Networking trends 2019

5G? IoT? Fiber Deep? 600G? We Are ready for networking at 2019!
For years we have all been talking about the emergence of 5G services, the Internet of Things (IoT) and the new high-capacity, low-latency network architectures that will be needed to support the resulting onslaught of bandwidth. Higher-speed data rates are critical to electronic evolution and revolution.

Here are some of my collection of newest trends and predictions for year 2018.  have picked and mixed here quotations from many articles (linked to source) with some of my own additions to make this posting.

5G: The most newsworthy stories in wireless today are all about 5G. In 2019, we enter a cautious, early-adoption phase of this next generation of wireless technology. 2019 will be the year when we see the first commercial networks turning on and first handsets arriving in the market. Only a small number of users will get a first taste of 5G in specific geographic locations, using specific applications, none of which are ubiquitous or cost-optimized. For more details read my 5G trends for 2019 posting.

Deep fiber: Deep deployment of fiber optics into national network infrastructure might not be as glamorous as the eagerly anticipated launch of fifth-generation mobile networks (5G); however, it is just as important—maybe even more important. Wired broadband access supports as much as 90 percent of all internet traffic even though the majority of traffic ultimately terminates on a wireless device. Wireline and wireless networks are driving new architectures to support the move from 4G LTE to 5G infrastructure. In fact, 5G relies heavily on fiber infrastructure. Service providers in the access market are talking about the evolution of their plants to a Fiber Deep (FD) Architecture. FD architectures move the optical node (the optical-to-electrical conversion point) deeper into the network and closer to the subscriber. This means shorter copper, faster speed, more capacity and reduction in maintenance cost for both cable TV network and telephone line based access networks.

Ethernet: Faster Ethernet speeds are taken to use. These transitions are driven by the increasing global IP traffic. Hyper-scalers and service providers are moving from 100GbE to 400GbE Ethernet rates and beyond. In this speed development 56Gb/s And 112Gb/s SerDes Matter.

TSN: Time-Sensitive Networking (TSN) is a set of standards under development by the Time-Sensitive Networking task group of the IEEE 802.1 working group. TSN standards documents that are specified by IEEE 802.1 can be grouped into three basic key component categories that are time synchronization; scheduling and traffic shaping; selection of communication paths, path reservations and fault-tolerance. Industrial Ethernet networks embrace time-sensitive networking (TSN) technology to integrate operational technology (OT) and information technology (IT).

SDN: Software-defined networking (SDN) technology is an approach to cloud computing that facilitates network management and enables programmatically efficient network configuration in order to improve network performance and monitoring. SD-WAN applies similar technology to a wide area network (WAN). SD-WAN allows companies to build higher-performance WANs using lower-cost and commercially available Internet access, enabling businesses to partially or wholly replace more expensive private WAN connection technologies such as MPLS.

IPv6: IPv4 and IPv6 are the two Protocols Run the Internet in 2019. The long-forecasted day the internet runs out of addresses has arrived and it marks a paradigm shift in the internet’s evolution. Though IPv6 has been available globally since 2012, it has seen a slow, if increasing, adoption rate. The migration to IPv6 is inevitable but will take time during that both systems are in use. In many networks a notable amount of traffic is already IPv6.
New Internet protocols: Internet security gets a boost with TLS 1.3. Also HTTP is in process of switching to a protocol layered on top of UDP. Today’s HTTP (versions 1.0, 1.1, and 2) are all layered on top of TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) that is not very optimal in today’s applications as SSL over TCP requires subsequent round trips to establish the encrypted connection.

IoT: The IoT world is here, and the level and rate of convergence is increasing in volume and velocity. We will see the evolution of converged networks for IoT applications in mind. Network convergence (version 2.0) is here with changes and improvements made since the first converged network (Convergence 1.0). TIA TR-42 (Telecommunications Cabling Systems ANSI/TIA-568 family), BICSI (TDMM and others) and proprietary or third documents must adapt and adjust.

PoE: The IEEE 802.3bt standard, approved by the IEEE Standards Association Board on September 27, 2018, included some significant enhancements especially for LED lighting systems. This specification allows for up to 90W of delivered power for cable lengths of up to 100m through the use of all four pairs of wires.

Edge data centers: The decentralization of the cloud and data centers are happening. Hundreds of scaled-down micro data centers are appearing at the edge of the network to support latency-sensitive IoT devices, real-time safety systems and now self- driven cars.

Trade wars: It seem that there is a high tech “trade war” between USA and China. It affects specifically networking business. Big Chinese manufacturers Huawei and ZTE are have received sanctions and their products are not wanted by many countries citing  their business practices and potential security nightmares. For example Japan to halt buying Huawei, ZTE equipment and Huawei has been under fire in UK, just to mention examples. It seems that the business that is lost by Huawei and ZTE could benefit Ericsson and Nokia in the 5G base station markets for short term.

Security: The internet is going to hell and its creators want your help fixing it. All agree on one thing however: Right now there is a serious battle for heart and minds, the future of the internet and global society itself. There seems to be need for a conference to address the fact that people increasingly see tech as a threat and no longer as a pure force for good. Government set to revise internal rules on procurement to protect national cybersecurity. Your DNS might be broken, and you don’t even know it. Some DNS old hacks gets thrown out of use by February 1st, 2019.
WiFi: WiFi technology gets new marketing naming. The numerical sequence includes:  Wi-Fi 6 to identify devices that support 802.11ax technology, Wi-Fi 5 to identify devices that support 802.11ac technology, Wi-Fi 4 to identify devices that support 802.11n technology.

Faster mobile: Mobile networks are getting faster in many countries. Mobile networks are killing Wi-Fi for speed around the world. Average data speeds on mobile networks now outpace customer’s Wi-Fi connection, on average, in 33 countries. That’s the The State of Wifi vs Mobile Network Experience as 5G Arrives.

Energy efficiency: We need to develop more energy efficient networking technologies. Today, information and communication technologies globally consume 8% of electricity and doubles every year.



  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to terminate the GHMT Verified RJ45 Connector Cat.8 Tool Free Full Shielded Keystone Jack?

