Networking trends for 2018

Here are some of my collection of newest trends and predictions for year 2018. I have not invented those ideas what will happen next year completely myself. I have gone through many articles that have given predictions for year 2018. Then I have picked and mixed here the best part from those articles (sources listed on the end of posting) with some of my own additions to make this posting.This article contains very many quotations from those source articles.

Big Data, mobility and the Internet of Things (IoT) are generating an enormous amount of data, and data center operators must find ways to support higher and higher speeds. Recent data center trends predict bandwidth requirements will continue growing 25 percent to 35 percent per year. Many older data centers were designed to support 1-gigabit or 10-gigabit pathways between servers, routers and switches. Today’s Ethernet roadmap extends from 25- and 40-gigabit up through 100-gigabit, and 400-gigabit and even 1-terabit Ethernet loom within a few years. The biggest sales are forecasted for 25G and 100G ports for next few years. Ethernet switch market has now 100 Gbit/s products in the volumes at the moment, and both 200G and 400G Ethernet versions will be taken to use in 2018.

Broadcom dominates the Ethernet switch chip market today with a 73 to 94 percent share, depending on how market watchers slice the sector valued at nearly a billion dollars. Its closest rival, Cisco Systems, takes most of the rest with systems using its own ASICs. Juniper, Hewlett Packard Enterprise and Huawei also make Ethernet switch ASICs for their systems. With seven merchant chips in the pipeline and four in-house ASICs in the works, we will see a record number of unique platforms ship in 2018. Wheeler of the Linley Group expects the competition will drive Ethernet switch costs from about $60/port today to about $36/port by 2020.

Data center giants “are driving their own code and programmable capabilities as close to the server as possible.The dozen largest data center operators — including the likes of Facebook and Google — build their own switch systems or specify systems built by ODMs. They can drive sales of millions of chips a year but demand maximum bandwidth at minimum cost and power consumption. The Tomahawk-3 is geared for the next-generation of their top-of-rack and aggregation switches, delivering up to 128 100GE or 32 400GE ports, the first merchant chip to support 400GE rates.

China will start making more optical components: Several Western component and subsystems vendors have cited reduced demand from Chinese systems houses such as Huawei and ZTE for revenue declines in 2017. One reason for the slowdown is the fact that these systems houses have begun looking for more local optical technology sources. In addition to doing more development work in-house (particularly in the case of Huawei), the two Chinese systems vendors have begun to work more closely with Chinese companies such as Accelink, Hisense, and HiSilicon as well as Japanese vendors. This can mean that Western firms (particularly in the U.S.) may not see their Chinese orders return to previous levels.

Higher power power over Ethernet: 802.3bt – IEEE Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment: Physical Layer and Management Parameters for DTE Power via MDI over 4-Pair amendment to IEEE Std 802.3-2015 increases the maximum PD power available by utilizing all four pairs in the specified structured wiring plant. This represents a substantial increase to the capabilities of Ethernet with standardized power – allow delivery of up to 90 watts of power via existing Ethernet cabling. The Ethernet Alliance has announced details of its next plugfest: Dedicated to pre-standard testing of Power over Ethernet (PoE) technologies against Draft 3.2 of the IEEE P802.3bt standard, the event will be held in February 2018. The specification’s ratification is expected in September of 2018.

802.11ax hasn’t been signed off yet, but promises to send WiFi towards 10 Gb/s thanks to its use of both multi-user multiple-input and multiple-output (MU-MIMO) and the new Orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA). 802.11ax is  good at combining lots of different links so that users get more connections, more often, and end up with more bandwidth.  Marvell claims it’ll have the first chipsets for new 10G WiFi ready for products in H2 2018. Marvell said the chipsets will ship some time in early 2018 and will appear in products in the second half of the year. Widespread 802.11ax adoption in devices probably won’t happen until 2019.

5G something in it for everyone. 5G is big.  5G New Radio (NR) wireless technology will ultimately impact everyone in the electronics and telecommunications industries. Most estimates say 2020 is when we will ultimately see some real 5G deployments on a scale. In the meantime, companies are firming up their plans for whatever 5G products and services they will offer. Though test and measurement solutions will be key in the commercialization cycle. 5G is set to disrupt test processes. If 5G takes off, the technology will propel the development of new chips in both the infrastructure and the handset. Data centers require specialty semiconductors from power management to high-speed optical fiber front-ends. 5G systems will drive more complexity in RF front-ends .

Networks will become more and more virtual, especially on 5G. 5G networks will build on LTE network architecture with the introduction of cloud RANs (C-RANs) and virtualized RANs. Network function virtualization (NFV) and software-defined networking (SDN) tools and architectures could enable operators to reduce network costs and simplify deployment. For more details read System architecture milestone of 5G Phase 1 is achieved article.

Automotive Ethernet: Automotive Ethernet will replace the Media Oriented Systems Transport (MOST) bus found on many vehicles today and also compete with systems like Maxim’s Gigabit Multimedia Serial Link (GMSL). The standards include IEEE 802.3bw 100BASE-T1 and IEEE P802.3bp 1000BASE-T1 that adopt the 100-Mb/s and 1-Gb/s Ethernet protocols to run over over a single twisted pair up to 15 meters. Chips, PHYs and switches are now readily available for automotive Ethernet. Automotive switches will support time-sensitive networking (TSN) features like audio video bridging (AVB) ingress policy, rate limiting andalso features 802.1Qav/Qbv queue-shaping support. We will need a Security Blanket for Automotive Ethernet.

Car-to-car communication: The industry and government have defined several versions of vehicular communications. These are vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V), vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I), and vehicle-to-everything (V2X). V2V is the direct communications between vehicles within range of one another. V2V link-up is automatic and cars exchange status information messages Basic Safety Message (BSM) 10 times per second (contains data such as GPS location, speed, direction, brake status, and related conditions). There are competing technologies to make this all work. IEEE802.11p ahead of LTE-V2V for safety critical applications. 5G will offer increased capacity and decreased latency for some critical applications such as vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) or vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications for advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) and self-driving vehicles. The big question is whether 5G will disrupt the landscape or fall short of its promises.

TSN (time sensitive networking) will be talked on many application. Success in the IIoT requires that information- and operational-technology networks work in tandem—time-sensitive networking can make it happen. A converged industrial network will address several challenges that currently exist in today’s disparate network architecture, and it is believed that needed convergence is provided by time-sensitive networking (TSN). TSN is a set of IEEE 802 sub-standards that, when implemented, enable deterministic communication over Ethernet networks while keeping the benefits of communication in best effort manner, on that same network. TSN introduces different traffic classes that share the same link. Proper implementation of TSN requires a solution that can provide a low latency and deterministic response at TSN end points and TSN bridges – it is usually implemented with combining a processor and a FPGA or using advanced Ethernet switch chip.

