Open innovation to help in COVID-19 pandemic

We are living in the middle of the emergency over coronavirus all over the world. The reactions to the COVID-19 pandemic and its effects on societies and economies around the world cannot be understated. Because an estimated 15% of COVID-19 patients require hospitalization and 5% require intensive care (Z. Wu and McGoogan 2020), the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic has the potential of posing a substantial challenge to medical systems around the world (Remuzzi and Remuzzi 2020; Grasselli, Pesenti, and Cecconi 2020).

Necessity is the mother of invention. A need or problem encourages creative efforts to meet the need or solve the problem. This saying appears in the dialogue Republic, by the ancient Greek philosopher Plato.

“Necessity is the mother of invention” is an English-language proverb. It means, roughly, that the primary driving force for most new inventions is a need. When the need for something becomes imperative, you are forced to find ways of getting or achieving it.

With the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic around the world, many companies have joined the fight to stop the deadly virus by creating and producing various types of medical supplies and healthcare solutions. Clothing companies began to sew aprons and protective N95 masks, chemical companies produced antibacterial gels, public and private universities and research centers started projects to create solutions that would help in a simple and quick way to study and prevent the disease.

Here are some examples of sort of ingenuity we need now in the middle of pandemia. Already many people contributed those efforts. Check out on those links what is already done if you can find any useful information or can contribute to those efforts you see as good idea. Start your reserach with 7 open hardware projects working to solve COVID-19 article.

I have collected here a list of interesting open hardware project and instructions that can be useful or educational. Hopefully this list I have contributed here will be useful for someone. Keep in mind that many of those ideas are potentially dangerous if the instructions are not entirely correct, implemented exactly right and used by people that know what they are doing. You have been warned: Do not try those at home yourself! We are dealing here with things that can easily injure or kill someone if improperly implemented or used – but at right place the best ideas from those could potentially save lives.

Repairing hospital equipment

The right thing to do in his situation is that medical companies to release service manuals for ALL medical equipment so they can be repaired and maintained where they are most needed.

In the face of ventilator shortages for COVID-19 victims, iFixit is looking to make maintaining and repairing equipment as easy as possible. iFixit Launches Central Repository for Hospital Equipment Repair and Maintenance Manuals

Site offers links many service manuals


COVID-19 pandemic prompts more robot usage worldwide article tells that the coronavirus has increased interest in robots, drones, and artificial intelligence, even as some testing of autonomous vehicles pauses on public roads. It is believed that these technologies can help deal with massive staffing shortages in healthcare, manufacturing, and supply chains; the need for “social distancing;” and diagnosis and treatment.

Here are some robotics related links that could be useful:

Medical robotics expert Guang-Zhong Yang calls for a global effort to develop new types of robots for fighting infectious diseases.

Elements of Robotics Open Access Textbook


A ventilator is a machine designed to provide mechanical ventilation by moving breathable air into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. Ventilators are sometimes colloquially called “respirators”.

A ventilator, also called a respirator, is designed to provide mechanical ventilation by oxygen into and out of the lungs, to deliver breaths to a patient who is physically unable to breathe, or breathing insufficiently. The machines can be used to help a person breath if they have conditions making it difficult to breathe, such as lung diseases, during and post-surgery. For patients critically ill with coronavirus access to a ventilator could be a matter of life or death.

In its simplest form, a modern positive pressure ventilator consists of a compressible air reservoir or turbine, air and oxygen supplies, a set of valves and tubes, and a disposable or reusable “patient circuit”. Modern ventilators are electronically controlled by a small embedded system to allow exact adaptation of pressure and flow characteristics to an individual patient’s needs.

They work by placing a tube in a person’s mouth, nose or small cut in the throat and connect it to a ventilator machine. The air reservoir is pneumatically compressed several times a minute to deliver room-air, or in most cases, an air/oxygen mixture to the patient.

Because failure may result in death, mechanical ventilation systems are classified as a life-critical system, and precautions must be taken to ensure that they are highly reliable
. Modern commercial ventilator is a relatively complex piece of equipment with lots of components and a dedicated supply chain.

Because there is a lack of ventilators on many hospitals in several countries, there has been a lot of creative work done to help this problem.

There has been projects going on to repair old and non-working ventilators to a working conditions. For repairing some older devices, there has been problem to get spare parts from the manufacturer and that those spare parts can be very expensive. Also getting the service information for repairing those equipment seems to be hard to get from manufacturer, Ifixit has started a project Help commit industrial espionage for the greater good! to get the service information on-line at

In middle of the emergency some people have worked on to make their own spare parts when official parts are not available, thus making more devices available. For example a startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours. An Italian hospital that ran out of life-saving equipment for coronavirus patients was saved by a ‘hero’ engineer who used cutting-edge technology to design oxygen valves within a matter of hours. At least 10 lives were saved in this way.

So great thinking for 3d printing of valves. Are they sterilized and suitable? 3D printing has been used in numerous cases for medical parts already. Most 3D printing operates at relatively high temperatures and printed objects are actually naturally sterilized when they are made. Anyway the right kind of plastic needs to be selected and the part needs to be built in exactly right way that is works reliably as designed. If they are used and the individual gets worse, does the fact that equipment not medical certified (environment, storage, shipping, etc) put the hospital in additional jeopardy for a lawsuit? All valid questions each medical liability officer will have to address. But if people are going to literally die if you do nothing, then taking a risk with a part that you 3D print seems like an idea that is worth to try.