    Channel performance verified, met the PoE and the PoE Plus standards (IEEE 802.3af and IEEE 802.3at), and compliant with the ANSI/ TIA 568.2-D standard, the Category 8 keystone jack fits with 1U 24 ports and 1U 48 ports blank keystone panels. It is applicable in various environments from the smallest home networks to large data centers. With shielded cables and shielded connectors, the C8 solution has outstanding characteristics and performance to future proof the entire network.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Cat 6 vs Cat 7. What is the difference

    Termination of Cat7 Ethernet Cable with Crimping Tool |By VCELINK

    This is an operation video of how to terminate a cat7 patch cable with cat7 pass through crimping tool and network connectors. It is demonstraded by animation, every step is easy and clear to you.

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 and Cat8 Cabling – What’s the difference (cat 6 vs 7 vs 8 )

    Cat5? Cat6? Cat7? Cat8? Which Ethernet Cable to Use and what’s the Difference?
    What’s the difference between Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 and Cat8 Cabling?
    00:00 intro
    00:51 How does Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 and Cat8 Cabling work?
    01:23 What is Data Cabling used for?
    01:48 What is Voice and Data Cabling?
    02:31 What is Cat5 Cabling?
    02:54 Cat5e
    03:30 What is Cat6 Cabling?
    04:31 Is it worth upgrading fromCat5e to Cat6?
    05:21 Cat6a, Cat7, Cat8 and beyond
    05:42 What is Cat6a Cabling?
    06:04 What is Cat7 Cabling?
    07:14 Cat8 cabling
    08:02 Contact

    When it comes to Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 Cat8 data cabling – what is the difference? It’s hard to know which cable to go for. They all deliver unique results for even the most complicated projects. Due to the increasing implementation of 10 Gigabit networks within the workplace in not only backbone links but also 10Gig to the desk the legacy cabling systems of Cat5e and Cat6 are now phasing out in newer installations

    How does Cat5e Cat6 Cat7 Cat8 data cabling work?
    A data cable consists of 8 copper wires with a single cable sheath. This data cable provides electrical signal transmission between two devices
    The termination ends of the data cable are standardised to create a common connector. Especially for all patch leads, patch panels and data termination plugs. Furthermore the high categories of cabling these connectors have kept the outline of the standard and evolved into additional contacts for faster transmission speeds

    Data cabling is used for connecting separate elements of a network to a common hosting hardware such as a data switch or internet router.

    Cat 8 Cabling
    Although not commonly seen in the commercial environment and mainly only in data centres. Even so Cat 8 cabling is being developed increasingly rapidly and has already achieved transfer speeds that hit 40Gbps and a bandwidth capability of 2000MHz. However, due to its channel length, cat 8 cables have a 30m limit and are unable to maintain 40Gbps over longer distances. In that case it makes it difficult to incorporate cat 8 cables into long stretches within large networks. In this situation, cat 8 cabling is more recommended for connecting short distances in networks.

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    I Built a Home Server Rack! (And How You Can Too)

    19” Double 4 Post Open Frame Server Rack

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Awesome Firewall and VPN 1U Box We Use

    We take a look at the Supermicro SYS-5019D-4C-FN8TP which is a 1U short-depth server, based around the Intel Xeon D-2123IT, that we often use for firewalls and VPN appliances at STH. A number of our readers have become interested in these, and so we figured we would take a look at another spin on the popular Supermicro X11SDV-4C-TP8F motherboard platform.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Map of the Undersea Cables Connecting the Globe

    Map of the Undersea Cables Connecting the Globe
    Interactive version

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nokia: IP-verkon automatisoinnista isot hyödyt

    Operaattorin kannattaa ehdottomasti automatisoida IP-verkkonsa toiminta. Nokian yhdessä Analysys Masonin teettämän tutkimuksen mukaan operaattorit voivat pienentää verkon operoinnin kustannuksia jopa 65 prosenttia IP-verkon automaation avulla.

    Analysys Mason keräsi yli 60 datapistettä operaattoreilta ympäri maailmaa saavutetuista tai odotetuista eduista verkon automaatiosta. Tutkimus keskittyi operaattorin palvelujen toteuttamiseen, verkon elinkaaren hallintaan sekä verkon ja palvelun varmistusprosesseihin, jotka on toteutettu verkon automaatioalustalla. Tällainen on esimerkiksi NSP eli Nokia Network Services Platform.

    The quantitative benefits of IP network automation
    A study from Analysys Mason based on operator data

    Automation makes for a smooth operator. With network automation, you can accelerate time to revenue, save operational costs and increase network resiliency by significantly reducing labor time on manual workloads, frequency of human error, and order fallout.

    But how do you measure those tangible benefits for your IP network?

    In our study, discover how much impactful cost and time you can save via gradual implementation of network automation, and learn how to prioritize your investment with the incredible insights of operators in the know.

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Top 5: Best Cat 8 Ethernet Cable 2021

    You’ll find a wide range of ethernet cable types on the market, including out dated choices like Cat 5 and ultra-fast choices like Cat 8 ethernet cable. Cat 8 ethernet cable offers the ultra-fast speeds today’s users demand. From gamers and streamers to business needs, Cat 8 cable ensures you have the connectivity that you need.

    In this video we gonna checking out top 5 best cat 8 ethernet cable of 2021. We arranged these cat 8 ethernet cables on mini hours of research and testing, and we pick the 5 models, all ethernet cables are availble on amazon and if you like and see their price then you’ll check links in the description box down below. So let’s get started with the video.

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    DO NOT design your network like this!! // FREE CCNA // EP 6

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Smartoptics – a leader in the 400G market

    Watch the video where our CTO Kent Lidström talks about Smartoptics’ leading position in the 400G market.

    The most obvious reason for upgrading to 400G is the possibility to create networks with higher capacity than existing networking solutions. This enables you as a service provider or enterprise to meet the increasing demands for more bandwidth. But 400G networking also comes with several additional benefits.

    Watch the video where our CTO Kent Lidström elaborates on these advantages. He also shares insights into what made Smartoptics a leader in the market and what we are doing to help you as an organization seize the benefits of 400G.