Gartner analyst says on-premises data centers will soon be ‘useless’: Govekar said that as soon as 2019, at least a third of the largest software vendors will have transitioned their products from cloud-first to cloud-only. For this reason Gartner analyst predicts doom for on-premises data centers. If this happens , there will be a lot of work for network operators and cloud service companies to be able to build the infrastructure that can handle all this without problems. I expect that not all on-premises data centers are doomed. There are applications where moving everything to central could does not make sense – for example many IoT applications are moving some of the processing from cloud to edge devices for various reasons (lower latency, reduce needed bandwidth, work also when communications does not work etc..). There is also place for some on-premises data centers on some application (may them be depending on need anything from embedded server to room full of equipment racks). When designing for the IoT, security needs to be addressed from the Cloud down to each and every edge device. Protecting data is both a hardware and a software requirement, as more data is being stored and analyzed in edge devices and gateways.

Network neutrality talks will continue in 2018. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) on December 14, 2017 overturned the Title II-based Open Internet Order the previous Democratic-controlled FCC regime put in place in 2015. So what happens next? In the immediate term, nothing. The Restoring Internet Freedom Order won’t go into effect until sometime in the first half of 2018.

IPv6 usage seems to be finally accelerating in 2018. IPv6 has been a “future” since 1998, and an important future since 2007. IPv6 deployments have been increasing and chances are you have already used IPv6 – but haven’t realized it yet. IPv6 deployment is increasing around the world, with over 9 million domain names and 23% of all networks advertising IPv6 connectivity. Network admins will have many concerns about migrating to IPv6 in 2018. China plans to put the Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6)-based network into large-scale use, to boost the development of the Internet industry. China aims to have 200 million active users of IPv6 by the end of 2018. IPv6 use is increasing, but that does not mean that IPv4 is no way dying. It seems that both of those technologies will co-exist in Internet for a long time.



Chinese systems houses engaging with alternative component, subsystem sources: LightCounting

802.3bt – IEEE Draft Standard for Ethernet Amendment: Physical Layer and Management Parameters for DTE Power via MDI over 4-Pair

Next Ethernet Alliance PoE Plugfest to provide critical support for Power over Ethernet certification program

Making 5G Happen

UK Updates 5G Strategy

System architecture milestone of 5G Phase 1 is achieved

Five technology trends for 2018

NI Trend Watch 2018 explores trends driving the future faster

ADAS Needs V2X to Meet ITS Goals

Taking Automotive Ethernet for a Test Drive

A Security Blanket for Automotive Ethernet

TSN: Converging Networks for a Better Industrial IoT

Gartner analyst says on-premises data centers will soon be ‘useless’

Gartner analyst predicts doom for on-premises data centers

M2M within the IoT – Pushing Security from the Cloud Down to Every Last Endpoint

Net Neutrality Overturned: Now What?

B’com Shifts Switch to 12.8 Tbits/s

Planning starts now for high-speed data center migration

Lights, camera, 802.11ax-ion!

China to speed up IPv6-based Internet development

State of IPv6 Deployment 2017

Top 5 Concerns of Network Admins About Migrating to IPv6 in 2018



  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Fiber-optic hardware drives predictive maintenance and monitoring for mining industry is reporting that “Ava Group announced a technical and commercial partnership with Mining3. The partnership represents a technical collaboration on the final form development and the commercialization of a predictive asset condition monitoring solution for the mining industry, to be launched in Q1, 2019.”

    The first application of Ava Group’s fiber-optic technology for the mining company will be for conveyor condition monitoring, providing wear detection to pre-empt roller failure.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TIA Issues calls for interest on 3 smart buildings standards projects

    For document ANSI/TIA-4966-A initially titled “Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard for Educational Facilities,”

    For document ANSI/TIA-568.0-E initially titled “Generic Telecommunications Cabling for Customer Premises,”

    For document TIA-568.1-E initially titled “Commercial Building Telecommunications Cabling Standard,”

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Homeowner wants to know: How much per Cat 6 Ethernet drop?

    Top comments so far on this post include:

    * “If it’s easy to run expect ~$75 a drop. But I’ve seen as high as $150 a drop. Honestly if it’s easy just do some research and try it yourself. You only have a few drops to do.” — Screwo

    “I have a good chunk of my house wired, but I did it myself. Cat 6 is ideal. Cat 5e is fine too if it’s significantly cheaper. If price is close get the 6 as it is more futureproof”

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    NCTA issues smart cities white paper

    The NCTA has released a smart cities white paper, “Cable Companies and Municipalities: Natural Smart Community Partners,” focusing on the importance of high-speed broadband networks in powering smart cities and communities across the country. Authored by Bill Maguire of Connected Communities, the research indicates that cities and towns would benefit from partnerships with cable operators in becoming a smart and connected community.

    Among the findings:

    Cable networks have the capability to support smart community/IoT applications both now and in the future.
    A rapid expansion of the number of homes where gigabit service is available means that the smart home will be an increasingly viable platform capable of advancing smart and connected community objectives.
    Smart and connected community partnerships between cable providers and local governments reflect new and evolving approaches to collaboration.

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Supreme Court denies broadband industry petition to scrub favorable net neutrality court decision from history

    The Supreme Court today offered moral support for net neutrality activists and a soft setback for the current FCC’s agenda by declining to revisit a major case supportive of the 2015 rules. It essentially sets in stone the fundamental legality of those rules — not good PR for the agency that just rolled them back with questionable justification.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    David Shepardson / Reuters:
    FCC’s Pai writes letter to telcos and tech companies, urging them to create a call authentication system to combat robocalls; study: 5.1B were placed last month

    U.S. regulator demands companies take action to halt ‘robocalls’

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Novel Quantum Emitter Provides Key Building Block for a Quantum Internet

    Recent efforts by two national labs to build a new quantum network to boost U.S. capabilities in unhackable communication technologies just got a key technology to further those aims.

    Researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have developed an on-chip quantum emitter capable of emitting one photon of light at a time with a previously unattainable spatial resolution and efficiency. This advance could prove key to the development of unbreakable cryptography and quantum computers.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Strange snafu misroutes domestic US Internet traffic through China Telecom
    Telecom with ties to China’s government misdirected traffic for two and a half years.

    China Telecom, the large international communications carrier with close ties to the Chinese government, misdirected big chunks of Internet traffic through a roundabout path that threatened the security and integrity of data passing between various providers’ backbones for two and a half years, a security expert said Monday. It remained unclear if the highly circuitous paths were intentional hijackings of the Internet’s Border Gateway Protocol or were caused by accidental mishandling.