A startup 3D-printed emergency breathing valves for COVID-19 patients at an Italian hospital in less than 6 hours

Firm ‘refuses to give blueprint’ for coronavirus equipment that could save lives

3D printed life-saving valves: already a dozen in operation

Volunteers produce 3D-printed valves for life-saving coronavirus treatments
Volunteers made the valves for about $1

Another tried trick is try to use one ventilator with more than one patient. Daily Mail writes that ventilators can be modified to help FOUR coronavirus patients breathe at the same time if the NHS is still critically short of the machines when the outbreak peaks, scientists say. Here are some links to material on using one ventilator to more than one patient:


Here has been work going on in creating an open source ventilator design project. Here are some links to this project and some other DIY ventilator designs.

There’s A Shortage Of Ventilators For Coronavirus Patients, So This International Group Invented An Open Source Alternative That’s Being Tested Next Week

Open-source Oxygen Concentrator

Macgyvilator Mk 1 (3-19-2020) – “ventilator” for disasters and/or low resource environments
Macgyvilator Mk 1 is a disaster “ventilator”, a simple apparatus to compress a bag-valve-mask with some control over tidal volume and rate. Constructed quickly and simply using wood, PVC, velcro, common fasteners, and easily sourced and assembled electronic components.

An Arduino based Open Source Ventilator to Fight against COVID-19?
Low-Cost Open Source Ventilator or PAPR

Low-cost Ventilators

Arduino Respirator Prototype (pen source solution from Reesistencia Team, which is undergoing testing)

OxyGEN project
“OxyGEN is an open hardware project to build an emergency mechanism that automates an AMBU type manual ventilator in extreme shortage situations such as the one caused by coronavirus (COVID-19) in some parts of the world.”

NOTE: Take a look at the expression VILI before thinking about trying one of these. It is hard making a ventilator that doesn’t harm the lungs. It is easy to get Ventilator-associated lung injury or die if the ventilator does not work exactly correctly all the time.

Testing for infection

There are many approaches thought to be helpful to finding out if someone is infected or something is contaminated.
Thermal scanners are effective in detecting people who have developed a fever (i.e. have a higher than normal body temperature) because of infection with the new coronavirus
. However, they cannot detect people who are infected but are not yet sick with fever (it can take 2-10 days before infected people get the fewer).

Open-Source Collaboration Tackles COVID-19 Testing

Low-cost & Open-Source Covid19 Detection kits

This Open Source Device Can Detect Coronavirus on Surfaces
The Chai team has developed a detection test that works with their Open qPCR tool.

Prevent touching face

It is recommended to stop touching your face to minimize spread of coronavirus and other germs. People touch their faces frequently. They wipe their eyes, scratch their noses, bite their nails and twirl their mustaches.

Not touching your face is a simple way to protect yourself from COVID-19, but it’s not easy. If you can reduce face-touching, you can lower people’s chances of catching COVID-19. Why is it so hard to stop? Face-touching rewards us by relieving momentary discomforts like itches and muscle tension.

If you you want to change, you can try to replace it with a competing response that opposes the muscle movements needed to touch your face. When you feel the urge to touch your face, you can clench your fists, sit on your hands, press your palms onto the tops of your thighs or stretch your arms straight down at your sides. Some sources recommend object manipulation, in which you occupy your hands with something else. You can rub your fingertips, fiddle with a pen or squeeze a stress ball.

Related links:

This pair of Arduino glasses stops you from touching your face

Don’t Touch Your Face
Don’t touch your face — easy to say, hard to do. This device, worn like a watch, will buzz whenever your hand aims for trouble.

Hand sanitizer

Hand sanitizer is a liquid or gel generally used to decrease infectious agents on the hands. It depends on the case if hand washing with soap and water or alcohol-based hand sanitizer is preferred. For Covid-19 WHO recommends to wash your hands with soap and water, and dry them thoroughly. Use alcohol-based handrub if you don’t have immediate access to soap and water.

It seems that there are many places where there is shortage of hand sanitizers. This has lead to situation where people have resorted to making their own. Recipes for DIY hand sanitizer are popping all over the internet. A quick search reveals news articles, YouTube how-to’s and step-by-step visual guides. But think twice about joining them — experts are wary and even caution against the idea. The World Health Organization even has an official guide to making hand sanitizer. But it’s intended for populations that do not have clean water or other medical-grade products in place. Don’t try to make your own hand sanitizer just because there’s a shortage from coronavirus.

Can’t get your hands on hand sanitizer? Make your own

Photos show why hand sanitizer doesn’t work as well as soap and water to remove germs

Emergency DIY hand sanitizers (read the description)

“Every time a new health incident occurs there’s a rush on hand sanitizers, often causing shops to sell out.
Here’s how to make some simple emergency sanitizers at home, noting that they are not as effective as just washing your hands, and only some viruses can be damaged by simple sanitizers. These options are offered as a last resort when commercial versions are not available.”
“For the alcohol one the higher the percentage of alcohol the better, up to around 70-80%.”

Make Your Own Hand Sanitizer At Home When It’s Sold Out Everywhere

Sanitizing things

With deadly coronavirus spreading worldwide at an alarming speed, personal hygiene has become paramount importance to contain the infection spread further. Mobile phones are known to house several germ, and if you thing they are contaminated, you should maybe disinfect them. The CDC recommends that everyone “clean all “high-touch” surfaces every day” to protect against the spread of COVID-19.

How to Disinfect Your Smartphone article says CDC recommends that for your smartphone you should use 70% rubbing alcohol or alcohol-based disinfectant spray to wipe down the back and sides of your device. For example Apple recently updated its official cleaning advice, so ccording to Apple, it’s now safe to clean your iPhone with disinfecting wipes if you do it correctly. You should not try to spray any liquid to your phone.

The other option is to use a smartphone sanitizer device that cleans using UV rays. Sanitizers that use ultraviolet (UV) rays to kill bacteria and viruses have been around for a while now and they can kill 99% of bacteria in as little as five minutes. However its efficacy hasn’t been tested against nasties like SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for COVID-19. Coronavirus effect: Samsung offers UV-C sanitizing service for Galaxy devices. Samsung is using Ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) disinfection technology, which uses of uses short-wavelength ultraviolet (UV-C) light to kill or inactivate bacteria, virus, molds and other pathogenic microorganisms on smartphones.

