Industrial Automation

SCADA systems security issues

SCADA systems are used to monitor and control critical installations in oil and gas refineries, water and power distribution plants, manufacturing plants and other industrial facilities. There has been a lot of discussion about malware and security in industrial automation systems after Stuxnet. Widely viewed as the most complex piece of computer malware ever created,

EMC basics: I/O

EMC Basics #5: I/O as critical circuits article gives some useful tips on the EMC issues related to inputs and outputs. Digital inputs/outputs — The key concern for digital interfaces is ESD. A secondary concern is radiated emissions. Radiated susceptibility is rare with digital I/O, although possible at very high RF levels. The solutions for

Proper Grounding of Instrument and Control Systems

Proper grounding is an essential component for safely and reliably operating electrical systems. Improper grounding methodology has the potential to bring disastrous results from both an operational as well as a safety standpoint. There are many different categories and types of grounding principles. Proper Grounding of Instrument and Control Systems in Hazardous Locations paper’s primary

Ground Loops and Returns in instrumentation

Proper ground configuration is essential for a good data acquisition system. Most measurement systems such as data acquisition devices allow for many different types of ground configurations depending on the type of signal being acquired or measured. This flexibility is the source of confusion when deciding which configuration to use in each specific situation. National