    For almost a week late last year, the improper routing caused some US domestic Internet communications to be diverted to mainland China before reaching their intended destination, Doug Madory, a researcher specializing in the security of the Internet’s global BGP routing system, told Ars.

    “We are describing the same thing in different ways,” he told Ars, speaking of the two-and-a-half-year event he documented and the two-month hijacking reported two weeks ago. “They may have only known about it for those two months in 2017, but I can guarantee you that it was going [on] for much longer.”

    The domestic US traffic, in particular, “becomes an even more extreme example,” he told Ars. “When it gets to US-to-US traffic traveling through mainland China, it becomes a question of is this a malicious incident or is it accidental? It’s definitely concerning. I think people will be surprised to see that US-to-US traffic was sent through China Telecom for days.”

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Securing Connected Cars: How to Create a Cost-Effective, Secure In-Vehicle Network Backbone

    The U.S. Department of Transportation recently announced that the latest round of autonomous driving regulations will be released

    this summer. Dubbed AV 3.0, the new policy will set federal guidelines for how autonomous and assisted driving solutions need to

    work on public roads. A big part of making autonomous driving accessible will be the ability for car makers and suppliers to

    secure the networks that power these increasingly sophisticated vehicles. In fact, that’s what cars today have become: highly-

    sophisticated mobile computer networks that just happen to travel at highway speeds.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    aiotaan korvata laajakaistaisella viestintäpalvelulla, joka toimii jonkin teleyrityksen verkossa.

    Virve-verkko on ollut käytössä vuodesta 2002 alkaen ja sillä on noin 40 000 käyttäjää.

    Virven toiminta voitaisiin siirtää matkapuhelinverkkoon. Virve-radioverkosta luovuttaisiin siirtymäajan jälkeen.

    Uuden viranomaisverkon palveluoperaattorina toimisi valtion omistama Suomen Erillisverkot, joka kilpailuttaisi verkko-operaattoriksi teleyrityksen.

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    AT&T steps up copyright enforcement, kicks customers off network

    AT&T’s action against alleged pirates comes after purchase of Time Warner.

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Next-Generation Ethernet Interconnects For 400G Hyperscale Data Centers

    The 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard provides a range of interfaces for varying length and throughput requirements.

    majority of the hyperscale data centers using 100 Gb/s Ethernet links would need to transition to 200 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s Ethernet links to achieve higher throughput.

    The move toward 400 Gb/s Ethernet promises both power and area savings, as 400 Gb/s optical modules are expected to consume only 2.5x the power of a 100 Gb/s Ethernet links and maintain the same small form factors, increasing interconnect densities.

    With the completion of the 200 Gb/s and 400 Gb/s IEEE 802.3bs specification (now part of the IEEE 802.3-2018 release) and the completion of the 50 Gb/s, 100 Gb/s, and 200 Gb/s IEEE 802.3cd specifications, hyperscale data centers will start moving to 200/400 Gb/s interconnects by the end of 2018. By the recent announcement of vendor demonstrations and the expected availability of components and optical modules, this transition is inevitable.

    As 100 Gb/s Ethernet matures in hyperscale data centers, the cost sensitive enterprise data center ecosystem will start taking advantage of the current generation technologies and begin their own transition from today’s 10 Gb/s and 40 Gb/s links to 100 Gb/s and higher rates.

    This article describes the different variants of 50 Gb/s, 100 Gb/s, 200 Gb/s, and 400 Gb/s interconnects that are based on single- and multi-lane 50 Gb/s Ethernet, including:

    Electrical chip-to-chip and chip-to-module for connection to optical modules supporting multi-mode fiber (MMF) for rack-to-rack interconnect lengths from few hundred meters to longer kilometer (km) ranges that can only be supported with single-mode fiber (SMF) for connection between buildings and smaller data centers
    hielded balanced copper cabling for short distances of few meters (m) targeting box-to-box and intra-rack connections
    Electrical backplane for chassis-based systems for interconnects within the chassis

    Chip-to-Chip and Chip-to-Module interconnects
    Chip-to-chip and chip-to-module (C2M) are the simplest forms of interconnects that consist of a short printed circuit board (PCB) trace with one or no connector.

    The IEEE 802.3 has defined the attachment unit interfaces (AUIs) based on 50 Gb/s per lane electrical for different types of optical modules.

    50GAUI-1 is a single-lane C2M interface to:

    50GBASE-SR: supports 50 Gb/s serial transmission over a single lane (total of two fibers) MMF cabling with reach of up to at least 100 m
    50GBASE-FR: supports 50 Gb/s serial transmission over one-wavelength SMF cabling with reach of up to at least 2 km
    50GBASE-LR: supports 50 Gb/s serial transmission over one-wavelength SMF cabling with reach of up to at least 10 km

    100GAUI-2 is a two-lane C2M interface to:

    100GBASE-SR2: supports 100 Gb/s transmission over two lanes (total of four fibers) of MMF cabling with reach up to at least 100 m
    100GBASE-DR: supports 100 Gb/s serial transmission over one-wavelength duplex SMF cabling with reach up to at least 500 m

    200GAUI-4 is a four-lane C2M interface to:

    200GBASE-SR4: supports 200 Gb/s transmission over four lanes (total of 8 fibers) of MMF cabling with reach up to at least 100 m
    200GBASE-DR4: supporting 200 Gb/s transmission over four lanes of SMF cabling with reach up to at least 500 m
    200GBASE-FR4: supports 200 Gb/s transmission over four wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) lanes (total of two fibers) of SMF cabling with reach up to at least
    2 km
    200GBASE-LR4: supports 200 Gb/s transmission over four WDM lanes of SMF cabling with reach up to at least 10 km

    400GAUI-8 is an eight-lane C2M interface that includes:

    400GBASE-FR8: supports 400 Gb/s transmission over eight WDM lanes of SMF cabling with reach up to at least 2 km
    400GBASE-LR8: supports 400 Gb/s transmission over eight WDM lanes of SMF cabling with reach up to at least 10 km
    400GBASE-DR4: supports 400 Gb/s transmission over four lanes of SMF cabling with reach up to at least 500m

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    EMP/HEMP filter technologies designed to mitigate EMI threats

    Electromagnetic threats have been known, and to a degree understood, for almost a century. Nevertheless, it is only in the past couple of decades that governments and military organizations have come to realize the extent of the threat that intentional/unintentional electromagnetic interference (IEMI/UEMI) pose to critical facilities, infrastructure, aerospace, and land mobile electronic systems. Most nations’ electrical infrastructure and utilities have been identified as vulnerable to sabotage and intentional disruption using IEMI, the threat to these systems has been a known entity for many years. What is an emerging unknown, and possibly equally as disruptive, is the new threat to digital and communications network infrastructure (data centers and internet systems) that the world’s banking, transportation, and resource allocation now relies on.