The UV-C light is capable of destroying nucleic acids and DNA. It will kill many things, but you don’t want that hitting your eye or skin. World Health Organization only states: “UV lamps should not be used to sterilize hands, or other areas of skin as UV radiation can cause skin irritation.

Here are some UV C related links:

Good UV versus bad UV. All available on eBay.

Protective masks

The protective mask ratings used by hospitals are typically N95, FFP2 or FFP3. FFP2 protection level is 94%. FFP3 protection level is 99%. N95 protection level is 95%. An N95 FFR is a type of respirator which removes particles from the air that are breathed through it. These respirators filter out at least 95% of very small (0.3 micron) particles. N95 FFRs are capable of filtering out all types of particles, including bacteria and viruses. The N95 mask is mainly for use if you already have the virus to keep it from spreading and many have argued that coronavirus is smaller than the 0.3 micron filter rating of the mask and thus, not that helpful, for people outside of healthcare. In fact, the U.S. Surgeon General wants consumers to stop buying masks.

Due to the worldwide pandemic of COVID-19, there has been a huge shortage of N95 masks. Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation claims that widespread use of masks by the general population could be an effective strategy for slowing down the spread of COVID-19: “Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”.

With masks sold out during the coronavirus outbreak, many people will have to make do with what some scientists have called “the last resort”: the DIY mask. Many people have been working on designs for a DIY mask that may be able to protect those who haven’t been able to secure their own masks. It seems that cotton homemade masks may be quite effective as alternatives and there are also other ideas. For any DIY ideas, be warned that there is no guarantee that those designs are effective. So I don’t recommend to use them as alternative to proper mask when they are available. Bit of proper marks are not available, they can be better than nothing.

Keep in mind the right filter type to use: Hepa filters do have the ability to filter particles and viruses, but they wont protect you 100% of the time. The real secret is layers. The problem is, more layers, more restriction. Keep in mind that charcoal filters will make your air fresher, but have almost no effect on cleaning the air of viruses. Coronavirus virions (or ‘particles’) are spherical particles with diameters of approximately 125 nm (0.125 microns). The smallest particles are 0.06 microns, and the largest are 0.14 microns. This means coronavirus particles are smaller than PM2.5 particles, but bigger than some dust particles and gases.

General information:

Guide to Dust Mask Ratings

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?


DIY project links:

Homemade N95 Masks In A Time Of Shortage

“According to a studied performed at Cambridge University during the 2009 H1N1 flu pandemic, while surgical masks perform the best at capturing Bacillus atrophaeus bacteria (0.93-1.25 microns) and Bacteriophage MS virus (0.023 microns), vacuum cleaner bags, tea towels, and cotton T-shirts were not too far behind. The coronavirus is 0.1-0.2 microns, well within the range for the results of the tests.”

What Are The Best Materials for Making DIY Masks?

“Data shows that DIY and homemade masks are effective at capturing viruses. But if forced to make our own mask, what material is best suited to make a mask? As the coronavirus spread around China, netizens reported making masks with tissue paper, kitchen towels, cotton clothing, and even oranges!”

Can DIY Masks Protect Us from Coronavirus?

“DIY masks to protect against from viruses sounds like a crazy idea. Data shows masks work incredibly well, and they’re also really cheap. Surgical masks cost a few pennies, and they’re capable of filtering out 80% of particles down to 0.007 microns (14 times smaller than the coronavirus).”

“The homemade cotton masks captured 50% of 0.02-1 micron particles, compared with 80% for the surgical mask. Although the surgical masks captured 30% more particles, the cotton masks did surprisingly well. The researchers concluded that homemade masks would be better than nothing.”

“The Cambridge data shows that homemade masks made using cotton t-shirts can filter out some particles that are 0.02–1 microns in size. That’s pretty good, however its only one test.”

Professional and Home-Made Face Masks Reduce Exposure to Respiratory Infections among the General Population

Can Masks Protect People from The Coronavirus?

This old hack doesn’t require any cutting or sewing:

Copper 3D makes the free N95 mask design to fight COVID-19 pandemic spread

Copper 3D – A Chilean manufacturer of innovative antibacterial filaments designed the own version of the popular N95 protective mask and prepared it perfectly optimized for 3D printing on desktop 3D printers of the FDM / FFF type. The project is released under an open-source license and has been simultaneously patent pending to prevent other entities from commercializing it.”

“Copper 3D team quickly got to work on developing the patent for a model similar to a standard N95 mask but with some peculiarities (Antiviral, Reusable, Modular, Washable, Recyclable, Low-Cost), which were completely designed in a digital environment so that it could be downloaded anywhere in the world and 3D printed with any FDM/FFF equipment, even a low cost one. The mask was called “NanoHack”.”

#HackThePandemic site offers the technical details of the N95 mask and download set of STL files for printing on own 3D printer


“This is NOT a straight replacement for a N95 mask. In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Prusa Protective Face Shield – RC2

“In a real emergency it is recommended to combine a full face shield with a filter mask.”

Promoting simple do-it-yourself masks: an urgent intervention for COVID-19 mitigation

“Since surgical masks might not become available in sufficient numbers quickly enough for general use and sufficient compliance with wearing surgical masks might not be possible everywhere, we argue that simple do-it-yourself designs or commercially available cloth masks could reduce the spread of infection at minimal costs to society”

“Potentially, simply wrapping a suitable, large cloth around the face is easy to implement (Fig. 2), would arguably be more socially acceptable than surgical masks, and would be superior to a complete lack of face mask use.”