    Smartoptics – a leader in the 400G market

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Langaton linkki korvaa teollisuusliittimet

    STMicroelectronics ja impedanssiohjattujen ja optisten liitäntäratkaisujen valmistaja Rosenberger kertovat kehittävänsä yhdessä kontaktitonta liitintä luotettaviin kaksisuuntaisiin lyhyen kantaman linkkeihin teollisuudessa ja lääketieteen laitteissa.

    Rosenbergerin langaton liitin on nimeltään RoProxCon. Se hyödyntää ST:n 60 gigahertsin RF-lähetin-vastaanotinta (ST60A2) nopeaan tiedonsiirtoon. Samalla se suojaa datansiirtoa liikkeiltä, tärinältä, pyörimiseltä ja epäpuhtauksilta, kuten kosteudelta ja pölyltä, jotka voivat häiritä tavanomaisia nastaliittimiä.

    ST60A2 yhdistää suuren tiedonsiirtonopeuden Bluetoothin kaltaiseen virrankulutukseen. Tekniikka avaa tietä myös aivan uudenlaisille lääketieteen ja teollisuuden sovelluksille, joita fyysiset yhteydet eivät enää rajoita.

    RoProxCon-liitännän yli voidaan siirtää dataa kuuden gigabitin sekuntinopeudella molempiin suuntiin eli kyseessä on fulld duplex -liitäntä. – Ratkaisu on merkittävästi halvempi kuin vaihtoehtoiset optiset liittimet ja kuluttaa paljon vähemmän virtaa kuin muut RF -tekniikat

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Data Center NETWORKS (what do they look like??) // FREE CCNA // EP 7

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    your home router SUCKS!! (use pfSense instead)

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why Did Facebook Go Down? – Computerphile

    Just what was it that took Facebook, Instagram & WhatsApp offline on 4th October 2021? – Dr Steve Bagley investigates!

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Please read and follow these important guidelines:
    •Use separate paths to route wiring for power and devices. If powerwiring and device wiring paths must cross, make sure the wires are perpendicular at the intersection point.NOTE: Do not run signal or communications wiring, and power wiring through the same wire conduit. To avoid interference, wires with different signal characteristics should be routed separately.
    •Use the type of signal transmitted through a wire to determine which wires should be kept separate. The rule of thumb is that wiring that shares similar electrical characteristics can be bundled together.

    From Moxa manual

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    forcing my kids to make Ethernet cables // FREE CCNA // EP 11

    How to make an Ethernet cable – In this video, NetworkChuck shows you how to make an RJ45 Cat5e Ethernet network cable while teaching his daughters. Also, how do Ethernet cables work? NetworkChuck takes you on a deep dive into how your internet traffic flows across an Ethernet cable.

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Map of the Undersea Cables Connecting the Globe

    Map of the Undersea Cables Connecting the Globe
    Interactive version

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Activists are Designing Mesh Networks to Deploy During Civil Unrest
    The Mycelium Mesh Project is testing DIY networks that can be quickly deployed on trees or lamp posts during a political uprising.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Understanding How Facebook Disappeared from the Internet

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Let’s all go back to using BBSes (now available on the Internet – nearly 1000 of them!)

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    SmokePing is a deluxe latency measurement tool. It can measure, store and display latency, latency distribution and packet loss. SmokePing uses RRDtool to maintain a longterm data-store and to draw pretty graphs, giving up to the minute information on the state of each network connection.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A $15,000 Network Switch?? – HOLY $H!T – 100GbE Networking

    Back in 2018, we tried out a direct system-to-system 100GbE link with the help of Mellanox. This time, we’ve got a switch and a plan to deploy what will be our fastest networking EVER. HOLY $H!T.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Why 400G/800G and Beyond Ethernet for High-Performance Computing Systems

    The density and traffic requirements of the interconnected systems in a datacenter hosting an HPC cluster require topologies like the spine/leaf architecture, as shown in Figure 1. This picture becomes even more complex if HPC systems grow beyond the capacity of a single location and are distributed among multiple buildings or data centers. Traffic patterns involving inter-process communication, interactive access, shared filesystem I/O, and service traffic like NTP, DNS, and DHCP, some of which exhibit strong latency sensitivity, would otherwise have to compete for available bandwidth. Connectivity using the spine/leaf architecture address this problem by enabling routing algorithms that can provide a unique and unfettered path for any node-to-node communication.

    HPC Network Infrastructure Considerations for 400G/800G Ethernet

    Internet service providers and carriers who are responsible for delivering all of this traffic depend on technologies growing at a steady and reliable pace, and are of course, highly cost conscious as their bottom line is related to the investment of building out, upgrading, and managing the operational cost of network infrastructure. Hyperscalers and cloud service providers also face increased cost pressures to aggregate and reduce the number of switch devices, power utilization and cooling demands in their datacenters.

    Cost is not the only factor to consider when driving Ethernet to these new speed heights. PAM-4 signaling illustrated in Figure 2 was initially introduced at a 25 Gb/s signaling rate as an enabler for 100G Ethernet, but this method requires forward error correction (FEC) due to elevated bit error rates. Signaling changes incorporating FEC create both latency overhead and complexity for physical layer design, but even faster signaling rates make the use of FEC mandatory. While link aggregation of multiple 100 Gb/s ports to achieve higher bandwidth, which is still possible with NRZ signaling rates may be a temporary fix to this problem, it is not a long-term solution due to the density constraints it entails as well as the elevated cost of the exponentially larger port counts that are required. For beyond 400G Ethernet, alternatives to PAM-4 offering even greater signal density and longer must be leveraged.

    Cabling is yet another challenge for high-speed Ethernet. Copper cables are often too noisy and power hungry at these speeds even over short distances Optical cables must get closer to the core physical coding subsystem (PCS) layer to avoid signal loss and power demands introduced through the use of external electrical photonic connectors. One use case requires break out cabling options, as multiple computer systems could be supported by a single switch port of sufficient elevated bandwidth. Another use case focuses on aggregation layer switch to switch, or site to site connectivity. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) for long haul connections (ca 80 km per repeated segment) and single mode fiber (SMF) for shorter range connections will gradually replace multi-mode fiber and copper technologies to enable 200 Gb/s signaling rates, but 100G electrical signaling rates and multimode fiber cost advantages will be hard to overcome and replace over the next few years. CWDM and DWDM introduce coherent optical signaling as an alternative to PAM-4, but entail even greater power, cost, and complexity to achieve the longer reaches they enable. Within the datacenter, the pressures of backwards compatibility, switch aggregation and switch count reduction and potential for power savings are powerful inducements for a flexible on-board optics design that could also accommodate existing pluggable modules for downrate connectivity.