    The threat of IEMI, and even UEMI and natural EMI, on every level of a modern society only grows, as people become more dependent on electrical systems to enhance efficiency, reduce expenditures, speed processes, and raise profits. Additionally, the most recent electronics are built with low power ICs and other sensitive active and passive devices whose economics depend on miniaturization, power reduction, and feature integration. Unfortunately, few non-governmental/military organizations have come to recognize this threat, and fewer have taken action to ensure their essential systems, for which many other organizations and individuals depend, are robust toward IEMI, or EMI in general.

    There are several standards, mostly governmental, military, and recently IEC, which provide specifications on how to design building, electrical infrastructure, and equipment to withstand known IEMI threats, mainly nuclear electromagnetic pulse (EMP), and specifically, high altitude nuclear EMP. The main military and governmental standards for facilities and equipment for the US and the UK are MIL-STD-188-125-1/MIL-STD-188-125-2 and DEF-STAN-59-188-1/DEF-STAN-59-188-2, respectively.

    IEC protection severity levels (IEC 61000-4-24) account for a variety of equipment and applications, extending from equivalence to MIL-STD-188-125-1 and DEF-STAN-59-188-1, to less critical civil systems. Severity level 3, which is equivalent to military and defense standards, is meant to apply to the most critical infrastructure systems, where level 2 is designed for less critical infrastructure, and level 1 is for industrial applications that are either less critical, or possess a high level of intrinsic immunity. The IEC 61000-4-24 standard provides recommendations for the residual pulse performance of HEMP/IEMI filters in respect to conducted pulses, and does not define, or account, for radiated pulse shielding requirements.

    A reasonable target figure for HEMP/IEMI filter attenuation to meet over the frequency range 1 MHz to 1 GHz for severity levels 1/2 and 3 for new building is 60 dB and 80 dB. For older building and severity level 1/2, 40 dB of attenuation may suffice. IEC 61000-4-24 also provides peak residual current level recommendations for each severity level. For a 250 VAC HEMP power line filter with a 2 Ω nominal load for level 1, 2, and 3 severity levels, the peak allowable residual current into the load is 353 A, 50 A, and 10 A, respectively.

    Increasing individual and societal dependence on the civil electronic and communications infrastructure is likely to also increase the threat of loss of life and property damage from the failure of new commercial and industrial electronic systems. Particularly susceptible are the latest ICs and low power electronics exposed by inadequate shielding, and the emerging technologies that rely on them. Many of these systems could benefit from additional protection, specifically HEMP/IEMI filters, which may also aid in enhancing EMC emissions and immunity.

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Alliance ‘Higher Speed Networking Plugfest’ set for next month

    The Ethernet Alliance, the global consortium dedicated to the continued success and advancement of Ethernet technologies, announced its next Ethernet Alliance Higher Speed Networking Plugfest for port data rates ranging from 25 Gigabits per second (Gb/s) to 400 Gb/s. The weeklong event—beginning Dec. 3, 2018, at the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL) in Durham, New Hampshire—will allow Ethernet Alliance members, equipment manufacturers, test and measurement professionals, etc. to test and improve interoperability of their solutions. In addition, members of the 100G Lambda Multisource Agreement (MSA) Group also are invited to attend the plugfest, under terms of a new memorandum of understanding (MoU) between that industry consortium and the Ethernet Alliance.

    The testing matrix for the December plugfest encompasses technologies based on both recently completed and soon-to-be-ratified standards. With the recent completion and/or expected approval of standards such as IEEE 802.3bs

    Among equipment to be tested during the December event are Ethernet physical layer transceivers (PHYs); network interface controllers (NICs); switches; test and measurement solutions, and an array of optical and copper media at speeds of 25, 50, 100, 200, and 400 Gb/s.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Many operators are interested in applying software-defined networking (SDN) principles to their networks

    OIF’s work related to the Transport Application Programming Interface (T-API), which provides a northbound interface that has proven itself in several multivendor, multi-operator network demos.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Using Switching Technology to Overcome Automation Protocol Clash

    Analog Devices has developed a Deterministic Ethernet switching technology that is designed to relieve the bottleneck of multiple equipment protocols.

    Ethernet does not inherently have the deterministic response of field bus systems.

    To overcome this limitation, the major industrial OEMs each defined their own Ethernet protocols, which have since become widely deployed open standards: PROFINET, EtherNet/IP, EtherCAT, ModbusTCP, and several others. Some of these protocols are fully compatible with standard TCP/IP Ethernet networks. Others have modified the data link, network, and/or transport layers (layers 2-4 in the OSI model) to achieve deterministic performance. Although these protocols can coexist with standard Ethernet, they are not interoperable with each other in a deterministic way.

    The challenge when designing a network to support industrial Ethernet is to select a reference design that is compatible with a variety of different standards. The introduction of Industrial (or Deterministic) Ethernet partially addresses this problem, but the protocol incompatibility remains an issue. The protocols are simply not designed to interoperate, and they are prone to breaking down. This is especially problematic for companies that buy manufacturing equipment from multiple vendors.

    Deterministic Ethernet Switching Technology

    As the industry searches for an answer under the emerging set of IEEE standards known as time-sensitive networking (TSN), Analog Devices has developed a Deterministic Ethernet switching technology that is designed to break this bottleneck by allowing disparate, legacy Ethernet protocols to interoperate. “Ethernet for industrial networks has its challenges. They include latency, time synchronization, and the different protocols for different pieces of equipment,”

    O’Dowd noted that the switching technology provides manufacturers with a path toward TSN readiness without the need for expensive equipment upgrades. “It makes it easier for companies to choose the equipment that best suits their manufacturing needs, regardless of vendor,”

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ericsson CEO categorizes 5G wireless networks as ‘critical national infrastructure’

    Fortune’s Andrew Nusca recently spoke with Ericsson CEO Börje Ekholm at September’s 2018 Mobile World Congress Americas show in Los Angeles. Not surprisingly, Ekholm is bullish on 5G. “Given that it is a digital infrastructure for countries, it becomes a critical national infrastructure,” Ekholm said. “We see all the operators here in the U.S. investing in 5G. But we see this also happening in other countries.”
    For example, China is rolling out next-generation wireless infrastructure “very fast,” Ekholm said, expecting to complete the effort in 2020. So are Japan and South Korea. Why so hurried? “Because it impacts the economies in those countries,”

    “You need interoperability,” Eckholm says. “That’s the big thing with mobile networks—they are global, and they are immediately global. That’s why cell phone technology has scaled the fastest of all technologies known to mankind, basically.”