  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Can Farts Transmit COVID-19 Coronavirus? Here Is What Is Being Said

    The bottom line: although farting can push out air rapidly like coughing and sneezing, it is still not exactly the same. For example, you don’t tend to say “gesundheit” or offer a tissue to someone after a fart. So as long as you use some common sense and courtesy, don’t worry too much about farting, at least when it comes to spreading the COVID-19 coronavirus.

  2. Tomi Engdahl says:

    SmartPass technology helps local schools with contact tracing

    PHILADELPHIA (WPVI) — As more students shift from virtual learning to the classroom, three local tech-savvy college students developed a software program that is helping schools keep students safe.

    It’s known as SmartPass, which is a virtual hallway pass that helps students avoid lingering in the hallways.

    The way it works is teachers know exactly where their students are at all times through the tracking system installed on their Chromebooks.

    The premise is to avoid too many children being in the hallway or bathroom at one time. It also helps schools manage contract tracing.

    SmartPass, known as the virtual hallway slip, has been in the works for three years. The creators started working on it with the help of their vice principal in high school

  3. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Touchless temperature sensor developed
    A touchless temperature sensor using infrared light to take a person’s body temperature to detect COVID-19 and more has been developed by Rice University engineers.

    Getting around during the pandemic often requires getting your temperature taken to check for COVID-19. A team of seniors at Rice’s Brown School of Engineering wants to make that practice more practical for facilities around the world.

    The low-cost temperature-at-a-distance device designed at Rice’s Oshman Engineering Design Kitchen uses infrared (IR) light to read a user’s forehead without contact and give instant feedback on an LED readout. The simple device costs about $75 to produce now, but the team is working to design a production model that will cost about $40.

    “Fever is such a big symptom for a lot of airborne diseases that we figured we could make something that would be applicable now, but also for other diseases and pandemics in the future,” said team member Caterina Grasso Goebel. “A lot of people use IR guns that don’t create enough distance between the person taking the screening and the person being screened.”

  4. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Heat-inactivation method successfully neutralizes coronavirus in less than a second

    Texas A&M research shows exposure to high temperatures can neutralize the virus, preventing it from infecting another human host

    if the solution is heated to nearly 72 degrees Celsius for about half a second, it can reduce the virus titer, or quantity of the virus in the solution, by 100,000 times which is sufficient to neutralize the virus and prevent transmission.

    “The potential impact is huge,” Han said. “I was curious of how high of temperatures we can apply in how short of a time frame and to see whether we can indeed heat-inactivate the coronavirus with only a very short time.

    Their research was featured on the cover of the May issue of the journal Biotechnology and Bioengineering.

    Not only is this sub-second heat treatment a more efficient and practical solution to stopping the spread of COVID-19 through the air, but it also allows for the implementation of this method in existing systems, such as heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems.

    It also can lead to potential applications with other viruses, such as the influenza virus, that are also spread through the air.

    In their future work, the investigators will build a microfluidic-scale testing chip that will allow them to heat-treat viruses for much shorter periods of time, for example, tens of milliseconds, with the hope of identifying a temperature that will allow the virus to be inactivated even with such a short exposure time

  5. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Doctor creates ImmunaBand to digitally access and show coronavirus vaccination

    PHILADELPHIA – Face masks aren’t the only accessory brought into our lives by the pandemic. Now, there is a bracelet that lets you access your vaccination information digitally.

    It’s a new ID bracelet with a QR code that proves you are vaccinated. It’s something that was important to restaurant owner of El Merkury Sophia Deleon.

    “We partnered with Immunaband to upload our vaccine cards that lets customers know we were all vaccinated,” Deleon explained.

    Immunaband is a wearable ID for anyone who wants it. Dr. Tashof Bernton developed the product with the help of his son, a Wharton school grad, and made the connection to El Merkury.

    “As we come back together as a society, it’s nice to have to have a way to tell each other I’m safe and I’ve been vaccinated,” Bernton said. “You get the Immunaband, you upload your card, and it’s with you all the time if you want it. You just use the QR code.”

    Everything is password protected.

    Share Your Vaccination Status By Wearing An ImmunaBand Around Your Wrist

    ImmunaBand has designed a seamless bracelet that will erase the uncertainty we are all experiencing. The sleek bracelets are the symbol of vaccination and — hopefully — of society’s eventual triumph over this pandemic. Wear this bracelet to work, to restaurants, and to let people know your commitment to overcoming this disease through your completion of the vaccination series. The bracelet is also a symbol of your commitment to safety — for yourself and for others.

    As an individual, you have demonstrated your commitment to completing the vaccination series.

  6. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Studies published last week had shown the Pfizer-BioNTech shot to be highly effective against the more infectious emerging variant of the coronavirus.

    BioNTech: Covid-19 Vaccine Does Not Need Any Changes To Protect Against Variants

    BioNTech, which co-developed its Covid-19 vaccine with Pfizer, said on Monday that its shots do not require any new adaptations to protect against new emerging variants of the coronavirus, echoing two recently concluded studies showing that the mRNA shot offered robust protection against the more infectious variants that first emerged in the U.K. and Brazil.

  7. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This MIT model can predict risk of COVID-19 spreading indoors

  8. Tomi Engdahl says:

    What is the India Covid variant and will vaccines work?

  9. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Conspiracy theorists mistake guitar pedal diagram for “5G Chip”, alleging it’s in COVID-19 vaccine
    Conspiracists say the imaginary chip might track citizen movements… while offering a flexible EQ section.

  10. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Anal oxygen administration may save lives
    Inspired by fish, researchers are planning oxygen enemas

    FISH BREATHE through their gills. That much is well-known. But some fish are also able to breathe through their bottoms. The guts of vertebrates are well supplied with blood vessels, to enable them to absorb digested food. But this means they can also, in principle, absorb oxygen. And that is precisely what happens in species such as the weather loach (pictured).

