 and commercialization within four years thereafter, 6G networks will be able to support faster wireless transmission and communication speeds with low-latency and high-reliability. 6G will be a key component of Ambient Internet of Everything, the emerging technology that aims to improve living and business environments by making them more sensitive, adaptive, autonomous and personalized to consumers’ needs by recognizing human presence and preferences.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6g-teknologiassa otettiin iso harppaus – data siirtyi 100 metriä hurjalla vauhdilla
    Eteläkorealainen LG on onnistunut hyödyntämään 6g-yhteyttä Berliinissä kahden tutkimusinstituutin välillä.

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    6G vision: The industry is beginning to coalesce around some key themes, including terahertz frequencies, use of intelligent reconfigurable surfaces and metamaterials, open networking, and network of networks (terrestrial cellular, NTN, subsea, and Wi-Fi convergence).



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