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How ANSI/TIA-1179-A supports PoE LED lighting in healthcare

    – Lighting systems that bring IT and lighting together are starting to permeate smart buildings. In the past few years, PoE LED lighting has hit the scene. In this type of system, Ethernet cables are used to transmit low-voltage power along with data (data about surrounding lighting levels, occupancy levels, color tuning, etc.).

    Some of the recent changes to healthcare cabling standards are designed to better support technology like Building Automation Systems, which includes PoE LED lighting. ANSI/TIA-1179-A, the Healthcare Facility Telecommunications Infrastructure Standard, provides guidance for planning and installing structured cabling systems in healthcare facilities. It establishes performance and technical criteria for various cabling system configurations.

    The minimum for backbone and horizontal balanced, twisted-pair cabling is now Category 6A per ANSI/TIA-1179-A. This helps ensure futureproofing and the accommodation of higher bandwidth levels. Category 5e and Category 6 cables are no longer recognized.

    While all Category 6A cables must meet the same specifications,

    The right Category 6A cable achieves higher performance and faster speeds, maintains appropriate cable temperatures through enhanced thermal dissipation and supports emerging applications like next-generation WiFi, higher-power PoE and HDBaseT.

    Guidance for Network Elements

    MUTOAs and consolidation points (CPs) can now be used as additional network elements in work areas.

    MUTOAs are a convenient way to distribute the last few feet of horizontal cabling in spaces that require frequent reconfigurations or moves, adds and changes. Using a MUTOA allows horizontal cabling to remain intact when things change – like LED lighting fixtures being added, removed or relocated.

    A CP is an interconnection point within a horizontal cabling system; it requires an additional connection for each horizontal cable run. It can be useful when frequent reconfiguration occurs (but not frequently enough to need a MUTOA).

    Solutions to Make PoE LED Lighting Deployment Easier

    LP-rated cables are a solid option for deploying PoE LED lighting systems. They utilize insulating and jacketing material to handle higher temperatures, allowing them to be certified by UL as a cable that doesn’t exceed temperature ratings under certain conditions. This makes them ideal for applications that support higher-power IoT devices, like LED fixtures.

    In terms of connectivity, modular plug terminated link (MPTL) was recently approved for use by ANSI/TIA-568.2-D, the Balanced Twisted-Pair Telecommunications Cabling and Components Standard.

    Direct connect allows a horizontal cable run to connect directly to a device when it terminates on one end to an RJ45 plug. It’s now acceptable to connect a device – like an LED lighting fixture – in this fashion when deploying an outlet, faceplate and equipment cord isn’t practical. Direct Connect also improves power delivery efficiency since the horizontal cable (the largest gauge wire with lowest resistance in the channel) is able to directly connect to the end device.

    The Surprising Benefits of PoE Lighting in Healthcare

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Simplifying high-density fiber cable certification: Are you working smart?

    The rise in fiber adoption by service providers is great for those who manufacture the cables, but it’s causing a headache for many who have to commission it. More and more, higher fiber-count cables are being laid, leading to a challenge for installers and contractors: how to manage, track and report on the test and certification of the individual fibers and the cable as a whole.

    The questions are many: how far along are you in testing all the fibers? Did you already test this or that fiber? Did it pass or fail? Where is the test result so you can check? And how do you consolidate a bunch of individual test results into one certification report? Without a clear and simple view of where you are with your project (and a little bit of automation), you can waste a lot of time figuring these things out, potentially duplicating tests (accidentally testing the same fiber twice) or worse, missing a fiber and having to return to site (at your own cost if you’re a contractor) to fill in the missing data.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New CEO reorganizes Verizon into 3 groups

    New CEO Hans Vestberg has decided to reorganize Verizon (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ) into three groups: Consumer, Business, and Verizon Media Group/Oath. A network and IT organization, as well as corporate-wide staff functions, will underpin the new groups. The changes will take effect January 1, 2019

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Molex named winner of 17th annual Chicago Innovation Award for Automotive Ethernet Platform

    Molex announced that it has been honored as a recipient of the 17th annual Chicago Innovation Awards. The awarded Molex Automotive Ethernet Platform was developed to support the rigorous autonomous vehicle design challenges faced by vehicle manufacturers.

    Single-pair cabling standards emerging

    Per the awards program, “Top-tier automakers are facing new challenges as they build next-generation, intelligent vehicles. They require agile connectivity solutions with seamless end-to-end network integration across hardware, software and services. The Molex 10 Gbps high-speed Automotive Ethernet Platform fully integrates mission-critical applications such as highly reliable signal integrity, network traffic prioritization, system scalability and security – all essential to optimal autonomous vehicle performance.”

    Introducing the First End-to-End 10 Gbps Automotive Ethernet Network

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ethernet Alliance ‘Higher Speed Networking Plugfest’ set for next month

    next Ethernet Alliance Higher Speed Networking Plugfest for port data rates ranging from 25 Gigabits per second (Gb/s) to 400 Gb/s. The weeklong event—beginning Dec. 3, 2018, at the University of New Hampshire InterOperability Laboratory (UNH-IOL) in Durham, New Hampshire

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Internet Vulnerability Takes Down Google

    On November 12th, 2018, between 1:00 PM and 2:23 PM PST, ThousandEyes noticed issues connecting to G Suite, a critical application for our organization. Reviewing ThousandEyes Endpoint Agent stats, we noticed this was impacting all users at the ThousandEyes office. The outage not only affected G Suite, but also Google Search as well as Google Analytics. What caught our attention was that traffic to Google was getting dropped at China Telecom. Why would traffic from a San Francisco office traversing to Google go all the way to China? We also noticed a Russian ISP in the traffic path, which definitely sparked some concerns.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Using Machine Learning to Cluster Malicious Network Flows From Gh0st RAT Variants

    Cybercriminals have become more and more creative and efficient in their efforts to successfully bypass network security. Reports of unauthorized network intrusions that have compromised enterprise security, resources, and data, plague experts on a day-to-day basis, and will continue to do so if not prevented by a more efficient detection system or method. Currently, attackers use polymorphism, encryption, and obfuscation, among other techniques, to automate and increase variants in an attempt to evade traditional intrusion detection methods such as rule-based techniques.

    To address these growing number of network threats and keep abreast with the changing sophistication of network intrusion methods, Trend Micro looked into network flow clustering — a method that leverages the power of machine learning in strengthening current intrusion detection techniques.