    As far as is known, no land vertebrate can perform this trick. But, in a paper just published in Cell, Takebe Takanori of the Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, in Ohio, describes how terrestrial animals might, with a bit of assistance, be enabled to so. So far, Dr Takabe and his colleagues have turned mice, rats and pigs into bottom breathers. If they can extend the trick to people, it could offer an alternative to tracheal intubation

  11. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The figure rose to 99% after the second shot.

    96% Of People Develop Covid Antibodies After Just One Shot Of Pfizer Or AstraZeneca Vaccine, U.K. Study Finds

    A new U.K. study has found that more than 95% of Britons vaccinated with just one shot of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine develop Covid-19 antibodies, a figure that rises to almost 100% after the second dose, adding to mounting evidence from real-world deployment of the vaccines that show they are effective and useful tools in bringing the pandemic under control. 

  12. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Experts were worried the vaccine could not be used repeatedly due to people developing immunity against the modified virus used to carry the vaccine’s key ingredients.

    AstraZeneca’s Covid Shot Reportedly Works Well As A Booster, Raising Hopes In Battle Against Virus Variants

    The Covid-19 vaccine developed by AstraZeneca and Oxford University works well as a third booster shot and elicits an immune response capable “against any variant,” the Financial Times reported Wednesday, allaying fears that repeated use would render it ineffective to use against new variants of the virus.

    A third dose of the AstraZeneca shot boosted antibodies against the coronavirus’ spike protein, the part of the virus many vaccines on the market use to train the immune system, according to an unpublished Oxford University study seen by the FT. 

  13. Tomi Engdahl says:

    RNA Silencing Therapy Reduces SARS-CoV-2 Particles In Mouse Lungs By 99.9 Percent

    A novel technique to prevent viruses replicating has demonstrated almost complete efficacy against COVID-19 in the lungs of mice. Better yet, it should not only work against all varieties of SARS-CoV-2, but is also expected to work against related coronaviruses such as SARS and MERS. If the work translates to humans, it could mean we are ready for whatever new coronavirus bats are cooking up.

    lungs, previous studies demonstrate the nanoparticles deliver their payloads to most of the other organs COVID-19 has been shown to damage, including the heart and liver. “Everywhere except the brain and maybe the nerves,”

  14. Tomi Engdahl says:

    India has seen over 8,848 cases of the once-rare fungal infection in COVID-19 patients and people who have recovered from COVID-19.

    What Is The “Black Fungus” Ravaging India’s COVID-19 Patients?

    India’s government has reported 8,848 cases of the once-rare fungal infection in COVID-19 patients and people who have recovered from COVID-19, as of May 22, 2021. The majority of cases have been seen in just a handful of states: Gujarat, Maharashtra, and Andhra Pradesh.

    The death toll from the fungal disease has not been revealed, but local media have reported that 250 people have lost their lives to the infection, according to the Associated Press.

    The infection is a fungal disease known as mucormycosis, sometimes referred to as “black fungus” since it can turn infected areas black or dark in color.

    The cases in India are thought to be caused by a group of fungi called mucormycetes. These microscopic fungi are ubiquitous and naturally found throughout the environment, namely in soil and plants, as well as decaying fruits and vegetables. Fortunately, the infection isn’t known to spread from human to human so it’s not contagious.

  15. Tomi Engdahl says:

    How Long Will Covid-19 Coronavirus Vaccine Protection Last?

    When Nelly Furtado sang All Good Things (Come to an End) in 2006, she probably wasn’t referring to the protection offered by the Covid-19 vaccines. Nevertheless, few believe that the immune response to the Covid-19 vaccines will last forever. Even if you are fully vaccinated now, you will likely have to get another booster shot sometime in the future. The question is when. And the answer is wait for it, wait for it.

    Right now the guess is sometime between six months and two years after you were fully vaccinated the first time around. Pfizer CEO Albert Bourla did address this question during a recent Axios interview seen here:

    As you can see, Bourla said that the data supports “the notion that likely there will be a need for a booster somewhere between 8 and 12 months.” So perhaps the Covid-19 vaccine will be a bit like the seasonal flu vaccine, a yearly thing. However, as Carlie Porterfield has reported for Forbes, not everyone agrees yet with this possibility.

  16. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Oxygen is in the air we breathe, the water we drink, and a critical part of the development of life. For those suffering from severe COVID-19, oxygen can be the difference between life and death.

    Here are three ways UNICEF is providing oxygen during the pandemic.

    3 ways UNICEF provides oxygen

    For those suffering from severe COVID-19, oxygen can be the difference between life and death. Here are three ways UNICEF is providing oxygen during the pandemic.

    medical oxygen (at least 82 per cent pure and free from contamination) is critical for treating patients with respiratory diseases. Unfortunately, it is often unavailable in many parts of the world.

    1. We’re sending lifesaving supplies for immediate response
    2. We’re helping countries build oxygen systems
    3. We’re fast-tracking oxygen innovations

    Some current projects include:

    The Oxygen Therapy Project provides governments with practical tools for building oxygen systems such as the WHO/UNICEF guidance manual for procuring oxygen devices and the Oxygen System Planning Tool.
    The Acute Respiratory Infection Diagnostic Aid “ARIDA” Project led to the innovation of a hand-held respiratory-rate counter and pulse-oximetry device that helps detect low oxygen levels in blood.
    The Scaling Pneumonia Response Innovations “SPRINT” Project helps countries scale up proven pneumonia interventions (oxygen and antibiotics) via a country-level triaging tool that assesses bottlenecks and existing capacity to improve pneumonia response systems.
    The Oxygen Concentrator Innovation Project aims to create a durable, state-of-the-art oxygen concentrator that operates in low resource environments.