    Enabling 400G/800G Ethernet with IP

    So how do SoC designers develop chips to support 400G Ethernet and beyond? Network switches and computer systems must use components that support these elevated data rates to deliver the application acceleration they promise. Whether reducing complexity on a network fabric for achieving greater levels of aggregation, expansion of a hyperscaler’s infrastructure beyond the limits previously imposed by slower network technologies, or speeding up the delivery of data to a neural network running on a group of network-connected computers – all elements in the data path must be able to support the lower latencies and higher bandwidth required without excessive power or cost penalties. And of course, backwards compatibility with slower components will ensure the seamless adoption and integration of 400G/800G Ethernet and beyond into existing datacenters.

    Delivering this performance in 400G/800G networking involves multiple challenges in the physical and electronic realms. Electrical efficiencies with the faster clock speeds, parallel paths, and complex signaling requirements are difficult to achieve and elevated error rates intrinsic to faster communication speeds create the need for a highly efficient FEC to ensure minimum latency with low retransmission rates. As mentioned earlier, cabling media must support the elevated data rates over rack, datacenter, and even metropolitan scales. No one cabling technology is ideal across such a diverse range of lengths so multiple media types must be supported by any solution developed.

    SoC designers need silicon IP developed with all of these things in mind, Synopsys has been a leading developer of Ethernet silicon IP for many generations of the protocol and remains integral in pushing standardization for 400G/800G Ethernet and beyond. Synopsys offers an integrated 400G/800G Ethernet IP solution which is compliant to industry standards and configurable to meet the various needs of today’s HPC even with AI/ML workloads while maintaining backwards compatible to lower speeds and older standardization.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How to terminate SUPRA Cat 8 cable

    We are using a standard crimp plier from Knipex in the video. All Supra Cat 8 cables are terminated with standard T568B.

    Viewer comments:

    Super clean, nice work. Are the pairs more plyable with cat 8? Seems less twisted and not curled as much as some of the other standards.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    #PROTIP – Potatoes work as a human being analog when mapping out wi-fi propagation.

    Boeing uses potatoes instead of people to test wi-fi

    US planemaker Boeing used an unusual substitute for passengers to test its in-flight wi-fi system – potatoes.

    Passenger seats on a decommissioned plane were loaded with huge sacks of the tubers for several days as signal strengths were checked.

    The company’s researchers say that potatoes “interact” with electronic signals in a similar way to humans.

    The technique also took advantage of the fact that spuds – unlike humans – never get bored.

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    An Israeli researcher has demonstrated that LAN cables’ radio frequency emissions can be read by using a $30 off-the-shelf setup, potentially opening the door to fully developed cable-sniffing attacks.

    Mordechai Guri of Israel’s Ben Gurion University of the Negev described the disarmingly simple technique to The Register, which consists of putting an ordinary radio antenna up to four metres from a category 6A Ethernet cable and using an off-the-shelf software defined radio (SDR) to listen around 250MHz.

    “From an engineering perspective, these cables can be used as antennas and used for RF transmission to attack the air-gap,” said Guri.

    LAN cables can be sniffed to reveal network traffic with a $30 setup, says researcher

    What’s a long length of electrical wire? A transmitter, of course

    An Israeli researcher has demonstrated that LAN cables’ radio frequency emissions can be read by using a $30 off-the-shelf setup, potentially opening the door to fully developed cable-sniffing attacks.

    Mordechai Guri of Israel’s Ben Gurion University of the Negev described the disarmingly simple technique to The Register, which consists of putting an ordinary radio antenna up to four metres from a category 6A Ethernet cable and using an off-the-shelf software defined radio (SDR) to listen around 250MHz.

    “From an engineering perspective, these cables can be used as antennas and used for RF transmission to attack the air-gap,” said Guri.

    His experimental technique consisted of slowing UDP packet transmissions over the target cable to a very low speed and then transmitting single letters of the alphabet. The cable’s radiations could then be picked up by the SDR (in Guri’s case, both an R820T2-based tuner and a HackRF unit) and, via a simple algorithm, be turned back into human-readable characters.

    Nicknamed LANtenna, Guri’s technique is an academic proof of concept and not a fully fledged attack that could be deployed today. Nonetheless, the research shows that poorly shielded cables have the potential to leak information which sysadmins may have believed were secure or otherwise air-gapped from the outside world.

    He added that his setup’s $1 antenna was a big limiting factor and that specialised antennas could well reach “tens of metres” of range.

    The academic’s previous research included a technique for turning DRAM into a form of wireless transmitter, as part of his work looking at ways of pwning air-gapped networks.

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Biggest Tech Companies Now Building the Biggest Data Pipes Facebook will lay a record-capacity submarine cable across the Atlantic

    Old-fashioned telecommunication carriers are falling behind in the global bandwidth race as global giants of content and cloud computing are building their own global networks. Facebook has commissioned electronics and IT giant NEC Corporation to build the world’s highest capacity submarine cable. When finished it will carry a staggering 500 terabits—some 4000 Blu-Ray discs of data—per second between North America and Europe on the world’s busiest data highway.

    For decades, transoceanic cables were laid by consortia of telecommunication carriers like AT&T and British Telecom. As cloud computing and data centers spread around the world, Google, Amazon, Facebook and Microsoft start joining cable consortia, and in the past few years Google began building its own cables. The new cable will give Facebook sole ownership of the world’s biggest data pipeline.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Optical Transceiver Saves Space in Industry 4.0 Vision Apps

    Yokowo’s miniature multimode fiber-optic transceiver simplifies Industry 4.0 vision applications. The Yokowo Type-B optical transceiver measures just 1/3 of other transceivers in its class and can efficiently be designed into space-constrained applications. The Type-B offers data-transmission speeds ranging from 50 Mbps to 12.5 Gbps and provides a signal format of NRZ-PRBS231-1, making it ideal for machine-vision applications.