    Network anomalies can be discovered by examining flow data because they contain information useful for analyzing traffic composition of varying applications and services in the network. To efficiently label and process large amounts of said data through clustering, we used a semi-supervised learning approach. These labels will then be used to discern relationships between different malware families, as well as to know how they differ from one another.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Yli gigabitin vauhtia puhelinlinjaa pitkin

    G.Fast on nimeltään ITU:ssa standardoitu tekniikka, jolla voidaan siirtää dataa perinteistä kuparipuhelinkaapelia pitkin jopa yli gigabitin nopeudella. Israelilainen Sckipio Technologies kertoo nyt, että korealainen SK Broadcom aikoo sen piirisarjoilla tuottaa ensimmäisen kaupallisen gigabitin G.Fast-verkon.

    Kyse on samalla ensimmäisestä G.Fast-toteutuksesta, joka perustuu 212 megahertsin siirtotaajuuteen puhelinlinjassa. Palvelu on alkamassa kahdessa Korean kaupungissa, Soulissa ja Seongnamissa.

    Apuna projektissa on reititinvalmistaja HFR. Sen päätteillä voidaan yhteen puhelinlinjaan liittää peräti 96 gigabitin G.Fast-yhteyttä.

    G.Fast taipuu jopa gigabittiä nopeampiin vauhteihin. Sckipio on aiemmin demonnut yli 3,1 gigabitin datanopeuksia verkosta alaspäin. Ylävirtaan dataa on saatu demoissa liikkumaan 900 megabitin sekuntinopeudella. Kahdella CAT-3-parikaapelilla Sckipio on demonnut 4 gigabitin datanopeutta SCK23000-piirisarjoillaan. Tällainen parikaapelipari on tyypillinen Yhdysvalloissa ja Taiwanissa.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nigerian internet provider Main One Cable Co says it accidentally caused the problem that misrouted some Google traffic through China on Monday — SAN FRANCISCO (Reuters) – Nigerian internet provider Main One Cable Co took responsibility on Tuesday for a glitch that caused some Google traffic …

    Nigerian firm takes blame for routing Google traffic through China

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Brian Fung / Washington Post:
    FCC gives SpaceX permission to deploy over 7,000 Starlink internet satellites, as part of a full network of 12,000 — Federal regulators are allowing entrepreneur Elon Musk to use an expanded range of wireless airwaves for his plan to deliver cheap, high-speed Internet access — from space.

    Elon Musk’s SpaceX wins FCC approval to put 7,000 Starlink Internet satellites into orbit

    Federal regulators are allowing entrepreneur Elon Musk to use an expanded range of wireless airwaves for his plan to deliver cheap, high-speed Internet access — from space.

    The decision Thursday by the Federal Communications Commission paves the way for SpaceX to build its full network of about 12,000 satellites intended to blanket the earth in wireless Internet access. Proponents say next-generation satellite Internet technology could help developing countries and rural areas connect to economic opportunities currently out of reach for them because they lack competitive Internet access.

    SpaceX’s Starlink program launched its first test satellites in February. The FCC gave SpaceX approval the next month for its first 4,400 satellites. The company has an initial goal to deploy 1,600 satellites in the next few years, but it has said that it could take more than six years to complete the full network.

    Satellite communications have been in use for decades. But Internet access through the technology is slow and expensive

    Instead of sending Internet traffic to just a handful of satellites in geosynchronous orbit, the companies hope to boost satellite Internet speeds by using many cheaper satellites that orbit closer to earth.

    On Thursday, the FCC also approved hundreds of satellites from three other companies: Kepler, Telesat and Leosat. The pressure to be the first and strongest network is fierce

    The race by so many companies to build new satellite constellations has many policymakers concerned about proliferating space objects. NASA administrator Jim Bridenstine has repeatedly warned of the “growing threat” posed by orbital debris, and the U.S. military now tracks more than 500,000 individual pieces of flying space junk.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Startup Shifts Cloud Services to IoT
    Mimik drives microservices to end nodes

    Startup Mimik released software that enables the equivalent of cloud services to run on devices including end nodes in the internet of things (IoT). The so-called edgeSDK aims to lower response times and open up new use cases.

    The code lets any device running a popular operating system host the kind of microservices usually managed by the likes of AWS or Microsoft Azure. Early users include companies in gaming and health care, as well as Lime Microsystems, that will bundle the SDK with its open-source base stations.

    Carriers in the Facebook-led Telecom Infra Project aim to use the software “so they don’t have to go to a cloud service for communications in villages in Africa where connecting to a remote data center over an expensive satellite link would not be viable,” said Fay Arjomandi, Mimik’s co-founder and chief product officer.

    Facebook Likes $1K Base Stations
    Carriers to test open source hardware in 2018

    SANTA CLARA, Calif. — Facebook showed at a gathering of the Telecom Infra Project here its design for an open source cellular base station that could cost less than $1,000. For TIP, the question for the coming year is whether such systems make it into broad deployment.

    To gain an edge on larger rivals such as Amazon and Google, Facebook launched the group of carriers and partners in early 2016 to jointly build software-defined networks. SDN is a broad industry move that aims to shave costs by moving functions to high-level software from relatively expensive systems using proprietary ASICs and protocols.

    So far, TIP has laid out a compelling business case, staffed a variety of work groups and produced a few interesting prototypes.

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    DoD Places Spectrum on a War Footing

    The U.S. Navy has formally elevated electronic warfare and the underlying electromagnetic spectrum to the status of a “warfighting battle space” equivalent to its sea, air, land, space, and cyber operations.

    It also doubles down on Pentagon attempts to squeeze more efficiency from the crowded airwaves as more electronic systems hit the battlefield.

    The Defense Department has over the past five years placed a premium on developing agile systems capable of sharing congested spectrum. The Navy’s new warfighting doctrine released in October is the latest reflection of that priority.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:


    AS YOU TRAVEL this holiday season, bouncing from airport to airplane to hotel, you’ll likely find yourself facing a familiar quandary: Do I really trust this random public Wi-Fi network? As recently as a couple of years ago, the answer was almost certainly a resounding no. But in the year of our lord 2018? Friend, go for it.

    This advice comes with plenty of qualifiers.
    if you’re a high-value target of a sophisticated nation state—look at you!—stay off of public Wi-Fi at all costs.

    But for the rest of us? You’re probably OK. That’s not because hotel and airport Wi-Fi networks have necessarily gotten that much more secure. The web itself has.