    Oxygen Concentrators
    The development of a durable, state-of-the-art oxygen concentrator that operates in challenging environments

    Every year, 4.2 million children suffering from severe pneumonia in low and middle-income countries urgently need oxygen to survive. This life-saving gas helps patients breathe when they cannot do so on their own – whether it be children with pneumonia or hypoxemia, newborns and mothers with birth complications, or patients with severe COVID-19.

    Oxygen concentrators – machines that create oxygen by removing nitrogen from ambient air – have been used as cost-effective solutions

    These portable devices, in most cases, are the best option for remote and/or low resource areas where no oxygen plants nor cylinder delivery networks exist.

    Currently, the best concentrators currently on the market are being distributed by UNICEF and saving thousands of lives. These devices were first developed as at-home medical solutions for places where the climate is controlled (e.g. with air conditioning) and electricity is reliable.

    The response
    UNICEF’s Oxygen Concentrator Innovation Project aims to develop a more durable, state-of-the-art oxygen concentrator to work in such challenging settings.

    High quality innovation takes years to achieve, and given this project will take up to 5-10 years to reach full scale, UNICEF will, at the same time, continue implementing current oxygen delivery efforts. This includes advocating for incremental improvements to the current concentrators, strengthening maintenance plans, and helping governments improve oxygen systems by using the planning tool to determine which source, or mix of sources, works best for that context (i.e. oxygen plant, concentrator or cylinder).

  17. Tomi Engdahl says:

    DIY Intelligent Pulse Oximeter


    #electronicsinnovation #veerusubbuami #intelligent_pulse_oxymeter #diy_pulse_oximeter #pulse_oximeter_circuit #pulse_oximeter_circuit_project #pulse_oximeter_circuit_diagram #max30100 #max30100_esp32 #max30100_esp32_micropython #micropython_ubidots #max30100_micropython #pulse_oximeter #pulse_oximeter_covid #pulse_oximeter_how_to_use #pulse_oximeter_how_it_works #max30102_micropython #ubidots #pulse_oximeter_for_covid_patients #esp32_max30100_oled #esp32_max30100_oled_micropython #electeonicsinnovatiom #veerusubbuami #Arduino #Arduinoprojects #ESP8266 #ESP32 #DIYProjects #Electronics #Electronicsengineer #embeddedsystem #microcontroller #Nodemcu #micropython #Power
    #blynk #blynkapp #blynk2.0 #newblynk #iot #arduino #esp32 #homeautomation
    #raspberrypi #arduino #rp2040 #arduinonanorp2040 #wifi #bluetooth #imu #electronics #iot #board #new #technology
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    #esp32 #esp8266 #wifi #ble #bluetooth #controller #cpu #processor #ram #rom #electronics #technology
    #homeautomation #nodered #nodemcu #iot #raspberrypi #esp8266 #webserver #electronics #smarthome #sharevideoshareknowledge

  18. Tomi Engdahl says:

    This Non-Contact IR Thermometer Can Read Temperatures While Still Being Inexpensive

    See how Open Green Energy built a portable, low-cost contactless thermometer that can alert others to a high temperature reading.

  19. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Scientists are still trying to figure out exactly how long immunity to the virus lasts–but several studies of previously infected people suggest it could be years.

    Evidence Piles Up That Covid Immunity Among Previously Infected People May Be Long-Lasting

    Immunity to Covid-19 among those who have previously been infected with the virus appears to be “very” long-lasting, an analysis published Monday in the leading medical journal Nature found, bolstering other recent research that suggests protection from prior infection and vaccination could last years—or even decades.

  20. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The monoclonal antibody treatment reduced the risk of developing symptomatic Covid-19 by a statistically insignificant 33% among unvaccinated adults.

    AstraZeneca’s Covid-19 Antibody Treatment Failed To Prevent Symptoms In Exposed Individuals

    AstraZeneca on Tuesday announced its monoclonal antibody treatment for Covid-19 did not meet the primary goal of preventing symptoms in people who have been exposed to the coronavirus, denting hopes of a new therapeutic treatment for Covid-19 for unvaccinated people.

    The antibody therapy, AZD7442, reduced the risk of developing symptomatic Covid-19 by only 33% among all exposed patients—including those who tested negative after exposure—compared to a placebo, which was deemed to be statistically insignificant, the company announced in a release.

    The antibody therapy, however, was 92% effective in preventing symptomatic Covid-19 compared to the placebo in patients who tested negative after exposure, suggesting that the drug may be effective in preventing symptoms in people who are not already infected.

    The drug continues to be tested as possible prophylaxis against Covid-19 in other trials, the company noted.

  21. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The company, which is the largest maker of such machines, is recalling faulty devices that could potentially be toxic to users.

    Philips Recalls Up To 4 Million Ventilators And Breathing Machines, Including Some Listed As Respiratory Treatments For Covid-19

    Philips on Monday announced that it will recall several ventilators and CPAP breathing machines after it discovered that a small foam component in the machines might degrade and be inhaled, a move that comes at a time when such devices continue to be used for respiratory support in hospitalized Covid-19 patients.

    In a press release issued on Monday, the Dutch medical-tech company said it has identified potential health risks related to a sound-dampening foam component in its products.

    According to Philips, the foam— which can degrade into small particles and then be inhaled by a user—may potentially be toxic or cause cancer.  

    The company has asked users of the CPAP machines—used by people suffering from sleep apnea—to halt usage.

    However, in the case of patients who are using ventilators for “life-sustaining therapies” the company has asked doctors to take a call on whether the benefit of continued use of the device may outweigh the potential risks.

    Several of the breathing device models being recalled—including the E30 Ventilator, the Trilogy 100, and 200 ventilators—have been listed under ventilation & respiratory care resources for Covid-19 on Philips’ website.