    The optical transceiver also offers low power consumption of 150 mW, reducing heat generation and simplifying cooling system requirements. The transceiver can also operate in a temperature range of -40°C to 85°C and is compatible with LC connectors, allowing them to utilize LC optical cables.

    New multimode fiber optic transceivers save space and power

    Yokowo’s miniature fiber optic transceivers and connectors significantly reduce space (by up to 90%) and now combine signal and power transmission to simplify design and installation. The user-friendly fiber optic solutions reduce power consumption and heat generation, simplifying vision system designs.

    Reduce Space. Reduce Power. Improve Resolution.
    At 1/10th the size of traditional SFP+ transceivers, Yokowo Type-A multimode optical transceivers combine high speed data transmission up to 300m at 12.5 Gbps with power transmission (2A current rating). Higher speeds up to 50 Gbps can be achieved with the Electrical/Optical Hybrid transceiver when used with Yokowo’s uni-directional transmission connectors. Combining signal and power in one hybrid solution further simplifies vision system design, lowering the cost, and enabling a smaller, lighter solution.

    1/10th the size of SFP+ transceivers
    Type-A optical transceivers require only 150mW compared to traditional optical transceiver solutions
    The hybrid solution reduces power consumption, reduces heat generation within the vision system housing

    At about 1/3 the size of traditional SFP+ transceivers, Yokowo Type-B multimode transceivers are compatible with LC connectors. This offers more cost savings as installers can use existing LC optical cables.

    1/3 the size of SFP+ transceivers
    Type-B transceivers offer low power consumption of 150mW to reduce heat in the vision system
    Compatible with existing LC optical cables offering more cost savings

    Yokowo transceivers have several cable options including vertical screw type, horizontal screw type and no screw type.

    Future versions will include a 25 Gbps optical transceiver with the same size and electrical interface as Type B. In addition, a CXP-12 compliant, 40 Gbps, 4-channel optical transceiver at 1/3 the size of a QSFP+ will also be available.

    Quickly Improve Imaging Systems for these Applications:

    3D Scan Cameras
    3D Manufacturing
    3D Laser Profilers
    3D Sensors
    Automated Optical Inspection (AOI)
    Barcode Readers

    Industrial Imaging / Thermal Imaging Cameras
    Laser Projectors
    Machine Vision
    Materials Analysis & Imaging
    Traffic Monitoring
    Vision Systems

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Yritykset haluavat kiertää julkisen internetin

    Datakeskusyritys Equinix on julkistanut viidennen kerran laaditun GXI-katsauksensa (Global Interconnection Index), jonka mukaan koronapandemia on kiihdyttänyt yritysten toiminnan digitalisaatiota merkittävästi. Raportista käy ilmi esimerkiksi se, että yritysdata kulkee enenevässä määrin suoria yhteyksiä pitkin, ohittaen julkisen internetin.

    Equinix Finlandin toimitusjohtaja Sami Holopaisen mukaan verkon reunan hyödyntäminen, SDN-pohjaiset verkot sekä muut edistykselliset teknologiat ovat muodostuneet lähes uudeksi normaaliksi koronapandemian aikana suomalaisissa digimyönteisissä yrityksissä. – Myös meillä Suomessa näkyy selkeää kasvua suorien keskinäisten datayhteyksien hyödyntämisessä. Yhä useammat yritykset hyödyntävät julkisen internetin ulkopuolisia yhteyksiä digitaalisen toimintansa tehostamisessa.

    GXI-raportin mukaan julkisen internetin ohittavien, suorien yritysten välisten datayhteyksien kaistanleveys nousee vuoteen 2024 mennessä 21 485 terabittiin sekunnissa. EMEA-alueella yritysten dataa liikkuu silloin suoria yhteyksiä pitkin noin 5 327 terabittiä sekunnissa. Viidessä vuodessa yhteysmäärät ovat kasvaneet 46 prosenttia EMEA-alueella ja 44 prosenttia koko maailmassa.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Internet service providers advertise faster and faster data rates—so why do we still end up with choppy Zoom calls and lagging multiplayer games? It’s because the Internet wasn’t built for speed.


    The company uses “Internet weather” mapping, automatic rerouting, and dedicated fiber to speed up traffic

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Move fast and break things, 2021 edition.

    Smaller, Slower, Scavanged: The Story of Facebook’s Free Urban Wi-Fi When Meta’s beta came in five years late-a

    In April 2016, Facebook (whose parent company yesterday changed its name to Meta) announced that its innovative 60GHz Terragraph technology was going to bring free gigabit-speed internet to the downtown core of San Jose, California within months, at a fraction of the cost of traditional fiber optic systems.

    Instead, the system finally went live earlier this month, half a decade late and following an expensive refresh of the original hardware. It offers just a fraction of the speed and coverage originally promised, and its long-term future is already uncertain.

    So what went wrong?

    In 2001, the FCC set aside a chunk of spectrum centered on 60GHz for unlicensed wireless communications. Millimeter-wave 60GHz signals can carry a lot of data but are strongly absorbed by oxygen—limiting their range but also reducing the chance of interference. Google has been using 60GHz (aka V-band) frequencies for short-range radar sensors in its Pixel phones and Nest thermostats, but Facebook was thinking bigger.

    In 2015, Facebook Connectivity began work on a multi-node 60GHz mesh networking technology to serve urban areas without digging trenches or laying expensive cables. Each Terragraph node attaches to piece of street furniture such as a traffic light or lamp post, and connects to another node via line-of-sight radio beams.

    Terragraph backhaul network could theoretically serve Wi-Fi access points across an entire neighborhood at over three gigabits (3000 megabits) per second

    Facebook intended the technology as a solution for developing countries that can’t afford to widely deploy fiber optic cables, as well as for the billion-plus people globally it estimates are relying on outdated last-mile infrastructure.

    Terragraph would be 160 times faster, an official promised. That would fit with Mayor Sam Liccardo’s plan to transform San Jose into “the most innovative city in America” by 2020, and help its 100,000 citizens who lacked internet access at home.