    “A lot of the former risks, the reasons we used to warn people, those things are gone now,” says Chet Wisniewski, principle researcher at security firm Sophos. “It used to be because almost nothing on the internet was encrypted. You could sit there and sniff everything. Or someone could set up a rogue access point and pretend to be Hilton, and then you would connect to them instead of the hotel.”

    In those Wild West days, in other words, signing onto a shared Wi-Fi network exposed you to myriad attacks
    A cheap, easy to use device called a Wi-Fi Pineapple makes those attacks simple to pull off.

    All of that’s still technically possible. But a critical internet evolution has made those efforts much less effective: the advent of HTTPS.

    HTTPS All Over
    Look at the URL bar in your browser. Do you see that little lock symbol on the left? That means that traffic on this site is encrypted in transit from WIRED’s servers to your browser and back.

    “If you’re in the US, the web is pretty well encrypted. It’s unusual to go to a website that matters and it’s not HTTPS,”

    How a Wi-Fi Pineapple Can Steal Your Data (And How to Protect Yourself From It)

    The Wi-Fi Pineapple enables anyone to steal data on public Wi-Fi networks. Here’s how it facilitates two sophisticated network attacks and how to protect yourself against them.

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Synopsys’ Rita Horner looks at the new 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard, which provides a range of interfaces for varying length and throughput requirements.

    Next-Generation Ethernet Interconnects For 400G Hyperscale Data Centers

    The 400 Gb/s Ethernet standard provides a range of interfaces for varying length and throughput requirements.

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    TE Connectivity’s Raychem Cat 5e Ethernet cable performs under extreme temperatures

    TE Connectivity (TE), a specialist in connectivity and sensors, recently introduced its Raychem Cat 5e cable, which offers high-performance Ethernet connectivity at speeds up to 1-Gb/s in harsh military, marine and aerospace environments. Combined with TE’s expansive line of connectivity products, the Cat 5e cable can be part of a customizable, end-to-end solution from TE.

    The new Cat 5e cable makes use of high temperature fluoropolymers that are designed to perform under extreme temperature fluctuations from -65°C to +200°C. Designed in accordance with ANSI/TIA-568-C.2

    New Product: Raychem Cat 5e Ethernet Cable

    The Cat 5e cable makes use of high temperature fluoropolymers that are designed to perform under extreme temperature fluctuations from -65°C to +200°C. Designed in accordance with ANSI/TIA-568-C.2, the cable is both lightweight and easy to terminate. TE’s waterblock variation uses super absorbent tapes and yarns that further help reduce weight, increase flexibility and lower installation costs when compared to silicon-filled waterblocks.

    “The ability to support 1 Gb/s speeds while maintaining data integrity and quality is critical for high data rate communications in harsh environments,” said Lynden Bajus, specialty cable product manager for TE’s Aerospace, Defense and Marine division. “We believe the Raychem Cat 5e cable is an important complement to our expansive line of high-speed connectors, contacts, backshells and terminals.”

    TE’s Raychem Cat 5e cables can be used in a variety of applications, including shipboard, satellite, missiles C4ISR, weapons systems, avionics, soldier systems and IFE (In Flight Entertainment) systems.

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Choosing the correct coaxial cable for CCTV applications

    A CCTV system consists of many components and each is critical to the quality of the video picture that is reproduced. Many system designers specify very specific criteria for the hardware; however, when it comes to the transmission media, only general information is given.

    CCTV video signals are commonly transmitted using coaxial cable. Coaxial cable is designed to transmit the complete video frequency range with minimum distortion or attenuation, making it an excellent choice for CCTV. However, choosing the incorrect coaxial cable can degrade the overall signal transmission and/or allow outside EMI/RFI interference to be introduced into the signal causing high noise levels. This in turn can result in poor picture quality.

    There are various construction types for coaxial cable.

    Center Conductor

    Center Conductor material made of bare cooper is recommended for optimum performance in CCTV signal transmission. Because a CCTV video signal is a baseband composite video with fairly low frequency components compared to a CATV video signal, the low D.C. resistance that copper provides will greatly improve the video signal transmission. if the cable is going to be used on a CCTV camera that will be in a fixed position, then a solid conductor is acceptable. However, if the cable will be used in a pan and tilt application, then you should choose a stranded conductor because a solid conductor construction will break with continuous flexing.

    Coaxial cable is also available with a copper-covered steel center conductor. The steel core of a copper covered steel center conductor provides extra cable strength, while its copper coating provides a path for RF signal.
    Although it may be less expensive than pure copper, it is not suitable for CCTV and is not recommended. Coaxial cable that utilizes a copper-covered steel center conductor is usually designed for, and more suitable for use in CATV and other RF applications

    Notice the big difference in attenuation between the two materials. If a cable is chosen with copper covered steel the sync pulse information will be attenuated causing distortion in the video signal.

    Dielectric Material of a coax cable is also another key area that should be addressed.
    It is recommended to choose a dielectric with excellent electrical properties such as polyethylene or FEP. Such material will give you lower capacitance and a higher velocity of propagation. This results in a cable with low-loss characteristics and reduced attenuation of the signal.

    A braided shield is the proper type of shield for CCTV and has two key purposes. One is to provide a low D.C. resistance ground path and the second is to provide shielding of outside interference from distorting the video signal. The shielding should be constructed of bare copper to provide a low D.C.R. return path. It should have a 95% or better braid coverage
    A cable with a combination aluminum foil shield and low coverage aluminum braid (see diagram) commonly used for CATV is not acceptable! Because aluminum shields have a much higher D.C. resistance return path and the braided portion of these type of cables provide only a low percentage of coverage, they do not provide the type of shielding required for CCTV video transmission.

    Jacket choice is mainly determined by the environment where the cable will be installed.

    The impedance of CCTV equipment is 75 ohms; therefore in order to have minimum losses, it is important to choose a cable with a matching impedance of 75 ohms. If a cable of another impedance (50 ohm or 93 ohm) is chosen, then you will experience signal loss and reflection resulting in short distance transmission and poor picture quality.

    Typically, the cable transmission limitations for CCTV will be as follows:

    The RG59 has the highest attenuation of the three types and you can expect to get a distance of about 750 ft. (225m) – 1,000 ft. (305m)

    The RG6 has lower attenuation characteristics than RG59 and you can expect distances of about 1,000 ft. (305m) – 1,500 ft. (457m)

    The RG11 type has the lowest attenuation characteristics and you can expect distances of up to 2,000 ft. (610m)

    Termination Techniques

    The solder method offers several advantages for connectorization.
    The disadvantage is that it takes more time to terminate than other methods

    The Crimp Method is probably the most popular method for terminating BNC connectors on coax cable.
    Some important points to remember when using the crimp method is to use the proper size connector for the size coax you are using. A tight fit on the cable is important When crimping the connector, use the proper tool!