    According to the company, the recall notification is for the U.S. only, and a field safety notice for the rest of the world.

    $605 million (€500 Million). That’s the total revenue hit Philips expects it will take due to the issue. The company had first identified the problem after its Q1 2021 earnings report was published in April and had pegged the cost at €250 million, but the recall decision has added another €250 million hit.

    According to Reuters, Philips CEO Frans van Houten said that between three to four million devices will be recalled. In a call, van Houten noted that Philips is the biggest maker of such machines in the world and said “we’re going to put all our capacity to focus entirely on replacing and repairing these units.” The entire process is likely to take one year which according to van Houten could lead to a shortage in the availability of the devices.

    While CPAP or Continuous Positive Airway Pressure machines have been used to treat sleep apnea or other breathing disorders, the devices have been identified as a possible treatment method for hospitalized Covid-19 patients who may not need invasive ventilation. Some of Philips’s devices can also be tweaked to provide invasive ventilation, which are used severe Covid-19 cases. While non-invasive ventilation has been widely used to treat Covid-19, its effectiveness remains unclear. Despite this, the relatively lower cost devices have continued to be used in places like India, which faced a dire shortage of more sophisticated medical equipment during its devastating second wave of the pandemic.

  22. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Common Cold Could Protect Against COVID In Early Stages Of Infection

    It’s hard to envision the common cold, caused by rhinoviruses, as something of a superhero, but recent research from Yale University has found this bug to have an intriguing effect on the early success of the pathogen that causes COVID-19 in the body. Published in the Journal of Experimental Medicine, the research found that the common respiratory virus was able to halt the replication of SARS-CoV-2 as it triggered interferon-stimulated genes, which are some of the body’s first responders in an immune response. It’s possible, then, that interferon could play a pivotal role in the treatment of COVID-19, which has already claimed more lives in 2021 than the whole of 2020, but, as the researchers explain, timing is everything.

    Previous studies at Foxman’s lab had found that common cold viruses may protect against influenza, so they decided to once again employ rhinovirus, this time in the fight against the COVID-19 pathogen: SARS-CoV-2.

    Foxman and team infected lab-grown human airway tissue with SARS-CoV-2 and measured what came next. The results revealed that for the first three days viral load in the tissue was roughly doubling every six hours. When they tried the same thing with tissue that had been exposed to rhinovirus, replication of SARS-CoV-2 was completely stopped. However, if tissue exposed to rhinovirus had its antiviral defenses blocked, SARS-CoV-2 was once again able to replicate. So, could it be that simply catching a cold can be the difference between severe and mild COVID-19 symptoms?

    “Our study implies that being infected with the common cold could protect you from COVID-19,” Foxman told IFLScience. “Our results show that the common cold is very good at activating the general antiviral defenses (also called the “antiviral interferon response”), that broadly protect against many viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2.

  23. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Betsy Ladyzhets / MIT Technology Review:
    An analysis of the usage of COVID-19 contact tracing apps in 25 US states and DC finds that only 13 have enough usage to benefit from exposure notification — A year ago, engineers built apps to track potential virus exposure. Our research shows the impact has been mixed—but there’s still potential.

    We investigated whether digital contact tracing actually worked in the US

    A year ago, engineers built apps to track potential virus exposure. Our research shows the impact has been mixed—but there’s still potential.

  24. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Lab Leak Theory Doesn’t Hold Up
    The rush to find a conspiracy around the COVID-19 pandemic’s origins is driven by narrative, not evidence.

  25. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Manivannan S developed a portable, Nano 33 BLE Sense-powered device that collects health data and predicts a COVID-19 patient’s condition using machine learning.

    This pocket-sized uses tinyML to analyze a COVID-19 patient’s health conditions

  26. Tomi Engdahl says:

    In Europe, the Delta variant is causing governments to extend or implement new lockdowns to contain new surges of Covid-19.

    CDC Head Says Dangerous Delta Variant Likely To Be Dominant Covid Strain. Here’s Where It’s Spreading Fastest.

    The highly infectious Delta variant of Covid-19 is likely to become the dominant strain of coronavirus in the U.S., CDC Director Dr. Rochelle Walensky said Friday, just days after the agency declared it a “variant of concern,” risking outbreaks in poorly vaccinated areas as it accounts for growing numbers of infections across the country. 

    The Delta variant is responsible for around 10% of cases in the U.S., according to the latest estimate from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for the two week period ending Jun. 5, up from less than 3% for the previous two week period ending May 22.

    In highly vaccinated parts of Europe the variant is driving new Covid-19 surges primarily in young and unvaccinated people, suggesting trouble ahead in poorly vaccinated areas and prompting officials and experts—including the president’s chief medical adviser Dr. Anthony Fauci and Walensky—to renew pleas for people to get immunized.  

  27. Tomi Engdahl says:

    The Delta variant, also known as B.1.617.2 and first identified in India, is more contagious and resistant to vaccines than the dominant Alpha (U.K.) strain circulating in the U.S. and also carries a greater risk of hospitalization. It now accounts for 99% of cases in the U.K. , where it supplanted the Alpha variant as the dominant strain and has helped drive infections in England to double every 11 days. It has proven to be less susceptible to vaccines than the Alpha variant, especially when only one dose has been given.

  28. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Yllätystutkimus: 99,999 % koronaviruksesta tuhoutuu jo 72 asteessa ja 0,5 sekunnissa, jos kuumuus uppoaa läpi – ei vaadi 15 minuuttia
    Useiden minuuttien kuumennuksesta kertovissa tutkimuksissa lämmönsiirto oli erittäin epäoptimaalinen.