    “Cities worldwide are searching for ways to ensure that all residents can enjoy the benefits of internet connectivity by broadening access to fast and affordable broadband service,”

    Facebook would provide all the necessary Terragraph and Wi-Fi equipment for free during the three-year trial, which it expected to have up and running for consumers by late 2016.

    Courting commercial operators

    In October 2017, a year after the Terragraph network was meant to be operational, Dolan Beckel, then the city’s director of Civic Innovation and Digital Strategy, admitted the project had fallen behind schedule.

    Beckel described how permitting the installation of Terragraph nodes had taken longer than expected, and that the city had learned some of its street lights were only powered at night, making them useless for a 24/7 Wi-Fi network. The prototype hardware also needed replacing and upgrading more often than anyone had planned for.

    “Technology is more like a baby than a bridge. It takes care and feeding, and you cannot neglect it because then the service level deteriorates to the point where people call it names.”
    —Rob Lloyd, San José CIO

    By the end of 2018, the network had about 250 Terragraph nodes and Beckel felt confident enough to sign a one-year extension of the project, now aiming for public operations by spring 2020. The plan was to tempt a commercial operator into picking up the estimated $200,000 annual running cost of the system, in exchange for advertising or other considerations

    The big telecoms companies like AT&T or Verizon were, for the most part, not interested in large-scale Wi-Fi deployments

    Perhaps unsurprisingly, the wireless carriers were far more excited by an ongoing plan to install thousands of “small cells” for paid 5G data service in the city, often on the very same street furniture as the Terragraph nodes.

    Moreover, before any transition could happen, Facebook was now saying it needed to upgrade its demonstration Terragraph equipment to production hardware (costing $1 million to $2 million) and to optimize the network to improve the experience for users.

    The tech giant would provide the hardware for free, but the city would have to find perhaps $400,000 in staff and labor costs, as well as continuing cash for maintenance.

    “While this demo application provided a potential application for free Wi-Fi, the actual agreement did not address funding the network operations nor any other necessary tasks to operationalize the demo in the public domain,” said Beckel. “In other words, we planned for failure. We did not plan for success.”

    Decommissioned and scavenged for parts

    And that’s exactly what happened. The last potential partnership fell through, and at the end of 2020, Facebook removed its prototype Terragraph hardware for good. The “world’s largest” 60GHz network was no more, leaving San Jose stuck with its ancient, and increasingly ironically named, Wickedly Fast Wi-Fi.

    The demise of the original Terragraph network actually helped another of San Jose’s community Wi-Fi projects, says Lloyd. “The payoff on the 5G small cell deployments was huge and helped us make very large agreements,” he says. The city even repurposed some of the decommissioned Wi-Fi hardware from the Terragraph network to support the 5G system.

    “Terragraph 2.0,” as a city document called it, would have fewer than half the number of Terragraph nodes (92) than its original incarnation, and serve just a small corridor of downtown. And where once the project had been intended to bridge the digital divide and help underserved residents, a September memo now noted: “The [new] design prioritizes… potential use specifically in support of downtown businesses.”

    the city has only budgeted for operating and maintaining for the new 60GHz network, leaving future upgrades or replacements still unfunded.

    Facebook Connectivity now licenses Terragraph for free to various partners, who the company claims have shipped over 30,000 Terragraph units to more than 100 service providers and system integrators around the world. In Alaska, for instance, the technology is used to provide (paid) high-speed internet access to customers in spite of the state’s harsh terrain.

    Whether Terragraph will ever be used to flood city centers with free gigabit wi-fi, however, seems uncertain. Municipal internet projects have a troubled history

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Rodents: the biggest threat to fiber access network cabling?

    Because their teeth keep growing throughout their lifetime, rats, mice, gophers, and their relatives are always on the lookout for something suitable to gnaw. This dental self-care might result in (superficially) damaged cables. Sometimes they’ll gnaw through cables out of playfulness, or because the cables are blocking their path to a nest, or a source of food and water.

    Prysmian’s [email protected] rodent-proof non-metallic cables

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The U.S. Federal Communications Commission officially kicked off the reimbursement program for replacing equipment from the two Chinese companies, both of which have been deemed a threat to national security. That means that telecoms can apply for subsidies to purge the hardware from their networks.

    A lot has been made of the geopolitical connotations of the technology blacklist, which includes Huawei and ZTE, but the physical logistics of overhauling the nation’s connectivity infrastructure is just as complicated given how much banned equipment is currently in the wild. The process that started last week allows telecoms to file expenses for wiping out the hardware.

    Whenever those funds are approved and sent, “the clock starts ticking,” says John Nettles, president of Alabama-based Pine Belt Communications Inc. “You’re expected to complete it within one year after receiving your first reimbursement.”

  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Michael Kan / PCMag:
    FCC approves Boeing’s application to deploy and operate satellites providing broadband internet to US consumers and business; application was filed in 2017 — According to the FCC, Boeing plans on using the satellite internet system to supply broadband to residential, commercial, and government customers.

    Boeing Receives FCC Approval for Satellite Internet System

    According to the FCC, Boeing plans on using the satellite internet system to supply broadband to residential, commercial, and government customers.

    Boeing has secured FCC approval to deploy and operate a satellite internet system capable of beaming high-speed broadband to US consumers and businesses.

    On Wednesday, the US regulator signed off on Boeing’s application for the “V-band Constellation” satellite system, which the company originally filed back in 2017.

    However, the scope of Boeing’s system is smaller than SpaceX’s Starlink, which currently operates over 1,700 satellites in orbit. Boeing’s application calls for sending up 132 low-Earth orbiting satellites and another 15 non-geostationary satellites. (In contrast, SpaceX wants Starlink to one day span 30,000 satellites.)

    The low-Earth orbiting satellites from Boeing will also operate at an orbit of 656 miles, which is about 300 miles higher than SpaceX’s Starlink constellation. Meanwhile, the non-geostationary satellites from Boeing will circle the planet at a distance of at least 17,000 miles.

    Boeing didn’t immediately respond to a request for comment, making it unclear when the satellite broadband system will launch. But in 2019, the company introduced the 702X satellite, which is capable of low-Earth orbit, and can supply internet connectivity. “More than 50 have been launched to date,” Boeing’s website says.