    The twist-on method is the quickest way of terminating a coaxial cable; however, it does have some drawbacks.
    Because there is no mechanical or electrical crimp or solder connection, this connector is not as reliable as the other methods.

  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Fax Is Not Yet Obsolete

    Law and medicine still rely on the device. Maybe they shouldn’t. An Object Lesson.

  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Market Impact of Cisco’s BroadSoft Acquisition
    Examining the combined Cisco-BroadSoft offering and the impact it could have on the business communications market.

    While Microsoft continued to discuss its transition to Teams at Ignite last week, Cisco Webex had a major outage that left customers without access to vital communications services. In spite of that outage, Webex has been an important part of the communications and collaboration experience for many people for many years, and it will continue to be so.

    It’s important to not forget that Cisco is also undergoing a big transition as it continues to incorporate and integrate the BroadSoft assets, personnel, and channel. When Cisco announced its intent to acquire BroadSoft almost a year ago, the communications market was shocked.

  36. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Wall Street Journal:
    Sources: US asks allies to avoid Huawei telecommunications equipment, considers financial aid for telecom growth in nations that shun Chinese-made equipment — U.S. worried about potential Chinese meddling in 5G networks, but foreign carriers may balk — The U.S. government has initiated …

    Washington Asks Allies to Drop Huawei
    U.S. worried about potential Chinese meddling in 5G networks, but foreign carriers may balk

    The U.S. government has initiated an extraordinary outreach campaign to foreign allies, trying to persuade wireless and internet providers in these countries to avoid telecommunications equipment from China’s Huawei Technologies Co.

  37. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Andrew Orlowski / The Register:
    OpenSignal: average data speeds on mobile networks now outpace customer’s Wi-Fi connection, on average, in 33 countries like Australia, France, Turkey, Lebanon — And that means smartphones will need to get smarter — Ofcom’s top tech bod, Mansoor Hanif, recently gave the Wi-Fi industry a roasting …

    Mobile networks are killing Wi-Fi for speed around the world
    And that means smartphones will need to get smarter

    Ofcom’s top tech bod, Mansoor Hanif, recently gave the Wi-Fi industry a roasting, telling them to shape up to 5G or face sliding into irrelevance. New network data from around the world shows that slide has already begun.

    OpenSignal has found that mobile networks already outpace a customer’s Wi-Fi connection, on average, in 33 countries.

    Ian Fogg, VP of Analysis at OpenSignal, urged mobile networks and smartphone platforms to rethink some basic assumptions. Currently a phone gloms onto a Wi-Fi network whenever it can, assuming this provides the user with a superior internet connection. But increasingly, this not the case. All things being equal, more phones will be pushing more users to a worse experience.

    Huawei this week further illustrated the case for abandoning home broadband over 5G, something called 5G-FWA – we discussed the state of the art, and the pros and cons, here this week.

    But, wait! There’s a natural tension here for networks as 5G emerges. Every network is a constrained resource: if someone else’s is less constrained than yours, why not dump traffic there? Offloading the traffic onto a decent Wi-Fi connection makes sense for an operator.

    And it might be a necessity for a while.

    ensuring good coverage indoors in 5G’s early days will almost be as complicated as calling up the Cable Guy.

    “At 26/28GHz, there will need to be an outdoor unit, connected to an indoor Wi-Fi-enabled hub. But it will need power, either way. So either people need to run an electricity cable up the wall of the building, or drill a hole for a power-over-Ethernet cable between them. And install the outdoor antenna on a bracket (like satellite dishes of yore). Not self-install, and not great if you live in an apartment or rented house.”

    Note the reliance on Wi-Fi – still.

    Huawei is the only phone maker we can think of who performs a sanity check, switching your connection from a slow Wi-Fi link to a faster cellular connection.

  38. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Mining Airport WiFi Data: This Sunday Is The Worst Day To Fly

    This is Thanksgiving weekend in the United States; the country’s most congested travel weekend of the year. It’s common knowledge, and it’s easy to infer that this holiday weekend is one of the busiest for air travel. But can you prove it empirically? Apparently so. [Bertrand Fan] filed a Freedom of Information Act request for the WiFi traffic at San Francisco International Airport and used the access point data from the past year and a half to show which days were most congested in the airport.

    Ghostscript was used to turn the PDF into a CSV which was then plotted on a graph.

  39. Tomi Engdahl says:

    US asks allies to drop Huawei, but Little asserts independence

    The US government has initiated an extraordinary outreach campaign to foreign allies, trying to persuade wireless and internet providers in these countries to avoid telecommunications equipment from Chinese company Huawei, according to a Wall Street Journal report.

    The move will ramp up pressure on GCSB Minister Andrew Little and Communications Minister Kris Faafoi to ban Huawei – as security agencies in the US and Australia have already recommended.

    But Little indicates New Zealand will plot its own course, and that his government won’t interfere as Spark, Vodafone and 2degrees consider technology providers for their pending 5G upgrades.”

    US officials say they worry about the prospect of Chinese telecom-equipment makers spying on or disabling connections to an exponentially growing universe of things, including components of manufacturing plants, the Journal says.

    The paper quotes an un-named US official who says, “There are additional complexities to 5G networks that make them more vulnerable to cyberattacks.”

  40. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Getting started with software-defined networking
    Configure and isolate Linux containers with SDN and Container Network Interface plugins.

  41. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Karl Bode / Motherboard:
    Study of developed markets: US has the 5th highest per gigabyte prices in 4G smartphone plans and is the most expensive market in wireless home broadband plans — US consumers pay “excessive” prices for mobile data, research firm warns, adding that with looming mergers—it could soon get worse.

    US Wireless Data Prices Are Among the Most Expensive on Earth

    US consumers pay “excessive” prices for mobile data, research firm warns, adding that with looming mergers—it could soon get worse.

    A new study has found that US wireless consumers pay some of the highest prices for mobile data in the developed world. According to a new study from Finnish research firm Rewheel, the US mobile data market has the fifth most expensive price per gigabyte smartphone plans among developed nations, and was the most expensive for mobile data overall.

    While the report notes that mobile data prices have dropped 11 percent during the last six months in the States, US mobile data pricing remained significantly higher than 41 countries in the European Union and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development.

  42. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Andrew Orlowski / The Register:
    OpenSignal: average data speeds on mobile networks now outpace customer’s Wi-Fi connection, on average, in 33 countries like Australia, France, Turkey, Lebanon

    Mobile networks are killing Wi-Fi for speed around the world
    And that means smartphones will need to get smarter


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