    Koronavirukset tuhoutuvat 99,999-prosenttisesti hyvin lyhyessä lämpökäsittelyssä. Noin 0,5 sekuntia 72 asteen lämpötilassa riittää. Tähän radikaalisti aiemmista tutkimuksista poikkeavaan tulokseen päätyi amerikkalainen insinööriryhmä.

    Koko sekunnin käsittely 82 asteen lämpötilassa tuhosi viruksen niin täydellisesti, että yhtäkään elävää kappaletta ei enää havaittu. Sen sijaan 0,5 sekunnin altistus korkeille lämpötiloille ei riittänyt viruksen täydelliseen tuhoon, vaan 99,999 % osoittautui maksimiksi jopa 90 asteen lämpötilassa.

    Luvut tarkoittavat 0,5 tai 1,0 sekunnin lämpöiskua siten, että näyte kuumenee mainittuihin lämpötiloihin kauttaaltaan, viimeistä sopukkaansa myöten. Toisin sanoen koeputken vilauttaminen sekunniksi kuumaan vesihauteeseen ei riitä lähellekään. Tällöin lämpö ei yksinkertaisesti ehdi johtua putkeen.

    Sub-second heat inactivation of coronavirus using a betacoronavirus model

    Heat-inactivation method successfully neutralizes coronavirus in less than a second

    Texas A&M research shows exposure to high temperatures can neutralize the virus, preventing it from infecting another human host

  29. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Scientists found mixing and matching doses of the Pfizer and AstraZeneca vaccines generated a “robust” immune response against Covid-19.

    U.K. Study Offers New Evidence You Can ‘Mix And Match’ Coronavirus Vaccines

    An Oxford University-led study published Monday found mixing and matching doses of two different Covid-19 vaccines still generates good protection against the virus, marking the latest evidence in support of a more flexible vaccine rollout that some countries have already started to adopt.

  30. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Engineers from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard have developed a prototype face mask that can detect if a wearer has COVID-19 within 90 minutes.

    Just Add Water

    Freeze-dried, synthetic genetic circuits incorporated into clothing provide rapid, lab-grade detection of SARS-CoV-2 and other viruses.

    The gold standard method for detecting the presence of viral particles is quantitative PCR (qPCR). But qPCR requires that a sample be sent off to a laboratory for testing, which delays the results of the test. These delays can be far more than just a mere inconvenience when trying to contain the outbreak of an infectious pathogen.

    Charting a new path forward, a team of researchers from Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have essentially shrunk a state-of-the-art molecular testing facility into a tiny biosensor that can be incorporated into fabrics. The biosensors contain freeze-dried, cell-free (FDCF) synthetic circuits that detect metabolites, chemicals, and signatures of pathogenic nucleic acids.

    New face mask prototype can detect Covid-19 infection

    The sensor technology could also be used to create clothing that detects a variety of pathogens and other threats

  31. Tomi Engdahl says:

    A P100 Mask Intercom

    A conventional P100 respirator upgraded for use as COVID-19 PPE by the addition of an intercom and a means of exhaled-air treatment

  32. Tomi Engdahl says:

    There are a small number of alleged cases of students using it to stay home from school.

    Teens Work Out How To Fake “Positive” COVID Test Results In Viral TikTok Videos

    A stunt that recently went viral on TikTok, inspiring a multitude of “how-to” videos, has landed a teen in hot water after he shared a tip on how to get a COVID-19 lateral flow test give you a false positive. The “hoodwinking” approach actually just involves disrupting the test by putting incompatible liquids into the drop tester and has gained much in the way of negative press owing to the fact that there are a small number of alleged cases of students using it to stay home from school.

    While several substances – including lemon juice, Coca-Cola, and ketchup – have been found capable of producing a false positive in the lateral flow drop test, that this happens isn’t an indicator of the test’s efficacy in detecting the virus.

  33. Tomi Engdahl says:

    I Visited a Chinese Lab at the Center of a Biosafety Debate. What I Learned Helps Explain the Clash Over Covid-19’s Origins.
    We should let science and evidence prevail while recognizing that science, like other disciplines, is shaped by competing interests.

  34. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Poop Transplants May Be Tested As A COVID-19 Treatment In New Trial

    Poop transplants are an unusual branch of medicine. Known as IStool transplant, or fecal microbiota transplants (FMT), they aim to boost the body’s immune response by introducing a healthy cast of microbes to the gut’s microbiome. The treatment involves donating some feces from one person to another by packaging some poop into a pill and letting them swallow it.

    it appears FMTs may have a role to play in the fight against COVID-19 with researchers already planning a clinical trial.

  35. Tomi Engdahl says:

    Developing new allergies, suicidality and seizures were flagged as symptoms of long Covid not commonly discussed alongside the more common “Covid toes,” fatigue and sore throat.

    Long Covid Has Over 200 Symptoms And Leaves 1 In 5 Unable To Work, Study Finds

    There are more than 200 symptoms associated with long Covid spanning 10 organ systems—including memory loss, hallucinations, tremors and fatigue—according to a new study published Thursday, providing one of the most comprehensive insights yet into the lingering and debilitating illness that can affect patients for months or years after infection.

    Covid long haulers reported a total of 203 different symptoms in the seven months between Dec. 2019 and May 2020, ranging from rashes, peeling skin and digestive issues to muscle spasms, hearing loss and tinnitus, according to research published in the Lancet’s E Clinical Medicine journal.

    The study, based on surveys from nearly 4,000 people from 56 countries, identified fatigue, brain fog and post-exertional malaise (where symptoms worsen after physical or mental effort) as the most common symptoms.

    Almost half (45%) of the study’s participants reported needing a reduced work schedule on account of their illness and around one-fifth (22%) were unable to work at all.

    Dr. Athena Akrami, a neuroscientist at University College London and senior author of the study, said it highlights “a clear need to widen medical guidelines”


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