Uusiteknologia 2/2020 magazine published

Uusiteknologia.fi is a Finnish language electronics and technology professionals magazine published on-line.

In the newest issue have written articles on many high tech topics (text in Finnish with short introduction in English). Newest issue Uusiteknologia 2/2020 has just been published.

I have written two articles to the newest issue.

The front page article is about More CPU power from desktop to embedded systems. The PC processor market is undergoing a drastic change, with challenger company AMD wedging to threaten Intel’s traditional leadership. In addition, Apple and Microsoft are bringing more widely ARM-based processors as processors for PCs and even card servers. The market for personal computers has been downward going for a couple of years now, while developments in the industry have focused on the implementation of new, more efficient mobile chips. New laptops and servers have now restored faith in the PC world and CPU sales are growing again. The most new has been offered by AMD, which has become an industry challenger and has snapped the market from Intel. In addition, rapidly evolving ARM processors are becoming more widespread in computers.
Link to article: https://www.uusiteknologia.fi/2020/11/18/lisaa-sirutehoa-poytakoneista-sulautettuihin/

The other article Single pair of wires to new areas tells about Single Pair Ethernet (SPE). There is a desire to bring more Ethernet networks to industry and vehicles, but problems have been caused by traditional Ethernet solutions based on eight wires and an RJ-45 connector. Therefore, more suitable solutions have been developed to replace them, which are also based on a smaller number of conductors. The introduction of Ethernet in cars created the first one-megabyte and even one gigabit per second standard operating on a single pair of wires. And the development was not limited to vehicles and moving heavy machines, but the solution was also seen as suitable for a wider range of industrial automation, intelligent buildings and various IoT applications. However, solutions developed directly for cars were not suitable as they were optimized to operate over too short distances. Therefore, new versions of one pair of Ethernet were needed for new applications. This story goes through a wide range of all the new single-pair Ethernet standards and related technical details.
Link to article: https://www.uusiteknologia.fi/2020/11/18/yhden-johdinparin-ethernet-liitanta-autoon-ja-tehtaaseen/

1 Comment

  1. Tomi Engdahl says:

    New Ethernet Standard Solves Range Limitation for Industrial Apps
    Sponsored by Texas Instruments: A relatively new Ethernet standard,10BASE-T1L, provides greater networking extensions to address industrial application needs. Now there’s an IC to implement the special single-pair UTP PHY.

    Robert Metcalfe, David Boggs, and their associates really started something back in 1973 when they invented Ethernet. It started out as just one of many contenders for LAN supremacy and essentially won the battle.

    Today, Ethernet is everywhere. It’s evolved from a 2.93-Mb/s and then 10-Mb/s coax-based technology to one that offers multiple standards using unshielded twisted pair (UTP) and fiber-optic cable with speeds over 100 Gb/s. Ethernet, standardized by the IEEE as “802.3,” now dominates the networking world. And the quest for more variations continues onward.

    Another recent addition has been Automotive Ethernet, called 802.3bw or 100BASE-T1, that adapts Ethernet to the hostile automotive environment with a single pair. One of the newer single-pair standards is 802.3cg or 10BASE-T1L. This single-pair UTP 10-Mb/s connection can reach to 1 km.

    In building automation, long reach is often needed for HVAC, fire safety, and equipment like elevators. That’s why in some industrial applications, older fieldbus standards like 4-to 20-mA HART and others are still widely employed. They can sustain connections well beyond the usual Ethernet standard reach.

    The Ethernet solution to this need is 10BASE-T1L, which uses a single UTP to cover up to 1000 meters. And with its ability to handle data rates to 10 Mb/s, it not only solves the range problem, but also lets industrial engineers increase their speed of communication. An added benefit is that it eliminates some protocol conversions, the need for gateways, and other adaptations that are often necessary in providing interoperability in an industrial setting.

    Another benefit is that the single-pair requirement allows for the use of existing cabling. Running new cables is a major cost and time issue. Almost any single pair can be used, possibly including some existing fieldbus cables.

    The standard has two parts. The main offering is 10BASE-T1L, or long reach to 1 km. The connection is point-to-point (p2p) with full-duplex capability. The other is 10BASE-T1S, or short-reach option that provides p2p half-duplex coverage to 25 meters. This version includes multidrop possibilities and uses the standard Ethernet CSDMA/CD contention access method.

    The PHY utilizes an unusual PAM3 4B3T line coding. The PAM3 means that there are three voltage levels to encode the data: a positive pulse, a negative pulse, and zero (e.g., + 0 -, – + 0, 0 + -, etc.). This is ternary code that, in effect, gives 33 = 27 combinations to represent 16 4-bit codes. These 16 codes are mapped to a three-symbol table. Not all of the three-symbol codes are used; for example, 000 isn’t included to avoid long strings to occur without a transition.

    7.5 MBd for a net 10-Mb/s data rate. No forward error correction (FEC) is used.

    The pulses at 2.4-V p2p permit the 1000-meter range. A 1-V p2p option is used for a range less than 200 meters. Full-duplex transmission is achieved with an echo-cancellation scheme.

    Implementing 10BASE-T1L

    While the 802.3cg standard was approved back in 2019, adoption activity has been minimal. It’s probably been due to the lack of appropriate IC transceivers to implement the PHY. However, one possibility is Texas Instruments’ DP83TD510E (see figure). This low-power 802.3cg PHY meets all of the standards’ rules and makes designing devices with this standard possible.

    This device uses 38 mW in the 1-V p2p mode and 82 mW in the 2.4-V p2p mode. And, of course, it’s compatible with multiple Ethernet MAC interfaces, including, MII, RMII master/slave mode, RGMII, plus other special RMII modes.



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