    The FCC also notes: “Grant of this application will enable Boeing to provide broadband and communications services to residential, commercial, institutional, governmental, and professional users in the United States and globally.”

    The FCC approval means Boeing can use the requested radio spectrum to beam the internet data to and from the satellite system. However, the US regulator denied parts of Boeing’s application requesting access to certain radio frequencies, citing how the International Telecommunication Union had yet to allocate the radio spectrum for such use.

  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Using High-Speed, Ruggedized Ethernet Connectors for Industrial Communications Networks

    The Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), or Industry 4.0, is driving demand for communications networks that are able to operate in challenging environments. Often, the weak link in these networks are the connectors as industrial environments are hot, dirty and typically incorporate vibrating machinery, all of which puts continual stress on mechanical connections and undermines reliability. Exacerbating the situation are the consequences of a connection failure in a modern factory. While it can be financially catastrophic with lost production quickly adding up to a large dollar loss, a failed safety connection can cause serious injury. As such, an alternative to the standard RJ45 connector is required.

    Designers require Ethernet connectors rugged enough to meet current industrial standards and Ingress Protection (IP) codes, regardless of where they are to be placed initially. They must be able to perform reliably at Cat 6A Ethernet speeds up to 10 gigabits per second (Gbps), support Power-over-Ethernet (PoE), and be as “future proof” as possible, all while meeting often tight design budgets.

    This article examines the requirements for industrial communications systems and the appropriate IP levels. It then describes how the features of industrial Ethernet connectors meet these demands before introducing real-world solutions from Amphenol as examples to show engineers how to use the connectors for new projects.

    Figure 1: Solid conductor Ethernet cables should be limited to 100 m in length, while stranded cable versions should be limited to 85 m. (Image source: Amphenol)

    An enhanced form of PoE, called PoE+, can supply up to 25.5 watts DC to the connected device and allows connection of high power draw equipment such as security cameras.

    Connectors for industrial networks

    While it is important that the designer carefully considers cable choice, routing, and Ethernet frequency when building industrial networks, the connectors are the greatest design challenge within an Ethernet network. This is because they represent the weakest link; not only do connectors offer potential ingress to water and dirt but they also include short runs where Ethernet pairs are untwisted and are therefore more susceptible to electrical noise.

    The designer needs to consider where the connectors will be used as factory environments vary considerably. For example, the IP code—determined by IEC standard 60529—classifies the degree of protection provided by the mechanical casings and electrical enclosures forming the connector. The first digit of the code indicates the degree of solid particle protection (ranging from 0 (no protection) to 6 (dust tight)), while the second indicates the degree of protection against liquid ingress (ranging from 0 (no protection) to 9K (powerful, high-temperature water jets)).

    A rating of IP20 (protection against fingers and similar objects, no protection against moisture) for connectors used in clean, dry factory environments is common for many industrial connectors. For example, Amphenol’s ix Industrial IP20 connectors are high-speed, ruggedized, 10-position components that come in a package 70 percent smaller than a typical RJ45.

    Connector makers typically provide options for higher protection for use in progressively dirtier and wetter environments, and Amphenol is no exception. The ix Industrial IP20 line extends from IP20 for the standard product up to IP67 (dust tight, immersion up to 1 m depth) for non-standard products.

    The network designer should aim to minimize the number of connections, particularly cord sets with male connectors on both ends. These are too easy for non-engineering personnel to extend—with detrimental consequences for the performance of the rest of the network. Moreover, it is standard practice for all fixed connectors to be of the female type.

    In common with other manufacturers, the Amphenol connectors are available in male form factors for cables, and three types of female form factors for fixed installations: vertical receptacles for bulkheads, right-angle vertical (ND9AS1200), and horizontal (ND9BS3200) receptacles for pc board mounting (Figure 2). The pc board mount versions come in surface mount technology (SMT) or through-hole form factors for easy soldering to the substrate.

    A useful guide as to the quality of a connector is to check if it meets the requirements of standards such as IEC 60512 and IEC 61076. IEC 60512 details the mechanical and electrical tests, as well as the thresholds a connector should meet when used with electrical and electronic equipment. The standard covers mechanical factors such as insertion and withdrawal force, vibration resistance, and the maximum number of mating cycles, as well as electrical factors such as resistance due to contact, shielding, and insulation.

    The Amphenol ix Industrial connectors are designed to provide a robust, miniaturized Ethernet interface (compliant with the relevant IEC standards) with up to 75% space savings compared to standard RJ45 connectors. With 10 mm connector pitch and robust two-point metal latching, the connectors offer Cat 6a performance for up to 10 Gbps Ethernet communication, PoE/PoE+ capability, and 360° shielding for EMI immunity.

    IEC 61076 is more focused, covering 10-way, shielded, free and fixed rectangular connectors for data transmission with frequencies up to 500 megahertz (MHz). The document specifies the common dimensions, the mechanical, electrical and transmission characteristics, as well as the environmental requirements for industrial networks.

    In particular, IEC 61076 identifies the codings that determine the position of the connectors’ polarization key and keyway. Type A connectors are intended for 100 megabit per second (Mbps) to 10 Gbps Ethernet communication. Type B connectors are intended for all other non-Ethernet applications such as signaling, serial or other industrial bus communication systems (Figures 3(a) and (b)).

  36. Tomi Engdahl says:

    I’m currently installing Fibre to the Toilet (FTTT) and Fibre to the Sofa (FTTS) as I’ve been given a GPON headend and some matching CPE.

    Any other suggestions of what I can run fiber to ?

  37. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Impact of EMI on Wi-Fi
    Nov. 10, 2021

    Wi-Fi networks are mostly affected by wireless interference/EMI upon the occurrence of symptoms like intermittent connectivity or unexpected disconnections, delays in connection and data transfer, slow network speeds, and poor signal strength.

  38. Tomi Engdahl says:

    So. What’s Up With All These Crazy Event Networks Then?

    Forget the CTF, Connecting To WiFi Is The Real Challenge!

    There no doubt comes a point in every traveling hacker’s life when a small annoyance becomes a major one and a rant boils up from within, and perhaps it’s ETH0’s misfortune that it’s at their event that something has finally boiled over. I’m speaking of course about wireless networks.

    While on the road I connect to a lot of them, the normal commercial hotspots, hackerspaces, and of course at hacker camps. Connecting to a wireless network is a simple experience, with a level of security provided by WPA2 and access credentials being a password. Find the SSID, bang in the password, and you’re in. I’m as securely connected as I reasonably can be, and can get on with whatever I need to do. At hacker camps though, for some reason it never seems to be so simple.

    Instead of a simple password field you are presented with a complex dialogue with a load of fields that make little sense, and someone breezily saying “Just enter hacker and hacker!” doesn’t cut it when that simply doesn’t work. When you have to publish an app just so that attendees can hook up their phones to a network, perhaps it’s time to take another look .

    This use of WPA2 enterprise security makes sense for the security conscious administrator even if it’s annoying for the end user to configure, and as it turns out it’s the next pulldown labelled “Authentication” that’s the annoying one on my system. By default it shows “Tunnelled TLS” as its sprotocol, where it turns out that the hacker camp networks use “Protected EAP (PEAP)”. This is a protocol that protects the initial key exchange against a third party eavesdropping on packets and hijacking the connection.
    The Network Giveth Security, And Then Taketh It Away

    There are a few options for identity, domain, and certificate authentication servers, but the next important setting is a checkbox: “No CA certificate is required”. This is both important and infuriating, because going back to the point earlier about WPA2 Enterprise requiring a signed certificate, it appears to dispense with that entirely making the whole point of all this annoying configuration meaningless.

    So if you use a protocol that requires a certificate to authenticate the access point and then do without the certificate, where is the benefit? I am no networking guru, but as far as I can see it lies in PEAP protecting my key exchange. Since my access point isn’t authenticated using a certificate there is nothing to stop a malicious third party setting up a rogue access point and capturing my connection anyway, so that benefit seems marginal.

    I started this investigation from a standpoint of being annoyed at arcane WiFi set-ups, and assuming I understand the configuration correctly I have ended it unsure whether there is any benefit to the end user of having it in the first place. If you’re a wireless networking guru then please weigh in down in the comments, I’d really like to know.

    Meanwhile I have a suggestion. Most camps have two networks, the WPA2 Enterprise one described above, and an open “insecure” one with no encryption and sometimes precious little between client and the wider internet. Can I suggest that they also have a network running WPA2 Personal, like every Starbucks, and leave the extra configuration for the 1337? It would save *so* much confusion!

  39. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Nokia kutisti optisen päätelaitteensa

    Nokian kiinteiden yhteyksien ryhmästä tulee Quillion-piirisarjaan perustuva uutinen. Yhtiö on esitellyt maailman pienimmän OLT-päätteen eli linjapäätelaitteen (optical line terminal). Sen avulla operaattori voi viedä kuituyhteydet katujen varsille linjakaappeihin.

    Lightspan DF-16GM on samalla pienin Quillion-piirisarjalla toteutettu linjapäätelaite. Se on ennen kaikkea kehitetty operaattoreille, jotka tarvitsevat yli 10 gigabitin kapasiteetin, mutta pienimuotoiset kompaktit reititinratkaisut, jotka voidaan asentaa hajautetusti.

  40. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Ashley Gold / Axios:
    Microsoft and Uber leave the Internet Association; Microsoft says its decision was part of a periodic review to “ensure alignment with our policy agenda” — Microsoft and Uber are leaving the Internet Association, a trade group that lobbies on behalf of companies in the internet and tech industry, Axios has confirmed.

    Scoop: Microsoft, Uber leaving Internet Association

    Microsoft and Uber are leaving the Internet Association (IA), a trade group that lobbies on behalf of internet companies and the tech industry, Axios has confirmed.

    Why it matters: Losing Microsoft and Uber, two major members, is a blow for the group. The association has seen steadily waning influence in D.C. in recent years, partly because it does not work on the competition and antitrust issues that beset the industry right now.

    What they’re saying: “It is always unfortunate to lose a member, but business decisions related to time and resources are to be respected,” said Christina Martin, senior vice president of global communications and public affairs at The Internet Association.

    Flashback: IA, which was founded in 2012 and includes members such as Google, Facebook and Amazon, thrived when it could fight for all of its member companies with a unified voice on policy goals, an easier mission in the earlier days of the internet, when tech still had a halo in Washington.

    Now, tech companies often have different legislative priorities based on size or other factors. That has made IA’s job more difficult and sometimes has set members at odds with one another.
    Longtime former IA president Michael Beckerman is now at TikTok. Dane Snowden, a former cable lobbying group executive, is current president and CEO.

  41. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Industrial Ethernet
    The focus of Industrial 4.0 will be on intelligent machine-to-machine communication, robotics, and automation through faster and smarter networks. This is made possible with high-speed industrial Ethernet connectivity.

    We offer a range of interconnect and cable assembly products which support Power over Ethernet (PoE) or Power over Data Line (PoDL), so that remote devices can be powered through the same connection that carries the signals.

    SPE IP20
    ix Industrial

  42. Tomi Engdahl says:

    FCI Basics Boltrack™ connector promotes signal and PoE++ transmission over Cat 5e and 6 cables in a wide range of datacom and industrial applications. It offers lightning protection, EMI shielding, and is field-installable. Boltrack™ connector comes in 4-pair right-angle board receptacle and cable plug mating combination. The connector can resist voltages up to 2,500V.

    High power delivery capability
    Resistivity to surge voltage
    Board headers are available in Press-fit and Pin-in-Paste terminations
    Wrap around shields, LED option,…

  43. Tomi Engdahl says:

    ix Industrial™: Next Generation Industrial IoT Connectivity ix Industrial™ connectors enable IoT connectivity for Ethernet and other Industrial protocols through all levels of an operation from the Enterprise/Cloud to the sensors/actuators at the factory floor. These 10mm pitch connectors featuring 2-point metal latches are just 25% of the size of an RJ45 connector, and as such allow much greater port density and mating security. They are PoE capable, provide data performance to Cat6A level (10GBASE-T), and feature 360° shielding through the mated pair for superior EMI protection.


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *